Mazda RX-7

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Mazda RX-7
Mazda-RX-7-FD.jpg
Mazda RX-7 (FD)
Overview
Manufacturer Mazda
Production 1978–2002
811,634 produced[1]
Assembly Hiroshima, Japan
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style Two-door coupe
Layout FMR layout
Chronology
Predecessor Mazda RX-3
Successor Mazda RX-8

The Mazda RX-7 is a sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002. The original RX-7 featured a 1,146 cc (69.9 cu in) twin-rotor Wankel rotary engine and a front-midship, rear-wheel drive layout. The RX-7 replaced the RX-3 (both were sold in Japan as the Savanna).

The original RX-7 was a sports car with pop-up headlamps. The compact and lightweight Wankel rotary engine is situated slightly behind the front axle, a configuration marketed by Mazda as "front mid-engine". It was offered as a two-seat coupé, with optional "occasional" rear seats in Japan, Australia, the United States, and other parts of the world. The rear seats were initially marketed as a dealer-installed option for the North American markets.

The RX-7 made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list five times. 811,634 RX-7s were produced.[1]

First generation (SA22C)[edit]

SA/FB
Mazda-rx7-1st-generation01.jpg
Overview
Also called Savanna RX-7
Production 1978–1985
471,018 produced[1]
Powertrain
Engine 1,146 cc 12A
1,146 cc 12A turbo
1,308 cc 13B RE-EGI
Transmission 3-speed automatic
4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,420 mm (95 in)
Length 4,285 mm (169 in)
Width 1,675 mm (66 in)
Height 1,260 mm (50 in)
Curb weight 1,000–1,100 kg (2,300–2,500 lb)

Series 1 (1978–1980) is commonly referred to as the "SA22C" from the first alphanumerics of the vehicle identification number. In Japan it was introduced in March 1978, replacing the Savanna RX-3, and joined Mazda's only other remaining rotary engine powered products, called the Mazda Cosmo which was a two-door luxury coupe, and the Mazda Luce luxury sedan.

The lead designer at Mazda was Matasaburo Maeda, whose son Ikuo would go on to design the Mazda2 and Mazda RX-8.[2] The transition of the Savana to a sports car appearance reflected products from other Japanese manufacturers. The advantage the RX-7 had was its minimal size and weight, and the compact rotary engine installed behind the front axle, which helped balance the front to rear weight distribution, and provide a low center of gravity.

In Japan, sales were enhanced by the fact that the RX-7 complied with Japanese Government dimension regulations, and Japanese buyers were not liable for yearly taxes for driving a larger car.

In May 1980, Mazda released 2,500 special North American models known as the LS (Leather Sport). This package was essentially an uprated GS model with added LS badges on each B-pillar, special striping, and LS-only gold anodized wheels (with polished outer face and wheel rim). All LS editions came equipped with special LS-only full brown leather upholstery, leather wrapped steering wheel, leather wrapped shift knob, removable sunroof, LS-specific four-speaker AM/FM stereo radio with power antenna (though listed as a six speaker stereo, as the two rear dual voice coil speakers were counted as four speakers in total), remote power door side mirrors, and other standard GS equipment. Two primary options were also available; a three-speed JATCO 3N71B automatic transmission and air conditioning. Other GS options such as cassette tape deck, splash guards, padded center console arm rest and others could be added by the dealer. The LS model was only ever available in three different exterior colors: Aurora White (1,000 made), Brilliant Black (1,000 made) and Solar Gold (500 made). Production estimates in parenthesis are widely accepted estimations per color, though no official production records are known to exist or to have been released, aside from the total combined production figure of 2,500 units. This series of RX-7 had exposed steel bumpers and a high-mounted indentation-located license plate, called by Werner Buhrer of Road & Track magazine a "Baroque depression."

Mazda RX-7 Series 2 (US)

The Series 2 (1981–1983) had integrated plastic-covered bumpers, wide black rubber body side moldings, wraparound taillights and updated engine control components. The GSL package provided optional four-wheel disc brakes, front ventilated (Australian model) and clutch-type rear limited slip differential (LSD). Known as the "FB" in North America after the US Department of Transportation mandated 17 digit Vehicle Identification Number changeover. For various other markets worldwide, the 1981–1985 RX-7 retained the 'SA22C' VIN prefix. In the UK, the 1978–1980 series 1 cars carried the SA code on the vehicle VIN but all later cars (1981–1983 series 2 & 1984–1985 series 3) carried the FB code and these first generation RX7's are known as the "FB". The license-plate surround looks much like Buhrer's "Styling Impressions."[citation needed]

In Europe, the FB was mainly noticed for having received a power increase from the 105 PS (77 kW) of the SA22; the 1981 RX-7 now had 115 PS (85 kW) on tap. European market cars also received four-wheel disc brakes as standard.[3]

