||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2010)|
A postcard of RMS Lancastria from 1927
RMS Tyrrhenia (1920–24)
Tyrrhenia in central Italy (1920–24);
|Builder:||William Beardmore and Company|
|Maiden voyage:||19 June 1922|
|Nickname:||as Tyrrhenia her crew called her
"Old Soup Tureen"
|Fate:||sunk by air attack on 17 June 1940|
|Notes:||6,500 known dead
|Length:||578 ft (176 m) oa|
|Beam:||70 ft (21 m)|
|Height:||43 ft (13 m)|
|Draught:||31.4 ft (9.6 m)|
|Decks:||7 decks and a shelter deck|
|Installed power:||6 steam turbines, 2,500 nhp|
|Speed:||16.5 knots (31 km/h; 19 mph)|
Top stoke on hull was originally black, but painted white pre-war.
RMS Lancastria (later HMT Lancastria[Note 1]) was a British Cunard liner commandeered by the UK Government for war, sunk on 17 June 1940 during World War II causing the deaths of 4,000 people, possibly many more. It is the greatest ever loss of life in the sinking of a single British ship, claiming more lives than the combined losses of the RMS Titanic and RMS Lusitania. It had also the highest death toll for UK forces in a single engagement in the whole of World War II.
The ship was launched in 1920 as Tyrrhenia by William Beardmore and Company of Glasgow on the River Clyde for Anchor Line, a subsidiary of Cunard. She was the sister ship of RMS Cameronia that Beardmore's had built for the same customer the previous year. Tyrrhenia was 16,243 gross register tons, 578-foot (176 m) long and could carry 2,200 passengers in three classes. She made her maiden voyage, Glasgow – Quebec City – Montreal, on 19 June 1922.
In 1924 she was refitted for just two classes and renamed Lancastria, after passengers complained that they could not properly pronounce Tyrrhenia. She sailed scheduled routes between Liverpool and New York until 1932, and was then used as a cruise ship in the Mediterranean and Northern Europe. On 10 October 1932, Lancastria rescued the crew of the Belgian cargo ship Scheldestad which had been abandoned in a sinking condition in the Bay of Biscay. In 1934, the Catholic Boy Scouts of Ireland chartered the Lancastria for a pilgrimage to Rome. With the outbreak of the Second World War, she carried cargo before being requisitioned in April 1940 as a troopship, becoming the HMT Lancastria. She was first used to assist in the evacuation of troops from Norway.
The sinking and its aftermath
After a short overhaul, she left Liverpool on 14 June under Captain Rudolph Sharp (born 27 October 1885) and arrived in the mouth of the Loire estuary on 16 June. She anchored 11 miles (18 km) south-west of St. Nazaire. By the mid-afternoon of 17 June, she had embarked an unknown number (estimates range from 4,000 up to 9,000), of civilian refugees (including embassy staff, employees of Fairey Aviation of Belgium), line-of-communication troops (such as Pioneer and RASC soldiers) and RAF personnel. The ship's official capacity was 2,200 including the 375 man crew. Captain Sharp had been instructed by the Royal Navy to "load as many men as possible without regard to the limits set down under international law".
At 1350 hrs, during an air-raid, the nearby Oronsay a 20,000-ton Orient liner, was hit on the bridge by a German bomb. Lancastria was free to depart and the captain of the British destroyer HMS Havelock advised her to do so, but without a destroyer escort against possible submarine attack, Sharp decided to wait.
A fresh air raid began before 4 p.m. Lancastria was bombed at 1548 hrs by Junkers Ju 88 aircraft from II. Gruppe/Kampfgeschwader 30. Three direct hits caused the ship to list first to starboard then to port; she rolled over and sank within twenty minutes. Over 1,400 tons of fuel oil leaked into the sea and was set partially on fire, possibly by strafing. Many drowned, were choked by the oil or were shot by the strafing German aircraft. Survivors were taken aboard other evacuation vessels, the trawler Cambridgeshire rescuing 900. There were 2,477 survivors, of whom about 100 were still alive in 2011. Many families of the dead knew only that they died with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF); the death toll accounted for roughly a third of the total losses of the BEF in France. She sank around 5 nmi (9.3 km) south of Chémoulin Point in the Charpentier roads, around 9 nmi (17 km) from St. Nazaire. The Lancastria Association lists 1,738 deaths.
The immense loss of life was such that the British government suppressed news of the disaster through the D-Notice system, but the story was broken in the United States by The New York Times and in Britain by The Scotsman on 26 July, more than five weeks after the incident. Other British newspapers then covered the story, including the Daily Herald (also on 26 July), which carried the story on its front page, and Sunday Express on 4 August; the latter included a photograph of the capsized ship with its upturned hull lined with men under the headline "Last Moments of the Greatest Sea Tragedy of All Time", but the full story of the Lancastria never came out. Due to the government-ordered cover-up, survivors and the crews of the ships that had gone to the aid of Lancastria did not discuss the disaster at the time due to the fear of court martial. The British Government has refused to make the site a war grave under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 although documents obtained under Freedom of information legislation (FOIA) show that it could be done. Early in the 21st century the French Government placed an exclusion zone around the wreck site. In July 2007 another request for documents held by the Ministry of Defence related to the sinking was rejected by the British Government. The Lancastria Association of Scotland made a further request in 2009. They were told that release under the FOIA would not be given because of the following exemptions:
- Section 36; prejudice to the effective conduct of public affairs.
