RMS Empress of Scotland (1906)
|Name:||1906-1919: SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria
1919-1919: USS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria
1920-1920: SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria
1921-1930: RMS Empress of Scotland
|Owner:||1906-1919: Hamburg America Line
1919-1919: US Navy
1921-1930: Canadian Pacific Steamships
|Port of registry:||1906-1919: German Empire
1919-1919: United States
1920-1920: United Kingdom
|Builder:||Vulcan AG shipyard in Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland)|
|Launched:||29 August 1905 By the German Empress|
|Maiden voyage:||10 May 1906|
|Fate:||Scrapped in 1930 Blyth|
|Class & type:||Ocean liner|
|Tonnage:||24,581 gross tons|
|Length:||677.5 feet (206.5 m)|
|Beam:||77,3 feet (23.5 m)|
|Propulsion:||2 steam engines, twin screws|
RMS Empress of Scotland was the later name of an ocean liner built in 1905-1906 by Vulcan AG shipyard in Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland) for the Hamburg America Line. The ship was launched as the SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria (the second of that name, for the first see Augusta Victoria); she regularly sailed between Hamburg and New York until the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914. At the end of hostilities, re-flagged the USS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria, she transported American troops from Europe to the United States. For a brief time Cunard sailed the re-flagged ship between Liverpool and New York.
The SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria was built by AG Vulcan Stettin in Stettin on the Baltic in 1905-1906. The new ship was ordered by the expanding Hamburg America Line. At 24,000 plus tons she was the largest passenger liner in the world from 1905 to 1907 until the advent of Cunard's Lusitania.
When the keel was laid down as "Ship #264," this vessel was intended to be named the SS Europa; she was to have been a sister ship to the SS Amerika which was being built by Harland and Wolff in Belfast during the same period. At the time of her launching on 29 August 1905, her only peer in size was the slightly smaller Amerika which had been launched days earlier.
The 24,581-ton vessel had a length of 677.5 feet, and her beam was 77.3 feet. She had two funnels, four masts, twin propellers, and an average speed of 18 knots. The ocean liner provided accommodation for 472 first-class passengers and for 174 second class passengers. There was room for 212 third-class passengers and for 1,608 fourth-class passengers.
The SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria left Hamburg on 10 May 1906 on her maiden voyage to Dover, Cherbourg, and New York under the command of Captain Hans Ruser. Thereafter, she regularly sailed the route between Hamburg and New York. In 1910 the ship was to be used in experiments for the world's first ship-to-shore airplane flights by pilot John McCurdy. A special platform was built on Kaiserin Auguste Victoria to provide a runway for McCurdy's plane. McCurdy abandoned the attempt when rival pilot Eugene Ely flew off a naval warship in Virginia in November 1910. Kaiserin Auguste Victoria then returned to sailing on her regular schedule. A similar experiment using airplanes launched at sea to carry mail was carried out on the SS Bremen twenty years later. In June 1914, Kaiserin August Victoria made her last voyage under a German flag, sailing from Hamburg to Southampton, Cherbourg, and New York, and returning to Hamburg.
The ship was chartered by the United States Shipping Board, and the U.S.S. Kaiserin Auguste Victoria carried American troops from Europe to America. The ship made five crossings between France and the United States, bringing troops home from the war. This temporary U.S. Navy vessel flew the American flag as American troops were repatriated.
On 14 February 1920, the ship was decommissioned and chartered to Cunard, sailing under a British flag. The SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria sailed between Liverpool and New York although her life with Cunard would be very short lived.
On 13 May 1921, the ship was sold to Canadian Pacific; she was renamed Empress of Scotland. The new Empress was refitted to carry 459 first-class passengers, 478 second-class passengers, and 960 third-class passengers. The ship was converted to fuel oil at the same time.
On 22 January 1922, Empress of Scotland embarked on her first voyage from Southampton to New York. On 22 April 1922, she made her second trans-Atlantic voyage, sailing the Southampton-Cherbourg-Quebec route.
On 14 June 1922 she transferred to the Hamburg-Southampton-Cherbourg-Quebec service. In 1923, she was involved in a collision with the SS Bonus at Hamburg.
In 1926, Empress was refitted again, this time with accommodations for first-class, second-class, tourist-class, and third-class passengers. In 1927, another refit resulted in first-class, tourist-class, and third-class accommodations.
On 11 October 1930, Empress of Scotland made her last voyage from Southampton to Cherbourg and Quebec.
When the new Empress of Britain came into service in 1931, Empress of Scotland was sold for scrap. The ship was gutted by a fire at the ship-breakers yard at Blyth. She broke in two and sank. Later the yard raised the pieces, which were then scrapped. By 1933 she was finally gone.
- The second SS Empress of Scotland (1930) was built for CP as the SS Empress of Japan, then she was re-named in 1942 because of Japan's military actions in December 1941.
- Michael, Paul. (2001). Hermann Broch, Visionary in Exile: The 2001 Yale Symposium, p. 134 n2.
- Ship List: Description of Empress of Canada
- U.S. Department of the Navy: Naval Historical Center
- Michael, Paul. (2001). Hermann Broch, Visionary in Exile: The 2001 Yale Symposium. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell & Brewer. 10-ISBN 1-57113-272-4
- Bird, Millard F. (1919). U.S.S. Kaiserin Auguste Victoria at Sea, Independence Day, July 4, 1919.
- The Ships List: Passenger ships web site
- Simplon Postcards: Canadian Pacific postcard images
- New York Public Library Digital Gallery:
- NYPL ID 97716, unknown photographer: Empress, starboard view
- SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria on The Great Ocean Liners
- The Empress of Scotland, ex-Kaiserin Auguste Victoria, burning at Blythe scapyard, 1930