RPG-7

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RPG-7
RPG-7 detached.jpg
An RPG-7 with a warhead
Type Rocket-propelled grenade Launcher[1]
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1961 – present
Used by See Users
Production history
Manufacturer Bazalt (Russian Federation)
Airtronic USA (United States)
Produced June 1961 – present
Number built 9,000,000+
Variants RPG-7V2 (current model)
RPG-7D3 (paratrooper)
Type 69 RPG (China)
RPG-7USA (Picatinny Rails)
B-41 (Vietnam), (Cambodia)
Specifications
Weight 7 kg (15 lb)
Length 950 mm (37.4 in)

Caliber 40mm
Muzzle velocity 115 m/s
Effective firing range 200m
Maximum firing range ~ 920 m (1,000 yd) (self detonates)
Sights PGO-7 (2.7x) and UP-7V Telescopic sight)
Red dot reflex sight on Picatinny rails

The RPG-7 (Russian: РПГ-7) is a portable, unguided, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket-propelled grenade launcher. Originally the RPG-7 (Ручной Противотанковый Гранатомёт – Ruchnoy Protivotankovyy Granatomyot, Hand-held anti-tank grenade launcher) and its predecessor, the RPG-2, was designed by the Soviet Union; it is now manufactured by the Russian company Bazalt. The weapon has the GRAU index 6G3. The English-language term "rocket-propelled grenade", though frequently encountered and reasonably descriptive, is a backronym for "RPG" and not based on a literal translation.

The ruggedness, simplicity, low cost, and effectiveness of the RPG-7 has made it the most widely used anti-armor weapon in the world. Currently around 40 countries use the weapon, and it is manufactured in a number of variants by nine countries. It is also popular with irregular and guerrilla forces, such as the Provisional IRA. The RPG has been used in almost all conflicts across all continents since the mid-1960s from the Vietnam War to the early 2010s War in Afghanistan.

Widely-produced, the most commonly seen major variations are the RPG-7D paratrooper model (able to be broken into two parts for easier carrying), and the lighter Chinese Type 69 RPG. DIO of Iran manufactures RPG-7s with olive green handguards, H&K pistol grips, and a Commando variant.

The RPG-7 was first delivered to the Soviet Army in 1961 and deployed at a squad level. It replaced the RPG-2, having clearly out-performed the intermediate RPG-4 design during testing. The current model produced by Russian Federation is the RPG-7V2, capable of firing standard and dual high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) rounds, high explosive/fragmentation, and thermobaric warheads (see below), with a UP-7V sighting device fitted (used in tandem with the standard 2.7x PGO-7 optical sight) to allow the use of extended range ammunition. The RPG-7D3 is the equivalent paratrooper model. Both the RPG-7V2 and RPG-7D3 were adopted by the Russian Ground Forces in 2001.

Description[edit]

The launcher is reloadable and based around a steel tube, 40 millimeters in diameter, 95.3 centimeters long, and weighing 7 kilograms. The middle of the tube is wood wrapped to protect the user from heat and the end is flared to assist in blast shielding and recoil reduction. Sighting is usually optical with a back-up iron sight, and passive infra-red and night sights are also available.

As with similar weapons, the grenade protrudes from the launch tubes. It is 40–105 millimeters in diameter and weighs between 2.0[2][3][4] and 4.5 kilograms. It is launched by a gunpowder booster charge, giving it an initial speed of 115 meters per second, and creating a cloud of light grey-blue smoke that can give away the position of the shooter.[5] The rocket motor[6] ignites after 10 meters and sustains flight out to 500 meters at a maximum velocity of 295 meters per second. The grenade is stabilized by two sets of fins that deploy in-flight: one large set on the stabilizer pipe to maintain direction and a smaller front set to induce rotation. The grenade can fly up to 1,100 meters; the fuze sets the maximum range, usually 920 meters.[7]

Propulsion system[edit]

