A completely effective vaccine is not yet available for malaria, although several vaccines are under development. SPf66 was tested extensively in endemic areas in the 1990s, but clinical trials showed it to be insufficiently effective. Other vaccine candidates, targeting the blood-stage of the malaria parasite's life cycle, have also been insufficient on their own. RTS,S is one of several potential vaccines under development that target the pre-erythrocytic stage of the disease. Among them, RTS,S has shown the most promising results so far.
In November 2012, findings from a Phase III trial of RTS,S reported that it provided modest protection against both clinical and severe malaria in young infants. The RTS,S vaccine was engineered using genes from the outer protein of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite and a portion of a hepatitis B virus and a chemical adjuvant to boost the immune system response. The RTS,S-based vaccine formulation had previously been demonstrated to be safe, well tolerated, immunogenic, and to potentially confer partial efficacy in both malaria-naive and -experienced adults as well as children, although further research was considered necessary to improve the effectiveness of the vaccine. RTS,S is being developed by PATH, GlaxoSmithKline and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
- "Malaria scientist celebrates success after 24 years".
- Graves P, Gelband H (2006). "Vaccines for preventing malaria (SPf66)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD005966. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005966. PMID 16625647.
- Graves P, Gelband H (2006). "Vaccines for preventing malaria (blood-stage)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD006199. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006199. PMID 17054281.
- Graves P, Gelband H (2006). "Vaccines for preventing malaria (pre-erythrocytic)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD006198. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006198. PMID 17054280.
- RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership (December 2012). "A Phase 3 Trial of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in African Infants". New England Journal of Medicine 367 (24): 2284–2295. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1208394. PMID 23136909.
- Regules, J. A.; Cummings, J. F.; Ockenhouse, C. F. (2011). "The RTS,S vaccine candidate for malaria". Expert Review of Vaccines 10 (5): 589–599. doi:10.1586/erv.11.57. PMID 21604980.
- Stein, R. Experimental malaria vaccine protects many children, study shows. Washington Post 18 October 2011.
Further reading 
- Wilby, K. J.; Lau, T. T.; Gilchrist, S. E.; Ensom, M. H. (2012). "Mosquirix (RTS,S): A Novel Vaccine for the Prevention of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria". Annals of Pharmacotherapy 46 (3): 384–393. doi:10.1345/aph.1Q634. PMID 22395253.
- Agnandji ST, Lell B, Soulanoudjingar SS, et al. (November 2011). "First Results of Phase 3 Trial of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in African Children". New England Journal of Medicine 365 (20): 1863–1875. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1102287. PMID 22007715.
- Asante, K. P.; Abdulla, S.; Agnandji, S.; Lyimo, J.; Vekemans, J.; Soulanoudjingar, S.; Owusu, R.; Shomari, M. et al. (2011). "Safety and efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01E candidate malaria vaccine given with expanded-programme-on-immunisation vaccines: 19 month follow-up of a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial". The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11 (10): 741–749. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70100-1. PMID 21782519.