1984–1985 Mazda RX-7 (Series 3; Australia)

The Series 3 (1984–1985) featured an updated lower front fascia. North American models received a different instrument cluster. GSL package was continued into this series, but Mazda introduced the GSL-SE sub-model. The GSL-SE had a fuel-injected 1.3 L 13B RE-EGI engine producing 135 hp (101 kW) and 135 lb·ft (183 N·m). GSL-SEs had much the same options as the GSL (clutch-type rear LSD and rear disc brakes), but the brake rotors were larger, allowing Mazda to use the more common lug nuts (versus bolts), and a new bolt pattern of 4x114.3 (4x4.5"). Also, they had upgraded suspension with stiffer springs and shocks. The external oil cooler was reintroduced, after being dropped in the 1983 model-year for the controversial "beehive" water-oil heat exchanger.

The 1984 RX-7 GSL has an estimated 29 highway miles per gallon (8.11 litres per 100 km) /19 estimated city miles per gallon (12.37 l/100 km). According to Mazda, its rotary engine, licensed by NSU-Wankel allowed the RX-7 GSL to accelerate from 0 to 50 (80 km/h) in 6.3 seconds. Kelley Blue Book, in its January–February 1984 issue, noted that a 1981 RX-7 GSL retained 93.4% of its original sticker price.

In 1985 Mazda released the RX7 Finale in Australia. This was the last of the series and brought out in limited numbers. The Finale featured power options and a brass plaque mentioning the number the car was as well as "Last of a legend" on the plaque. The finale had special stickers and a blacked out section between the window & rear hatch.

The handling and acceleration of the car were noted to be of a high caliber for its day. This generation RX-7 had "live axle" 4-link rear suspension with Watt's linkage, a 50/50 weight ratio, and weighed under 2,500 lb (1,100 kg). It was the lightest generation of RX-7 ever produced. 12A-powered models accelerated from 0–60 mph in 9.2 s, and turned 0.779 g (7.64 m/s²) laterally on a skidpad. The 12A engine produced 100 hp (75 kW) at 6,000 rpm, allowing the car to reach speeds of over 120 miles per hour (190 km/h). Because of the smoothness inherent in the Wankel rotary engine, little vibration or harshness was experienced at high engine speeds, so a buzzer was fitted to the tachometer to warn the driver when the 7,000 rpm redline was approaching.

The 12A engine has a long thin shaped combustion chamber, having a large surface area in relation to its volume. Therefore, combustion is cool, giving few oxides of nitrogen. However, the combustion is also incomplete, so there are large amounts of partly burned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The exhaust is hot enough for combustion of these to continue into the exhaust. An engine driven pump supplies air into the exhaust to complete the burn of these chemicals. This is done in the "thermal reactor" chamber where the exhaust manifold would normally be on a conventional engine. Under certain conditions the pump injects air into the thermal reactor and at other times air is pumped through injectors into the exhaust ports. This fresh air is needed for more efficient and cleaner burning of the air/fuel mixture.[4]

Options and models varied from country to country. The gauge layout and interior styling in the Series 3 was only changed for North American versions. Additionally, North America was the only market to have offered the first generation RX-7 with the fuel-injected 13B, model GSL-SE. Sales of the first generation RX-7 were strong, with a total of 474,565 first generation cars produced; 377,878 (nearly eighty percent) were sold in the United States alone. In 2004, Sports Car International named this car seventh on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s. In 1983, the RX-7 would appear on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for the first time in 20 years.

Savanna RX-7 Turbo[edit]

Following the introduction of the first turbocharged rotary engine in the Luce/Cosmo, a similar, also fuel injected and non-intercooled 12A turbo engine was made available for the top-end model of the series 3 in Japan. It was introduced in September 1983.[5] Power is 165 PS (121 kW) JIS at 6,500 rpm. While the peak power figures were only somewhat higher than those of the engine used in the Luce/Cosmo, the new "Impact Turbo" was developed specifically to deal with the different exhaust gas characteristics of a rotary engine. Both rotor vanes of the turbine were remodelled and made smaller, and the turbine had a twenty percent higher speed than a turbo intended for a conventional engine.[6] The Savanna Turbo was short-lived, as the next generation RX-7 was just around the corner.

