RMS Viceroy of India

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To be distinguished from HMS Viceroy (D91).
RMS Viceroy of India
HMS Viceroy of India FL4528.jpg
As HMS Viceroy of India on the Clyde in World War II
Career (UK)
Name: RMS Viceroy of India
Namesake: Viceroy & Governor-General of India
Owner: P&O Flag.png P&O Steam Navigation Co[1]
Operator: P&O Flag.png P&O Steam Navigation Co
Port of registry: United Kingdom Glasgow[1]
Route: TilburyBombay[2]
Builder: Alexander Stephen and Sons, Glasgow[1]
Yard number: 519[3]
Laid down: April 1927[citation needed]
Launched: 15 September 1928[3]
Christened: By Dorothy, Countess of Halifax, wife of the 1st Earl of Halifax, Viceroy of India[citation needed]
Completed: March 1929[1]
Maiden voyage: 7 March 1929[citation needed]
In service: 7 March 1929
Out of service: 11 November 1942
Homeport: Tilbury
Identification:

UK official number 160238[1]
code letters LCTV (until 1933)[1]
ICS Lima.svgICS Charlie.svgICS Tango.svgICS Victor.svg
call sign GLVX (from 1934)[4]

ICS Golf.svgICS Lima.svgICS Victor.svgICS X-ray.svg
Fate: sunk 11 November 1942 by U-407[5]
General characteristics
Class & type: ocean liner
Tonnage:

19,648 GRT[1]
14,069 tonnage under deck[1]
10,069 NRT[1]

9,180 LT DWT[3]
Length:

586.1 ft (178.6 m) moulded[1]

612.3 ft (186.6 m) o/a[citation needed]
Beam: 76.2 ft (23.2 m)[1]
Draught: 28 ft 2.75 in (8.60 m)[1]
Depth: 41.5 ft (12.6 m)[1]
Decks: 5
Installed power:

3,565 NHP[1]

17,000 shp (13,000 kW)[3]
Propulsion: turbo-electric transmission;
twin screw[1]
Speed: 19 knots (35 km/h)[6] or 20 knots (37 km/h)[2]
Capacity:

Passengers:
415 1st class
258 2nd class[citation needed]

Cargo: 217,752 cu ft (6,166 m3)[citation needed]
Crew: 14 officers
19 petty officers
59 seamen
18 engineers
53 firemen
248 pursers and stewards
1 surgeon and 1 assistant
(413 total)[citation needed]
Sensors and
processing systems:
direction finding equipment[1]

RMS Viceroy of India was an ocean liner of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O). She was a British Royal Mail Ship on the TilburyBombay route[2] and was named after the Viceroy of India. In World War II she was converted to and used as a troopship. She was sunk in the Mediterranean in November 1942 by German submarine U-407.

Building[edit]

Viceroy of India's indoor swimming pool

P&O ordered the ship from Alexander Stephen and Sons of Glasgow in 1927. She was originally to be called Taj Mahal,[3] after the 17th-century mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal in New Delhi. She was laid down in April 1927, launched in September 1928 and completed in March 1929.

She had six water-tube boilers with a combined heating surface of 32,500 square feet (3,019 m2) that supplied steam at 400 lbf/in2 to two turbo generators.[1] These supplied current to electric motors with a combined rating of 3,565 NHP that drove twin screw propellers.[1] British Thomson-Houston (BT-H) of Rugby, Warwickshire built the turbo-generators and motors.[1]

Each turbo-generator ran at 2,690–3,110 RPM, producing three-phase current at 2,720 volts and rated at 900 kW. Each propeller shaft was driven by two three-phase 3,150 volt electric motors running at 109 RPM and giving 8,500 shp (6,300 kW) per shaft. At reduced power of up to 11,600 shp (8,700 kW) only one turbo-generator was needed to supply current to both motors, thus maximising fuel economy. Variation of propeller speed in either direction was achieved by changing the turbine speed.[citation needed]

The accommodation aboard was considered luxurious by the standards of the era. The first class staterooms were especially so, but standards were high in all classes on this ship. All cabins were single berth with interconnecting doors, with extra rooms for servants who often travelled with colonial families. Her onboard amenities also included the then unusual luxury of an indoor swimming pool. Much of the interior decoration was designed by the Honourable Elsie Mackay,[citation needed] the daughter of James Mackay, 1st Earl of Inchcape, who was the chairman of P&O from 1914 until his death in 1932.

Viceroy of India carried cargo as well as passengers, and her holds were refrigerated for carrying perishables.[1]

Launch and commissioning[edit]

The ship was launched as Viceroy of India on 15 September 1928 by Dorothy, Countess of Halifax, the wife of the Viceroy of India, E. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax. The name had been changed to avoid offending Indians, particularly Muslims, for whom the Taj Mahal mausoleum is sacred.

