RTI-336, (LS-193,309, (−)-2β-(3-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane) is a phenyltropane derivative which acts as a potent and selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor and stimulant drug. It binds to the dopamine transporter with around 20x the affinity of cocaine, however it produces relatively mild stimulant effects, with a slow onset and long duration of action. These characteristics make it a potential candidate for treatment of cocaine addiction, as a possible substitute drug analogous to how methadone is used for treating heroin abuse. RTI-336 fully substitutes for cocaine in addicted monkeys and supports self-administration, and significantly reduces rates of cocaine use, especially when combined with SSRIs, and research is ongoing to determine whether it could be a viable substitute drug in human cocaine addicts.
^Carroll, F.; Fox, B.; Kuhar, M.; Howard, J.; Pollard, G.; Schenk, S. (2006). "Effects of dopamine transporter selective 3-phenyltropane analogs on locomotor activity, drug discrimination, and cocaine self-administration after oral administration". European Journal of Pharmacology553 (1–3): 149–156. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.09.024. PMID17067572.edit
^Howell, L.; Carroll, F.; Votaw, J.; Goodman, M.; Kimmel, H. (2007). "Effects of combined dopamine and serotonin transporter inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics320 (2): 757–765. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.108324. PMID17105829.edit