Second generation (FC)[edit]

FC
Rx7FC1.jpg
Overview
Also called Mazda Savanna RX-7
Production S4 (1986 - 1988) – S5(1989 - 1991)
272,027 produced[1]
Powertrain
Engine

1.3L 146 hp (109 kW) S4 Naturally aspirated 13B

1.3L 182 hp (136 kW) S4 Turbocharged 13B

1.3L 160 hp (119 kW) S5 Naturally aspirated 13B

1.3L 202 hp (151 kW) S5 Turbocharged 13B
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,431 mm (95.7 in)
Length 1986-88: 4,290 mm (168.9 in)
1989–1991: 4,315 mm (169.9 in)
Width 1,689 mm (66.5 in)
Height 1,265 mm (49.8 in)
Curb weight 1,393 kg (3,071 lb)

The Series 4 (1986–1988) was available with a naturally aspirated, fuel-injected 13B-VDEI producing 146 hp (108 kW). An optional turbocharged model, (1987–1988) known as the Turbo II in the American market, had 182 hp / 185 ps (135 kW). The Series 5 (1989–1992) featured updated styling and better engine management, as well as lighter rotors and a higher compression ratio, 9.7:1 for the naturally aspirated model, and 9.0:1 for the turbo model. The naturally aspirated Series 5 FC made 160 hp (119 kW), while the Series 5 Turbo made 200 hp / 205 ps (147 kW).

The second generation RX-7 ("FC", VIN begins JM1FC3 or JMZFC1), still known as the Mazda Savanna RX-7 in Japan, featured a complete restyling reminiscent of the Porsche 944 or Porsche 924. Mazda's stylists, led by Chief Project Engineer Akio Uchiyama, focused on the Porsche 944 for their inspiration in designing the FC because the new car was being styled primarily for the American market, where the majority of first generation RX-7's had been sold.

This strategy was chosen after Uchiyama and others on the design team spent time in the United States studying owners of earlier RX-7's and other sports cars popular in the American market. The Porsche 944 was selling particularly well at the time and provided clues as to what sports-car enthusiasts might find compelling in future RX-7 styling and equipment.

While the SA22/FB was a purer sports car, the FC tended toward the softer sport-tourer trends of its day, sharing some similarities with the HB series Cosmo. Handling was much improved, with less of the oversteer tendencies of the FB. The rear end design was vastly improved from the FB's live rear axle to a more modern, Independent Rear Suspension (rear axle). Steering was more precise, with rack and pinion steering replacing the old recirculating ball steering of the FB. Disc brakes also became standard, with some models (S4: Sport, GXL, GTU, Turbo II, Convertible; S5: GXL, GTUs, Turbo, Convertible) offering four-piston front brakes. The rear seats were optional in some models of the FC RX-7, but are not commonly found in the American Market. Mazda also introduced Dynamic Tracking Suspension System (DTSS) in the 2nd generation RX-7. The revised independent rear suspension incorporated special toe control hubs which were capable of introducing a limited degree of passive rear steering under cornering loads. The DTSS worked by allowing a slight amount of toe-out under normal driving conditions but induced slight toe-in under heavier cornering loads at around 0.5 G's or more; toe-out in the rear allows for a more responsive rotation of the rear, but toe-in allowed for a more stable rear under heavier cornering. Mazda also introduced Auto Adjusting Suspension (AAS) in the 2nd generation RX-7. The system changed damping characteristics according to the road and driving conditions. The system compensated for camber changes and provided anti-dive and anti-squat effects. The Turbo 2 uses a turbo charger with a twin scroll design. The smaller primary chamber is engineered to cancel the turbo lag at low engine speeds. At higher revolutions the secondary chamber is opened, pumping out 33% more power than the naturally aspirated counterpart. The Turbo 2 also has an air-to-air intercooler which has a dedicated intake on the hood. The intake is slightly offset toward the left side of the hood.

Though about 800 lb (363 kg) heavier and more isolated than its predecessor, the FC continued to win accolades from the press. The FC RX-7 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1986, and the Turbo II was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for a second time in 1987.

In the Japanese market, only the turbo engine was available; the naturally aspirated version was allowed only as an export. This can be attributed to insurance companies penalizing turbo cars (thus restricting potential sales). This emphasis on containing horsepower and placating insurance companies to make RX-7's more affordable seems ironic in retrospect. Shortly after the discontinuance of the second generation RX-7's in 1992, an outright horsepower "arms race" broke out between sports car manufacturers, with higher and higher levels of power required to meet buyer demands. This rising horsepower phenomena arose from the US CAFE standards remaining stable while engine technologies marched forward rapidly.

Mazda sold 86,000 RX-7's in the US alone in 1986, its first model year, with sales peaking in 1988.