Fitting out at Shieldhall Wharf, Glasgow, began on 8 January 1929. Viceroy of India was finished in P&O's traditional colours: her hull black with a white band, her boot topping red, her upper works and lifeboats buff, her large vents black, her small vents buff and her two funnels black.[7][8]

During fitting out she was damaged amidships by Donaldson South American Line's 7,131 ton cargo ship SS Corinaldo which was trying to dock in poor visibility, but by 17 February Viceroy of India was ready for sea trials, on which she averaged 19.6 knots (36.3 km/h).[citation needed] She was completed in March 1929.[1]

P&O turbo-electric ships[edit]

Viceroy of India was Britain's first large turbo-electric passenger ship.[9] At about the same time as she was built, P&O also had RMS Mooltan's performance increased by the addition of BT-H turbo generators and propulsion motors to supplement her quadruple-expansion engines.

P&Os first experiences of turbo-electric propulsion led the company to specify the same form of transmission for a pair of liners[10] that it ordered in 1930: RMS Strathnaver (completed in 1931) and RMS Strathaird (completed in 1932). Each "Strath" was only about 2,600 GRT bigger than Viceroy of India but they produced about 77% more power, which made them about 3 knots (5.6 km/h) faster than Viceroy of India.

Civilian service[edit]

Viceroy of India was handed over to P&O on 7 March 1929 and made her maiden voyage on the Indian mail route. In September 1932 when she set a new record time between London and Bombay of 17 days, 1 hour and 42 minutes.

Viceroy of India was also suited for leisure cruises, which she made every year until the outbreak of the Second World War. In February 1939 she cruised to the South Atlantic, where she became the first P&O liner to visit the island of Tristan da Cunha.

On 23 November 1929 Viceroy of India rescued 25 crew members from the Italian cargo steamer Maria Luisa which sank in the eastern Mediterranean off the coast of Egypt.

In 1930 Viceroy of India twice assisted the Greek cargo steamer Theodoros Bulgaris in the Bay of Biscay. That September she stood by when Theodoros Bulgaris' cargo of grain shifted in storms and the Greek merchantman's crew were transferred to another vessel. On 31 December 1930 Theodoros Bulgararis sank and Viceroy of India rescued all of the crew.

On 5 September 1935 the Cunard White Star liner Doric and the Chargeurs Réunis cargo ship Formigny collided off Cape Finisterre. Doric stayed afloat but her 736 passengers were transferred to other ships as a precaution. 241 of them were transferred to Viceroy of India.

On 11 August 1940 the Cunard White Star liner Ceramic and the Bank Line cargo liner Testbank collided off Cape Town. Ceramic stayed afloat but her 279 passengers were transferred to Viceroy of India for safety.

War service and sinking[edit]

After U-407 torpedoed Viceroy of India HMS Boadicea towed the troop ship, and when Viceroy sank the destroyer rescued 450 people

On 12 November 1940 the Ministry of War Transport requisitioned Viceroy of India to be a troop ship.[5] She returned to the River Clyde for the conversion.[citation needed]

In 1942 Viceroy of India sailed in Convoy KMF-1A carrying Allied troops from Britain to invade French North Africa in Operation Torch.[5] Early on 11 November 1942 she was returning empty from Algiers bound for Gibraltar.[5] At 0524 hrs she was about 34 miles (55 km) northwest of Oran when German submarine U-407 fired a spread of four torpedoes at her.[5] Two hit the ship, killing four crew members.[5] At 0531 hrs U-407 fired a stern-tube torpedo at her but missed.[5] The B-class destroyer HMS Boadicea took Viceroy of India in tow but she sank and Boadicea rescued all 432 surviving crew and 22 passengers.[5]

Notes[edit]

RMS Viceroy of India is located in Algeria
RMS Viceroy of India
Approximate position of Viceroy of India's wreck in the Mediterranean off Algeria
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Lloyd's Register of Shipping. London: Lloyd's Register. 1930. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Talbot-Booth 1942, p. 368
  3. ^ a b c d e Cameron, Stuart; Strathdee, Paul; Biddulph, Bruce (2002–2013). "SS Viceroy of India". Clydebuilt database. Clydesite.co.uk. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  4. ^ Lloyd's Register, Steamers & Motorships. London: Lloyd's Register. 1934. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Helgason, Guðmundur (1995–2013). "Viceroy of India". uboat.net: Ships hit by U-boats. Guðmundur Helgason. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  6. ^ Harnack 1938, p. 560.
  7. ^ Talbot-Booth 1942, pp. 534–535.
  8. ^ Harnack 1938, p. 559.
  9. ^ Harnack 1938, pp. 83–84.
  10. ^ Harnack 1938, p. 303.

References[edit]

  • Harnack, Edwin P (1938) [1903]. All About Ships & Shipping (7th ed.). London: Faber and Faber. 
  • Talbot-Booth, E.C. (1942) [1936]. Ships and the Sea (Seventh ed.). London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. 

Coordinates: 36°26′N 0°24′W / 36.433°N 0.400°W / 36.433; -0.400