An Afghan National Army soldier firing an RPG-7, 2013

According to the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Bulletin 3u (1977) Soviet RPG-7 Antitank Grenade Launcher—Capabilities and Countermeasures, the RPG-7 munition has two sections: a "booster" section and a "warhead and sustainer motor" section. These must be assembled into the ready-to-use grenade. The booster consists of a "small strip powder charge" that serves to propel the grenade out of the launcher; the sustainer motor then ignites and propels the grenade for the next few seconds, giving it a top speed of 294 meters per second, making it subsonic. The TRADOC bulletin provides anecdotal commentary that the RPG-7 has been fired from within buildings, which agrees with the two-stage design. It is stated that only a 2-meter standoff to a rear obstruction is needed for use inside rooms or fortifications. The fins not only provide drag stabilization, but are designed to impart a slow rotation to the grenade.

Due to the configuration of the RPG-7 sustainer/warhead section, it responds counter-intuitively to crosswinds. A crosswind will tend to exert pressure on the stabilizing fins, causing the projectile to turn into the wind. While the rocket motor is still burning, this will cause the flight path to curve into the wind. The TRADOC bulletin explains aiming difficulties for more distant moving targets in crosswinds at some length. The RPG-7 has no noticeable recoil, the only effect during firing being that of the sudden lightness of the launcher as the rocket leaves the tube.

Ammunition[edit]

Inside of an RPG's three sections. The head contains the (1) trigger, (2) conductive cone, (3) aerodynamic fairing, (4) conical liner, (5) body, (6) explosive, (7) conductor and (8) detonator. The rocket motor consists of a (9) nozzle block, (10) nozzle and (11) motor body with (12) propellant in front of (13) the motor rear and (14) ignition primer. The booster charge includes the (15) fin, (16) cartridge, (17) charge, (18) turbine, (19) tracer and (20) foam wad.

The RPG-7 can fire a variety of warheads for anti-armor (HEAT, PG-Protivotankovaya Granata) or anti-personnel (HE, OG-Oskolochnaya Granata) purposes, usually fitting with an impact (PIBD) and a 4.5 second fuze. Armor penetration is warhead dependent and ranges from 30 to 60 centimeters of RHA; one warhead, the PG-7VR, is a 'tandem charge' device, used to defeat reactive armor with a single shot.

Current production ammunition for the RPG-7V2 consists of four types:

  • PG-7VL [c.1977] Improved 93 mm HEAT warhead effective against most vehicles and fortified targets. Replaces the earlier 85mm[2][3][4] PG-7V HEAT warhead [c.1961].
  • PG-7VR [c.1988] Dual 64mm/105mm HEAT warhead for defeating modern armored vehicles equipped with reactive armor blocks. The first warhead (64mm HEAT) detonates the reactive armor block prematurely and the second warhead (105mm HEAT) passes through the gap to hit the exposed armor underneath.
  • TBG-7V [c.1988] 105 mm Thermobaric warhead for anti-personnel and urban warfare.
  • OG-7V [c.1999] 40mm fragmentation warhead for anti-personnel warfare (warhead is within caliber due to limitations of international treaties).[citation needed]
  • GSh-7VT [c.2013] Anti-bunker warhead with cylindrical follow-through blast-fragmentation munition followed by explosively formed penetrator.[8]

Specifications[edit]

Manufacturer specifications for the RPG-7V1.[9][10] The Tube launcher has an ID of 43.5mm for the Solid Rocket Engine Casing 40mm OD.

Name Type Image Weight Explosive Weight[11][12][13] Diameter Penetration Lethal radius
PG-7V & VM Single-stage HEAT 2.2 kg (4.85 lb) 85 mm (3.35 in) > 260 mm RHA (10.24 in)
PG-7VL Single-stage HEAT RPG PG 7VL.png 2.6 kg (5.7 lb) 730 g окфол (95% HMX + 5% wax) 93 mm (3.65 in) > 500 mm RHA (19.5 in)
PG-7VR Tandem HEAT RPG PG 7R.png 4.5 kg (9.9 lb)  ?/1.43 kg окфол (95% HMX + 5% wax) 64 mm/105 mm (2.52 in/4.13 in) 600 mm RHA
(with reactive armor)