Australian Motors Mazda released a limited run of 250 'Sports' model Series 4 RX-7's; each with no power steering, power windows or rear wiper as an attempt to reduce the weight of the car. In Japan, there was a special limited release of the FC called Infini with only 600 made for each year. Some special noted features for all Infini series are: infini logo on the back, upgraded suspension, upgraded ECU, higher horsepower, lightened weight, 15-inch BBS aluminum alloy wheels, Infini logo steering wheel, aero bumper kits, bronze colored window glass, floor bar on the passenger side, aluminum bonnet with scoop, flare and holder. The car was thought as the pinnacle of the RX-7 series (until the FD came out). The Infini IV came with other special items such as black bucket seats, 16-inch BBS wheels, Knee pads, and all the other items mentioned before. There are differing years for the Infini, which noted the series. Series I was introduced in 1987, Series II was introduced in 1988, Series III was introduced in 1990, and Series IV was introduced in 1991. Series I and II came in White or Black, Series III came in Forest Green only, and Series IV came in Forest Green or Noble Green. There are only minor differences between the series, the biggest change which was from the Series II being an S4 (1986–1988) and the Series III and IV being an S5 (1989–1991).

Convertible[edit]

Mazda introduced a convertible version of the RX-7 in 1988 with a Naturally aspirated engine — introduced to the US market with ads featuring Hollywood actor James Garner, at the time featured in many of Mazda's television advertisements.

The convertible featured a removable rigid section over the passengers and a folding textile rear section with heatable rear glass window. Power operated, lowering the top required unlatching two header catches, power lowering the top, exiting the car (or reaching over to the right side latch), and folding down the rigid section manually. Mazda introduced with the convertible the first integral windblocker, a rigid panel that folded up from behind the passenger seats to block unwanted drafts from reaching the passengers — thereby extending the driving season for the car in open mode. The convertible also featured optional headrest mounted audio speakers and a folding leather snap-fastened tonneau cover. The convertible assembly was precisely engineered and manufactured, and dropped into the ready body assembly as a complete unit — a first in convertible production.

Several leading car magazines at the time also selected the convertible as one of the best rag-tops available on the market (see Automobile Magazine/January 1988, Performance Car Magazine/January 1989). Mazda exported approximately five thousand convertibles to the United States in 1988 and fewer in each of the next three model years, although it is difficult to confirm these figures, as Mazda USA did not keep RX-7 import records by model type. Production ceasing in 1991 after Mazda marketed a limited run of 500 example for 1992 for the domestic market only. In Japan, the United Kingdom, and other regions outside the US, a turbocharged version of the convertible was available.

10th Anniversary RX-7[edit]

Mazda introduced the 10th Anniversary RX-7 in 1988 as a limited production run based on the RX-7 Turbo II. Production was limited to 1,500 models. The 10th Anniversary RX-7 features a Crystal White (paint code UC) monochromatic paint scheme with matching white body side mouldings, taillight housings, mirrors and 16-inch alloy 7-spoke wheels. There were two "series" of 10th Anniversary models, with essentially a VIN-split running production change between the two. The most notable difference between the series can be found on the exterior- the earlier "Series I" cars had a black "Mazda" logo decal on the front bumper cover, whereas most if not all "Series II" cars did not have the decal. Series II cars also received the lower seat cushion height/tilt feature that Series I cars lacked. Another distinctive exterior feature is the bright gold rotor-shaped 10th Anniversary Edition badge on the front fenders (yellow-gold on the Series II cars). A distinctive 10th Anniversary package feature is the all black leather interior (code D7), which included not just the seats, but the door panel inserts as well and a leather-wrapped MOMO steering wheel (with 10th Anniversary Edition embossed horn button) and MOMO leather shift knob with integrated boot. All exterior glass is bronze tinted (specific in North America to only the 10th Anniversary), and the windshield was equipped with the embedded secondary antenna also found on some other select models with the upgraded stereo packages. Other 10th Anniversary Edition specific items were headlight washers (the only RX-7 in the US market that got this feature), glass breakage detectors added to the factory alarm system, 10th Anniversary Edition logoed floormats, 10th Anniversary Edition embroidered front hood protector and accompanying front end mask (or "bra"), and an aluminum under pan.

GTUs (1989-1990)[edit]

In 1989, with the introduction of a face-lifted FC RX-7, and to commemorate the RX-7's IMSA domination, Mazda introduced a limited model labeled the GTU. Starting with the lightweight base model GTU, which came with manual windows, no rear wiper, the sunroof and A/C was dealer optioned, the GTUs added items found on the Turbo model such as four piston front brakes, rear ventilated brake rotors, vehicle speed sensing power steering, 1 piece front chin spoiler, cloth covered Turbo model seats, leather wrapped steering wheel, 16 inch wheels, 205/55VR tires, and a GTUs only 4.300 Viscous-type limited slip differential (all other FC LSD's where 4.100). This allowed quicker acceleration from the non-turbo powered 13B. Mazda built 1100 GTUs's in 1989, with the last 100 re-stamped as 1990 models.

