The RT-23 (NATO reporting name SS-24 Scalpel) was a Soviet ICBM developed and produced by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau before 1991. It is cold-launched, and comes in silo– and railway-car–based variants. It is a three-stage missile that uses solid fuel and thrust vectoring for the first stage, with 10 MIRV warheads, each with a 550–kt yield.
The missile was the culmination of a major Soviet effort to develop a medium solid-fueled missile with multiple basing modes: silo-based and rail-based versions were deployed, and a road-mobile version was considered but rejected. This made for a much more survivable ICBM, as the rail-based missiles could move around the rail network and thus be difficult to detect and track. The new missile was to replace the older liquid-fueled SS-19 missiles which were entirely silo-based. Its US counterpart was the MX missile.
The missile was tested through the 1980s and began to be deployed in 1987. Its production facilities were located in Ukraine. After the Soviet Union broke up in 1991, Ukraine had no interest in producing ICBMs, so the production of the missile came to an end. A typical missile launch train was composed of three M62-class locomotives (a standard diesel electric locomotive of the period), followed by generating power car, command car, support car, and three missile launch vehicles, forming a nine-car set. The lead locomotive was driven by three officers, and the two immediately following engines were driven by two enlisted personnel each. The missile launcher has the shape of a refrigerator car, and the service cars are converted passenger carriages.
Just before the breakup of the USSR, 92 missiles were operational, 36 silo-based and 56 rail-based. The 36 silo-based missiles located in Ukraine were deactivated by mid-1996, disassembled and put into storage pending decision on a feasible disposal method, but the 56 missiles in Russia remained in service. The missile was to be banned under the provisions of START II, but that treaty was never ratified. The remaining ten silo-based missiles in Russia were deactivated around 2000. After 2000, the rail-based missiles were also gradually withdrawn from service, with the remaining 15 decommissioned in August 2005. The last SS-24 ICBM in Russia was eliminated in April 2008.
|Service||RT-23||RT-23||RT-23 UTTKh||RT-23 UTTKh|
|Design Bureau||SKB-586, NPO Yuzhynoy Acad. V. F. Utkin||SKB-586, NPO Yuzhnoye Acad. V. F. Utkin||SKB-586, NPO Yuzhnoye Acad. V. F. Utkin||SKB-586, NPO Yuzhnoye Acad. V. F. Utkin|
|Approved||23 July 1976||1 June 1979||9 August 1983||9 August 1983|
|Years of R&D||January 1969 - March 1977||November 1982 - 1987||1983–1989||1983–1989|
|Engineering and Testing'First Flight Test'||26 October 1982 Failure, 12/1982 Success||April 1984||31 July 1986||27 February 1985|
|IOC||canceled||19 August 1988||12/1987|
|Deployment Date||Canceled||November 1987||28 November 1989||28 November 1989|
|Type of Warhead||MIRV||MIRV||MIRV||MIRV|
|Total length (m)||23.3||23.4 - 23.8||18.8 - 23.4||23.3|
|Total length w/o warhead (m)||18.8, 19||19||19||19|
|Missile Diameter (m)||2.4||2.4||2.4||2.4|
|Launch Mass (t)||104.5||104.5||104.5||104.5|
|Operating Range (km)||10,000||10,000 - 11,000||10,100 -11,000||10,100 - 10,450|
- Soviet Union and Russia
- The Strategic Missile Troops were the only operators of the RT-23 until the breakup of the Soviet Union.
- Silo-based at Pervomaysk and Tatischevo
- Rail-based at Kostroma, Perm, and Gladkaya
- The Armed Forces of Ukraine inherited 60 RT-23 missiles upon independence from the Soviet Union, all were sent to Russia by 1994.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to RT-23 Molodets.|
- Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Car - the US counterpart
- Varshavsky Rail Terminal, St.Petersburg, Home of the Central Museum of Railway Transport, Russian Federation which houses the sole surviving RT-23 Molodets unit.
- Note: It did not receive a NATO reporting name, but did have an industry designation of 8K97.
- Defense Intelligence Agency. SS-24 ICBM Weapon System. DST-1010S-073-93
- Russian nuclear forces 2005 (Gated)
- Global Security information
- SS-24 Scalpel - RT-23 (Czech) - More photos