750 mm RHA
(without reactive armor)

OG-7V Fragmentation RPG OG 7VL.png 2 kg (4 lb) 210 g (0.46 lb) A-IX-1 40 mm (1.6 in) 7 m (23 ft)
(vs. body armor) 150m w/o Body Armor
TBG-7V Thermobaric RPG TBG 7V.png 4.5 kg (9.9 lb) 1.9 kg ОМ 100МИ-3Л + 0.25 kg A-IX-1(as thermobaric explosive booster) 105 mm (4.1 in) 10 m (33 ft)

Hit probabilities[edit]

A U.S. Army evaluation of the weapon gave the hit probabilities on a 5 meter wide (15 ft), 2.5 meter tall (7.5 ft) panel moving sideways at 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour).[14] This probability decreases when firing in a crosswind due to the unusual behaviour of the round; in a 11-kilometre (7 mi) per hour (3.0 m/s) wind, the gunner can not expect to get a first-round hit more than 50% of the time beyond 180m.[15]

Afghan National Police officer at a training site, ready to fire an RPG round.
Range Percent
50 m 100%
100 m 96%
200 m 51%
300 m 22%
400 m 9%
500 m 4%

History of use[edit]

Accurate firing is difficult at ranges over 300 meters; the phrase "the closer the better" has always been true. During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the mujahideen tended to use the weapon at ranges of less than 80 meters. The RPG-7's predecessor, the RPG-2, was the main anti-tank weapon of NLF forces in the early stage of the Vietnam war, mainly used to counter the lightly armored M113 and other armored vehicles. This was, in turn, countered by mounting barbed wire bundles or sections of chain link fence, supported by 2 or 3 "U" shaped engineer stakes, in front of the vehicle as a portable stand-off defence.[16]

The RPG-7 was used by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland from 1969 to 2005, most notably in Lurgan, County Armagh, where it was used against British Army observation posts and the towering military base at Kitchen Hill in the town.[17] The IRA also used them in Catholic areas of West Belfast against British Army armoured personnel carriers and Army forward operating bases (FOB). Beechmount Avenue was renamed "RPG Avenue" because it was chosen many times by the IRA as an area from which to mount rocket attacks.[18]

In Mogadishu, Somalia, rocket-propelled grenades were used to down two U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopters in 1993.[19][20]

The Taliban (in Afghanistan) have formed armored-vehicle hunter/killer teams that work together with as many as 15 RPGs to destroy armoured vehicles, aiming for a mobility kill by firing at the tracks to stop the tank from moving, then attempting to destroy the main armour while the tank is disabled.[21]

Users[edit]