Third generation (FD)[edit]

FD
Mazda-rx7-3rd-generation01.jpg
Overview
Also called ɛ̃fini RX-7
Production 1991–2002
68,589 produced[1]
Designer Yoichi Sato (1988)[7]
Powertrain
Engine

1.3L 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) 13B-REW
1.3L 265 PS (195 kW; 261 hp) 13B-REW

1.3L 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) 13B-REW
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,425 mm (95 in)
Length 4,285 mm (169 in)
Width 1,760 mm (69 in)
Height 1,230 mm (48 in)
Curb weight 1,050–1,340 kg (2,315–2,954 lb)

The third generation of the RX-7, FD (with FD3S for Japan and JM1FD for the USA VIN), featured an updated body design. The 13B-REW was the first-ever mass-produced sequential twin-turbocharger system to export from Japan, boosting power to 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) in 1993 and finally 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) by the time production ended in Japan in 2002.

The FD RX-7 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year. When Playboy first reviewed the FD RX-7 in 1993, they tested it in the same issue as the [then] new Dodge Viper. In that issue, Playboy declared the RX-7 to be the better of the two cars. It went on to win Playboy's Car of the Year for 1993. The FD RX-7 also made Car and Driver's Ten Best list for 1993 through 1995, for every year in which it was sold state-side. June 2007 Road & Track proclaimed "The ace in Mazda's sleeve is the RX-7, a car once touted as the purest, most exhilarating sports car in the world."[citation needed] After its introduction in 1991, it won the Automotive Researchers' and Journalists' Conference Car of the Year award in Japan.

In Japan, sales were affected by the fact that this series RX-7 no longer complied with Japanese Government dimension regulations, and Japanese buyers were liable for yearly taxes for driving a wider car compared to previous generations. As the RX-7 was now considered an upper-level luxury sportscar due to the increased width dimensions, Mazda offered two smaller sports cars, the Eunos Roadster, and the Eunos Presso hatchback.

The sequential twin turbocharged system, introduced on this series in 1992, was a very complex piece of engineering, developed with the aid of Hitachi and previously used on the exclusive to Japan Cosmo series (JC Cosmo=90–95). The system was composed of two turbochargers, one to provide boost at low RPM. The second unit was on standby until the upper half of the rpm range during full throttle acceleration. The first turbocharger provided 10 psi (0.7 bar) of boost from 1800 rpm, and the second turbocharger was activated at 4000 rpm and also provided 10 psi (0.7 bar). The changeover process occurred at 4500 rpm, 8 psi (0.6 bar), was smooth, and provided linear acceleration and a wide torque curve throughout the entire rev range.

Handling in the FD was regarded as world-class, and it is still regarded as being one of the finest handling and the best balanced cars of all time.[citation needed] The continued use of the front-midship engine and drivetrain layout, combined with a 50:50 front-rear weight distribution ratio and low center of gravity, made the FD a very competent car at the limits.

Australia had a special high-performance version of the RX-7 in 1995, dubbed the RX-7 SP. This model was developed as a homologated road-going version of the factory race cars used in the 12-hour endurance races held at Bathurst, New South Wales, beginning in 1991 for the 1995 event held at Eastern Creek, Sydney, New South Wales. An initial run of 25 'originals' were made, and later an extra 10 were built by Mazda due to demand. The RX-7 SP produced 204 kW (274 hp) and 357 N·m (263 lb·ft) of torque, compared to the 176 kW (236 hp) and 294 N·m (217 lb·ft) of the standard version. Other changes included a race-developed carbon fibre nose cone and rear spoiler, a carbon fibre 120 L fuel tank (as opposed to the 76 L tank in the standard car), a 4.3:1-ratio rear differential, 17-inch wheels, larger brake rotors and calipers. An improved intercooler, exhaust, and modified ECU were also included. Weight was reduced significantly with the aid of further carbon fibre usage including lightweight vented bonnet and Recaro seats to reduce weight to 1150 kg (from 1250 kg). It was a serious road-going race car that matched their rival Porsche 911 RS CS for the final year Mazda officially entered. The formula paid off when the RX-7 SP won the title, giving Mazda the winning 12hr trophy for a fourth straight year. The winning car also gained a podium finish at the international tarmac rally Targa Tasmania months later. A later special version, the Bathurst R, was released in 2001 to commemorate this, in Japan only.

In the United Kingdom, for 1992, customers were offered only one version of the FD, which was based on a combination of the US touring and the base model. For the following year, in a bid to speed up sales, Mazda reduced the price of the RX-7 to £25,000, down from £32,000, and refunded the difference to those who bought the car before that was announced. The FD continued to be imported to the UK until 1996. In 1998, for a car that had suffered from slow sales when it was officially sold, with a surge of interest and the benefit of a newly introduced SVA scheme, the FD would become so popular that there were more parallel and grey imported models brought into the country than Mazda UK had ever imported.