- Section 40(2); contains personal information.
- Section 40(3); Release would contravene section 10 of the Data Protection Act 1998: "processing likely to cause damage or distress".
- Section 41; supplied in confidence.
- Section 44; Exempt from disclosure under the Human Rights Act 1998.
All service personnel killed during the Second World War are recorded by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and where known that they lost their lives on the Lancastria. 1,816 burials are recorded, over 400 of them in France
After the war the Lancastria Survivors Association was founded by Major Peter Petit, but this lapsed on his death in 1969. It reformed in 1981 as The HMT Lancastria Association and continues the tradition of a parade and remembrance service at the Church of St Katherine Cree in the City of London, where there is a memorial stained glass window. In 2010 the HMT Lancastria Association was wound up. The Lancastria Association of Scotland was formed in 2005 and holds its annual service at St George’s West Church in Edinburgh.
A memorial on the sea-front at St Nazaire was unveiled on 17 June 1988, "in proud memory of more than 4,000 who died and in commemoration of the people of Saint Nazaire and surrounding districts who saved many lives, tended wounded and gave a Christian burial to victims". Lancastria is represented at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire by a Sessile oak tree and a plaque.
The Lancastria Association of Scotland began a campaign in 2005 to secure greater recognition for the loss of life aboard Lancastria and the acknowledgment of the endurance of survivors that day. It petitioned Downing Street to have the wreck site designated an official maritime war grave. The British Government refused to do so as it was within French territorial waters and therefore outside the jurisdiction of the Act. The campaign received support from MPs, Lords, MEPs and MSPs from all parties but the MoD claimed that such a move would be "purely symbolic" and have no effect. In 2006, 14 additional wrecks sunk at the Battle of Jutland were designated war graves; the Lancastria was again omitted. In 2007 the Association began a second petition, this time to the Scottish Parliament, calling for a special commemorative medal to be commissioned and awarded to all those who were aboard the ship that day. Campaigners believe this would represent, at last, formal recognition of what still remains a "forgotten tragedy". In February 2008 the Scottish Government confirmed it would present the medal to all those who were aboard the Lancastria that day. The medal is in recognition of the endurance of survivors and the ultimate sacrifice of the victims. The Lancastria Association of Scotland is also fundraising to establish a major memorial to the victims of the Lancastria which to erected on the site where the ship was built in Clydebank. In October 2010 the local Council approved a planning application to have the memorial erected. In June 2010 to mark the 70th anniversary of the sinking, special ceremonies and services of remembrance were held in Edinburgh and St. Nazaire.
On 12 June 2008, at a ceremony at the Scottish Parliament, First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond presented the first batch of medals to survivors and relatives of victims and survivors the HMT Lancastria Commemorative Medal which represents "official Scottish Government recognition" of the Lancastria disaster. 150 survivors and relatives gathered from across the UK and Ireland for this historic event. The medal was designed by Mark Hirst, grandson of Lancastria survivor Walter Hirst. The inscription on the rear of the medal reads: "In recognition of the ultimate sacrifice of the 4000 victims of Britain's worst ever maritime disaster and the endurance of survivors - We will remember them". The front of the medal depicts the Lancastria with the text "HMT Lancastria – 17th June 1940". The medal ribbon has a grey background with a red and black central stripe, representative of the ship's wartime and merchant marine colours. Hundreds of medals have been issued to survivors and relatives across the world.
According to official guidance issued by the Scottish Government, medal recipients are permitted to wear the medal in public along with their other campaign medals. The MoD continues to refuse to officially commemorate the victims of the Lancastria or the survivors who endured that day. The medal is subject to formal application and open to all survivors who were aboard the Lancastria on 17 June 1940. Relatives of victims are also eligible to claim for the medal, so long as they can provide supporting evidence that their relative was aboard the ship. An estimated 400 Scots were amongst the 4,000 killed when the Lancastria was attacked and sunk. The Scottish Government decided to proceed in light of the "unique scale" of the tragedy and because successive British Governments refused to commemorate the disaster.
The Lancastria Association of Scotland is also working to have a significant lasting memorial erected to the victims at Clydebank, Glasgow - where the vessel was built.
Scottish Ministers have provisionally said they will back the proposals. In 2005 and 2007 the Association held a special exhibition at the Scottish Parliament to highlight the loss. MSPs also signed a special hand bound book of remembrance. The Association maintains the largest online archive of Lancastria material on the internet The website received over 250,000 hits in 2007.
The Association also organizes the largest memorial service for the victims in the UK. The service, which is attended by survivors and relatives of both victims and survivors together with representatives of the French and Scottish Governments and a number of veterans organisations and is held on the Saturday closest to the anniversary of 17 June each year at St. George's West Church, Edinburgh.