Iraqi Security Force (ISF) soldier with an RPG-7.
U.S. and Bulgarian soldiers training with RPG-7s.
A Bulgarian soldier with an ATGL-L (Bulgarian copy of the RPG-7) equipped with a red dot reflex sight.
A Romanian soldier with an AG-7 (licensed built RPG-7).
Iranian manufactured RPG-7 launcher, uncovered in Lebanon, by the IDF.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "RPG-7/RPG-7V/RPG-7VR Rocket Propelled Grenade Launcher (Multi Purpose Weapon)". Defense Update. 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b John Pike. "RPG-7". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  3. ^ a b "RosOboronExport". rusarm.ru. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  4. ^ a b "Images stories of east_europe,rpg-7_ammunition_Russia_russian_001". armyrecognition.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  5. ^ Infantry, Volumes 88-90, Infantry School (U.S.), United States Army Infantry School, United States Army Infantry School. Editorial and Pictorial Office, United States Army Infantry School. Book Dept, U.S. Army Infantry School, 1998 - Infantry
  6. ^ no rocket motors in OG-7V
  7. ^ Mexico’s Drug Lords Ramp Up Their Arsenals with RPGs, By Ioan Grillo / Mexico CityOct. 25, 2012
  8. ^ FKP GkNIPAS completes development of anti-bunker round for RPG-7V2 grenade launcher - Janes.com, 30 June 2013
  9. ^ "Rosoboronexport". Rusarm.ru. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  10. ^ John Pike. "RPG-7". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  11. ^ Per Ordata
  12. ^ Per [1] The last picture, source from deputy chief designer of Bazalt
  13. ^ Per [2] defense-update RPG-29 due to PG-29V and PG-7VR has same warhead
  14. ^ TRADOC BULLETIN 1, Range and Lethality of U.S. and Soviet Anti-Armour Weapons.. United States Army Training And Doctrine Command. 30 September 1975. 
  15. ^ TRADOC BULLETIN 3, Soviet RPG-7 Antitank Grenade Launcher. United States Army Training And Doctrine Command. November 1976. 
  16. ^ S.Taylor. "A Troop 4th Squadron, 12th US Cavalry, 1st Brigade 5th Infantry Division (Mechanized)". Atroop412cav.com. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  17. ^ Oppenheimer, A.R. (2009). IRA The Bombs and the Bullets: A history of deadly ingenuity. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-7165-2895-1. pp. 240–241
  18. ^ Harrison, David (2007-05-13). "Fragile calm behind Ulster's 'peace walls'". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  19. ^ Speck, Shane (2004-03-11). "How Rocket-Propelled Grenades Work". Science.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  20. ^ Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the 21st Century, By Rod Thornton
  21. ^ Popular Mechanics Mar 2004. Books.google.com.my. March 2004. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  23. ^ ATGL-L anti-tank grenade launcher, arsenal.bg
  24. ^ "Burkina Faso Army defence force ranks military pattern camouflage combat field uniforms dress grades - Army Recognition - Army Recognition". armyrecognition.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  25. ^ "Kateholt.com : Galleries". kateholt.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  26. ^ "ქართული წარმოების სამხედრო აღჭურვილობა". geo-army.ge. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  27. ^ http://tbilaviamsheni.ge/gallery/rpg%20stc%20delta.pdf
  28. ^ Lugosi, József (2008). "Gyalogsági fegyverek 1868–2008". In Lugosi, József; Markó, György. Hazánk dicsőségére: 160 éves a Magyar Honvédség. Budapest: Zrínyi Kiadó. p. 389. ISBN 978-963-327-461-3. 
  29. ^ "albums/y208/elite_navyseal/RPG7Marinir". i6.photobucket.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  30. ^ [3][dead link]
  31. ^ Katz, Samuel (1986) Israeli Defence Forces Since 1973. Osprey ISBN 0-85045-687-8
  32. ^ "RPG–7 – Rocket Propelled Grenade Launcher (1961)". Military Factory. 2012-05-16. Retrieved 2012-11-20. 
  33. ^ "Pakistan Army". 
  34. ^ "Type 69". 
  35. ^ "Air Burst Anti Personnel Rocket Calibre 40 mm RGP-7AP". 
  36. ^ "40 MM Heat P1 MK1 (RPG-7P)". 
  37. ^ "Modern Firearms – RPG-7". World.guns.ru. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  38. ^ "Philippines acquires RPG-7 (USA) for anti-armour operations". 2014-01-13. Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  39. ^ Carfil website[dead link]
  40. ^ "Rwanda Rwandan Army ranks land ground forces combat uniforms military equipment rwandais grades unif - Army Recognition - Army Recognition". armyrecognition.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  41. ^ "All sizes | 126829433516 | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". flickr.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  42. ^ "home". army.mil.za. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  43. ^ Sinar Light Antitank Rocket Launcher Retrieved on March 17, 2009.
  44. ^ Pike, John (2004-05-14). "The future of Russian-Turkish military-technical cooperation". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  45. ^ Nortje, Piet (2003). 32 Battalion. Zebra Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-86872-914-2. 
  46. ^ "Airtronic PRG-7 (USA) 40mm rocket proplelled grenade launcher" (in Russian). AIRTRONIC USA, INC. Archived from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  47. ^ "RPG-7V1". Fav-club.com. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 

External links[edit]