  • Series 6 (1991–1995) was exported throughout the world and had the highest sales. In Japan, Mazda sold the RX-7 through its ɛ̃fini brand as the ɛ̃fini RX-7. Models in Japan included the Type R, the top-of-the-range Type RZ, the Type RB, the A-spec and the Touring X, which came with a four-speed automatic reducing power to 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp). The others ran on the standard 265 PS (195 kW; 261 hp) engine with a five-speed manual gearbox. Only the 1993–1995 model years were sold in the U.S. and Canada. Series 6 came with 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) and 294 N·m (217 lb·ft). In the UK, only 124 examples of this model were sold through the official Mazda network. Only one spec. was available and it included twin oil-coolers, electric sunroof, cruise control and the rear storage bins in place of the back seats.
  • In 1993, three North American models were offered; the "base", the touring, and the R models. The touring FD included a sunroof, fog lights, leather seats, a rear window wiper and a Bose Acoustic Wave system. The R (R1 in 1993 and R2 in 1994–95) models featured stiffer suspensions, an aerodynamics package, purple-hued microfiber seats, and Z-rated tires. In 1994, a PEG (performance equipment group) model was offered. This model featured leather seats and a sunroof. It did not include the fog lights or Bose stereo of the touring package. In 1995, the touring package was replaced by the PEP (popular equipment package). The PEP package contained leather seats, sunroof and fog lights, but didn't have the Bose Stereo nor the rear window wiper.
Series 6 (1991–1995)
Model Power Torque Gearbox Weight
Type R 195 kW (261 hp; 265 PS) 294 N·m (217 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,150 kg (2,500 lb)
Type RZ
Type RB
A-Spec
Touring X 188 kW (252 hp; 255 PS) 294 N·m (217 lb·ft) 4-speed automatic
SP * 204 kW (274 hp; 278 PS) 357 N·m (263 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,050 kg (2,500 lb)

* Australia only, 1995 build

  • Series 7 (1996–1998) included minor changes to the car. Updates included a simplified vacuum routing manifold and a 16-bit ECU allowing for increased boost which netted an extra 10 PS (7 kW). In Japan, the Series 7 RX-7 was marketed under the Mazda and ɛ̃fini brand name. The Series 7 was also sold in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. Series 7 RX-7s were produced only in right-hand-drive configuration.
  • Series 8 (January 1999– August 2002) was the final series, and was only available in the Japanese market. More efficient turbochargers were installed, while improved intercooling and radiator cooling was made possible by a revised frontal area. The seats, steering wheel, and front and rear lights were all changed. The rear spoiler was modified and gained adjustability. The top-of-the-line "Type RS" came equipped with Bilstein suspension and 17-inch wheels as standard equipment, and reduced weight to 1,120 kg (2,469 lb). Power was increased with the addition of a 16 bit ecu and upgraded (high flow) turbos, 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) with 313.8 N·m (231 lb·ft) of torque as per the maximum Japanese limit. The Type RS had a brake upgrade by increasing rotor diameter front and rear to 314 mm (12.4 in) and front rotor thickness from 22 mm (0.9 in) to 32 mm (1.3 in). The Type RS version also sported a higher ratio differential, providing a significant reduction in its 0–100 km/hr time. The gearbox was also modified, 5th gear was made longer to reduce cruising rpm and improve fuel efficiency. The very limited edition Type RZ version included all the features of the Type RS, but at a lighter weight (at 1100 kg). It also featured custom gun-metal colored BBS wheels and a custom red racing themed interior. Further upgrades included a new 16-bit ECU and ABS system upgrades. The improved ABS system worked by braking differently on each wheel, allowing the car better turning during braking. The effective result made for safer driving for the average buyer. Easily the most collectible of all the RX-7s was the last 1,500 run-out specials. Dubbed the "Spirit R", they combined all the "extra" features Mazda had used on previous limited-run specials with new exclusive features. They still command amazing[clarification needed] prices on the Japanese used car scene years later. Sticker prices when new were 3,998,000 yen for Type-A and B and 3,398,000 yen for Type-C. Mazda's press release said "The Type-A Spirit R model is the ultimate RX-7, boasting the most outstanding driving performance in its history."
  • There are three models of "Spirit R": the "Type A", "Type B", and "Type C". The "Type A" is a two-seater with a 5-speed manual transmission. It features lightweight red trim Recaro front seats as seen in the earlier RZ models. The "Type B" has a 2+2 seat configuration and also sports a five-speed manual transmission. The "Type C" is also a 2+2, but has a four-speed automatic transmission. Of the 1500 Spirit R's made, over 1000 were Type A's. An exclusive Spirit R paint color, Titanium Grey, adorned over 700 of the 1500 cars sold.