The Lancastria Association of Scotland has members throughout the UK, France and the rest of Europe as well as members in North America, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand.
In December 2007, following a debate in the Scottish Parliament, the Scottish Government said it had held talks with the British Government to try and persuade them to introduce a commemorative medal as a symbol of official recognition and acknowledgment for all those who had been aboard Lancastria. The MoD rejected that proposal in January 2008 and said they had no plans to commemorate the disaster.
The Lancastria Association of Scotland has erected a memorial to the victims on the site where the ship was built, the former Dalmuir shipyard on the Clyde, now the grounds of the Golden Jubilee Hospital.
As the 100th anniversary of the Titanic sinking took place in 2012, fresh calls were made for official recognition by the UK Government of Britain's worst ever maritime disaster, the loss of the Lancastria.
References in popular culture
The Canadian rock band The Tragically Hip pays tribute and describes the sinking in the song "Nautical Disaster" in its Day for Night album released in 1994. The French Breton folk-rock group Tri Yann has a song about the disaster called "Lancastria" on its Abysses album. The London-based band Gypsy Moth produced the song "To Those Lost At Sea" about the Lancastria. Author David LeRoy features the sinking in the book The Siren of Paris (published 2012), through the experiences of a character named Marc Tolbert who leaves Paris with other refugees and boards the ship. He is rescued by Joan Rodes and later returns to Paris but is haunted by the ghost of the ship, specifically two orphans from Belgium who died in the sinking, and his other friends who perished with the sinking.
- "RMS" stands for Royal Mail Ship; HMT stands for His Majesty's Transport
- Talbot-Booth, EC (1937). Merchant Ships. London: Sampson-Low and Marston.
- "Lancastria". Chris's Cunard Page. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- The 'Lancastria' – a Secret Sacrifice in World War Two
- "Lancastria". Greatships.net. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- "About Us : History Of Scouting In Ireland". Scouting Ireland. 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Belgian Merchant P–Z". Belgische Koopvaardij. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- Sebag-Montiefiore 2006, pp. 487–495
- "Lancastria Association of Scotland". Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- "Victim list". Lancastria.org.uk. 17 June 1940. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Martyred Ships: Cold Cases. Maritime Mysteries. Grand Angle Productions. 2012.
- Fenby 2005, p. 234.
- [dead link]
- The Lancastria Association of Scotland
- The Lancastria Association of Scotland
- Lancastria Association of Scotland
- The National Memorial Arboretum
- "War grave campaign in legal move". BBC News website (BBC). 20 November 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Lancastria Association of Scotland". Lancastria.org.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- "Recognition of Lancastria dead". BBC News. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Wartime Memorial to Britain's worst maritime disaster". STV News. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- "Recognition remains sunk without a trace, by Mark Hirst". The Scotsman. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Lancastria plaque unveiled
- Lancastria victims remembered
- "Remembering the Lancastria". Lancastria Association website. LAS. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- Crabb, Brian (2002). The Forgotten Tragedy: The story of the loss of HMT Lancastria. Donington: Shaun Tyas. ISBN 1-900289-50-4.
- Fenby, Jonathan (2005). The Sinking of the "Lancastria": Britain's greatest maritime disaster and Churchill's cover-up. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5930-0.
- Sebag-Montiefiore, Hugh (2006). "The Sinking of the Lancastria". Dunkirk: Fight to the last man. London: Viking Press. pp. 487–495. ISBN 0670910821.
- Francois, Christophe. History of a secret sinking. Atlantic TV / France 3.
- "LANCASTRIA'S END TOLD BY SURVIVORS; Italian and Nazi Planes Said to Have Shot at Swimmers and Fired Oily Waters MANY CAUGHT BELOW DECK Rescue Craft Reported Set Ablaze--Victims Include Women and Children". The New York Times. 26 July 1940. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "French documentary by Zoltan Moll, 2011 "MYSTÈRES MARITIMES, AFFAIRES CLASSÉES: Le Lancastria"". TV5 Monde. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Lancastria Association of Scotland
- Survivor's account from the diary of Robert E Hill, Corporal in the Royal Engineers
- Footage of events on The Lancastria
- Lancastria, an account of the fate of No. 71 Squadron RAF
- The first one hour British Film made from Lancastria survivors interviews
- French Lancastria site
- Filmmaker's site
- Britain's worst sea disaster recalled (BBC News, 17 June 2005) – also "UK | Scotland | Lancastria disaster memorial call". BBC News. 3 January 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2010.).
- Lancastria's bell The Times, 23 February 2006
- Petition submitted to 10 Downing Street
- MoD reject Lancastria commemoration
- Scottish Government honour Lancastria dead
- Service remembers Lancastria dead
- Legal move over war grave status
- Website remembers Lancastria disaster
- Scots remember sea disaster
- Disaster memorial call
- Campaign for forgotten heroes
- War grave petition
- Poppies salute to Lancastria dead
- The Scotsman newspaper front page Time To Remember marks the start of a campaign by the paper
- Mark Hirst explains why the Lancastria should be remembered
- Letter to The Times "Lancastria disaster no secret" downplaying suggestions that the sinking was covered up