In Japan the FD3S production span is categorized into 6 models: #1 from 1991/12, #2 from 1993/08, #3 from 1995/03, #4 from 1996/01, #5 from 1998/12 and #6 from 2000/10. The model number (1 to 6) actually shows as the first digit of the 6 digits long JDM VIN, for example in VIN# FD3S-ABCDEF the A is the model number. A total of 9 limited editions (type RZ in 1992/10 (300 cars), RZ 1993/10 (150), R-II Bathurst 1994/09 (350), R Bathurst X 1995/07 (777), RB Bathurst X 1997/01 (700), RS-R 1997/10 (500), RZ 2000/10 (300), R Bathurst R 2001/08 (500), Spirit R 2002/04 (1500)) and 2 special editions (Bathurst R 1995/02, R Bathurst 2001/12) were produced.[8][9]

RX-7 Spirit R Type A and Japanese Steam locomotive "C11"
Series 8 (1999–2002)
Model Power Torque Gearbox Weight Seating Brakes Wheels Tyres
Type RB 195 kW
(261 hp; 265 PS)
294 N·m (217 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,310 kg (2,888 lb) 2+2 294 mm (11.6 in) 16x8.0JJ (front)
16x8.0JJ (rear)
225/50R16 92V(front)
225/50R16 92V(rear)
Type RB 4AT 188 kW
(252 hp; 255 PS)
294 N·m (217 lb·ft) 4-speed automatic 1,340 kg (2,954 lb) 2+2 294 mm (11.6 in) 16x8.0JJ (front)
16x8.0JJ (rear)
225/50R16 92V(front)
225/50R16 92V(rear)
Type RB-S 195 kW
(261 hp; 265 PS)
294 N·m (217 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,320 kg (2,888 lb) 2+2 294 mm (11.6 in) 16x8.0JJ (front)
16x8.0JJ (rear)
225/50ZR16 (front)
225/50ZR16 (rear)
Type R 206 kW
(276 hp; 280 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,150 kg (2,500 lb) 2+2 294 mm (11.6 in) 16x8.0JJ (front)
16x8.0JJ (rear)
205/50ZR16 (front)
225/50ZR16 (rear)
Type R
Bathurst
206 kW
(276 hp; 280 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,050 kg (2,200 lb) 2+2 294 mm (11.6 in) 16x8.0JJ (front)
16x8.0JJ (rear)
225/50ZR16 (front)
225/50ZR16 (rear)
Type R
Bathurst R
206 kW
(276 hp; 280 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,050 kg (2,200 lb) 2+2 294 mm (11.6 in) 16x8.0JJ (front)
16x8.0JJ (rear)
225/50ZR16 (front)
225/50ZR16 (rear)
Type RS 206 kW
(276 hp; 280 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,150 kg (2,500 lb) 2+2 314 mm (12.4 in) 17x8.0JJ (front)
17x8.5JJ (rear)
235/45R17 (front)
255/40R17 (rear)
Type RZ 206 kW
(276 hp; 280 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,110 kg (2,447 lb) 2 314 mm (12.4 in) 17x8.0JJ (front)
17x8.5JJ (rear)
235/45R17 (front)
255/40R17 (rear)
Spirit R
(Type A)
206 kW
(276 hp; 280 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,270 kg (2,469 lb) 2 314 mm (12.4 in) 17x8.0JJ (front)
17x8.5JJ (rear)
235/45R17 (front)
255/40R17 (rear)
Spirit R
(Type B)
206 kW
(276 hp; 280 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 5-speed manual 1,280 kg (2,469 lb) 2+2 314 mm (12.4 in) 17x8.0JJ (front)
17x8.5JJ (rear)
235/45R17 (front)
255/40R17 (rear)
Spirit R
(Type C)
188 kW
(252 hp; 255 PS)
314 N·m (231 lb·ft) 4-speed automatic 1,280 kg (2,822 lb) 2+2 294 mm (11.6 in) 17x8.0JJ (front)
17x8.5JJ (rear)
235/45R17 (front)
255/40R17 (rear)

Motorsport[edit]

Winning RX-7 in the GT3 class at the 2010 SCCA National Championship Runoffs.

Racing versions of the first-generation RX-7 were entered at the prestigious 24 hours of Le Mans endurance race. The first outing for the car, equipped with a 13B engine, failed by less than one second to qualify in 1979. The next year, a 12A-equipped RX-7 not only qualified, it placed 21st overall. That same car did not finish in 1981, along with two more 13B cars. Those two cars were back for 1982, with one 14th place finish and another DNF. The RX-7 Le Mans effort was replaced by the 717C prototype for 1983. In 1991, Mazda made racing history becoming the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to win the 24 hours of Le Mans. The car was a 4-rotor prototype, the 787B. To this day, Mazda is still the only Japanese manufacturer to have ever won the prestigious 24 hour Le Mans race outright. Mazda is also the only manufacturer to win the 24 hours of Le Mans race using something other than a reciprocating piston engine.

Mazda began racing RX-7s in the IMSA GTU series in 1979. In its first year, RX-7s placed first and second at the 24 Hours of Daytona, and claimed the GTU series championship. The car continued winning, claiming the GTU championship seven years in a row. The RX-7 took the GTO championship ten years in a row from 1982. In addition to this, a GTX version was developed, named the Mazda RX-7 GTP; this was unsuccessful, and the GTP version of the car was also unsuccessful. The RX-7 has won more IMSA races than any other car model. In the USA SCCA competition RX-7s were raced with great success by Don Kearney in the NE Division and John Finger in the SE Division. Pettit Racing won the GT2 Road Racing Championship in 1998. The car was a 93 Mazda RX-7 street car with only bolt-on accessories. At season end Pettit had 140 points—63 points more than the 2nd place team. This same car finished the Daytona Rolex 24-hour race 4 times.

The RX-7 also fared well at the Spa 24 Hours race. Three Savanna/RX-7s were entered in 1981 by Tom Walkinshaw Racing. After hours of battling with several BMW 530i's and Ford Capris, the RX-7 driven by Pierre Dieudonné and Tom Walkinshaw won the event. Mazda had turned the tables on BMW, who had beaten Mazda's Familia Rotary to the podium eleven years earlier at the same event. TWR's prepared RX-7s also won the British Touring Car Championship in 1980 and 1981, driven by Win Percy.

Canadian/Australian touring car driver Allan Moffat was instrumental in bringing Mazda into the Australian touring car scene which ran to Group C regulations unique to Australia. Over a four year span beginning in 1981, Moffat took the Mazda RX-7 to victory in the 1983 Australian Touring Car Championship, as well as a trio of Bathurst 1000 podiums, in 1981 (3rd with Derek Bell), 1983 (second with Yoshimi Katayama) and 1984 (third with former motorcycle champion Gregg Hansford). In 1983, Peter McLeod drove his RX-7 to win the 1983 Australian Endurance Championship, while Moffat would follow up by winning in 1984. Australia's adoption of international Group A regulations, combined with Mazda's reluctance to homologate a Group A RX-7, ended Mazda's active participation in the touring car series at the end of the 1984 season.

The RX-7 even made an appearance in the World Rally Championship. The car finished 11th on its debut at the RAC Rally in Wales in 1981. Group B received much of the focus for the first part of the 1980s, but Mazda did manage to place third at the 1985 Acropolis Rally, and when the Group B was folded, its Group A-based replacement, the Familia 4WD claimed the victory at Swedish Rally in both 1987 and 1989.

Revivals[edit]

Mazda has made several references to a revival of the RX-7 in various forms over the years since the RX-7 was discontinued. In November 2012, MX-5 program manager Nobuhiro Yamamoto indicated that Mazda was working on a 16X based RX-7, with 300 horsepower.[10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Long, Brian (2004). RX-7. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing. p. 206. ISBN 1-904788-03-3. 
  2. ^ Lewis-George, Elliot (2013). "Mazda Heroes #1 - Ikuo Maeda". In Berg, Nik. Zoom-Zoom Magazine (16): 6. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  3. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (March 10, 1983). Automobil Revue '83 (in German/French) 78. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. p. 363. ISBN 3-444-06065-3. 
  4. ^ Development of Low-Emission Rotary Engines”, Mazda Motor Corporation
  5. ^ Dieudonne, Pierre (1983-12-15). "Ballade Japonaise: à la découverte des Mazda Turbo" [Japanese ballad: Discovering the Mazda Turbos]. Le Moniteur de l'Automobile (in French) (Brussels, Belgium: Editions Auto-Magazine) 34 (784): 40. 
  6. ^ Dieudonne, pp. 43-44
  7. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=UDHl8kXiaccC&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=rx-7+october+1991+mazda&source=bl&ots=QdpC5SwoSr&sig=CpYlZ-O5DAP0Mll1A3SLFEaUu7U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MPbcUpDpLYLgsASa_oD4CQ&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=rx-7%20october%201991%20mazda&f=false
  8. ^ I Love FD3S RX-7, book in Japanese ISBN 4-87366-999-5
  9. ^ Mazda official RX-7 chronology page http://www.mazda.co.jp/philosophy/history/rx-7/chronology/
  10. ^ http://www.leftlanenews.com/new-mazda-rx-7-to-launch-by-2017.html
  11. ^ http://www.carbuzz.com/news/2012/11/4/Mazda-RX-7-to-Return-in-2017-7711438/

External links[edit]