Raavanan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the 2010 Tamil film. For the mythological character from the Hindu epic Ramayana, see Ravana. For the 2006 Malayalam film, see Ravanan (film).
Raavanan
Raavanposter.jpg
Theatrical poster
Directed by Mani Ratnam
Produced by Mani Ratnam
Sharada Trilok
Written by Mani Ratnam (Screenplay)
Suhasini (Dialogues)
Kambar (Story)
Starring Vikram
Prithviraj
Aishwarya Rai
Karthik
Prabhu
Priyamani
Music by A. R. Rahman
Cinematography Santosh Sivan
V. Manikandan
Edited by Sreekar Prasad
Production
  company
Madras Talkies
Distributed by BIG Pictures
Sony Pictures
Ayngaran International
Release date(s)
  • 18 June 2010 (2010-06-18)
Running time 130 minutes
Country India
Language Tamil
Budget INR350 million (US$5.9 million)[1]
Box office INR650 million (US$11 million)[2]

Raavanan (English: Ravana) is a 2010 Indian Tamil thriller film written, produced, and directed by Mani Ratnam. The film features Vikram, Aishwarya Rai and Prithviraj in the lead roles, with a supporting cast led by Karthik, Prabhu and Priyamani. The film was also made simultaneously in Hindi as Raavan, with a slightly different cast. Furthermore, the film was dubbed and released in Telugu as Villain, with all three versions releasing simultaneously on 18 June 2010.

The film follows the crux of the epic Ramayana, with a ruthless police officer on the chase to find a tribal leader and lawbreaker, who has kidnapped his wife. Veeraiya, the kidnapper and his motive for the kidnap has been led on by the death of his sister, as a result of police custodial torture and brutal rape. The film explores the search by the officer, whilst exploring the changing emotions that the three protagonists experience with each other, leading to a riveting climax, situated in the jungle.

Raavanan was announced in February 2008, amidst much hype of the celebrated director, Mani Ratnam's return to Tamil films, whilst Vikram's and Aishwarya Rai's selection in the lead roles, creating more anticipation. Shooting began soon after, and took place in various locations with a record number of extras in areas including Chalakudy, Kerala and Ooty, Tamil Nadu amongst other regions throughout India.

Plot[edit]

The film opens with shots showing Veeraiya (Vikram) jumping off a cliff into water. His gang is busy distracting the police. Police vehicles are set ablaze and women seduce policemen into a trap whereby Veera's henchmen attack. The police are ruthlessly murdered. Raagini (Aishwarya Rai Bachchan), whilst on a boating trip, is kidnapped by Veera. Dev Prakash (Prithviraj Sukumaran), her husband and a senior police officer, is informed of the incident.

A brief montage of sorts showcases the story of Veeraiya. He is seen as a local hero, who runs a parallel govt in areas near Tirunelveli, with his brothers – Singarasu (Prabhu Ganesan) and Sakkarai (Munna). Though considered a terrorist by the local police, Veeraiyya is respected by the villagers. He kidnaps Raagini hoping to avenge the death of his sister Vennila (Priyamani). He brings her to the edge of a cliff to shoot her to death. She refuses to die at his hands and jumps off the cliff into the water far below, hoping to kill herself, but fails to do so. This causes Veera to hold off the murder, being unable to kill someone who has no fear of death.

Dev and his team enter the forests with the aid of Gnanaprakasam (Karthik Muthuraman), a local forest guard. Gnanaprakasam plays the role of Hanuman from the traditional epic. Despite searching deep in the forests, Dev is unable to hunt down Veera.

Meanwhile, Raagini develops feelings for Veera after she hears the story of his sister's death. Dev had led an encounter against Veera during Vennila's wedding. Dev's shot grazes Veera in the neck. Veera, fighting for his life, is unable to protect his sister, and he is led out of the fiasco by his gang. The police pressurise Vennila into revealing Veera's hideout. When she refuses, she is subjected to physical and sexual assault. Veera returns home to find Vennila distraught and traumatised. The next day, she commits suicide by drowning in a nearby well.

Unhappy with the way his brother is leading a war causing distress to his gang, Sakkarai offers a truce to Dev. Dev initially seems to agree but, when Sakkarai comes out in the open, Dev shoots him to death – revealing that he considers the destruction of Veera as more important than saving his wife.

Veera and Singarasu are enraged and attack Dev's camp; they wipe it out completely. A final confrontation between Veera and Dev takes place on a rickety bridge – where Veera triumphs over Dev – when he decides not to let Dev die. He tells Dev he is letting him live because of his wife. Dev manages to extricate himself out and finds Raagini bound and tied up – with Veera leaving her.

Dev is not entirely happy and, while returning to their hometown of Mettukudi, he accuses Raagini of infidelity and informs her that it was Veera who told him so. Furious, Raagini leaves Dev to meet Veera through Singarasu. She manages to meet him and asks him why he had accused her. Veera tells her he said that he had protected Raagini safely for the fourteen days and nothing else. He quickly realises that Dev lied, hoping Raagini would lead him to his hideout.

Dev appears with a police team and confront the duo. Raagini tries to save Veera, but he pushes her out of the line of fire. He is shot multiple times, whereby he falls off the cliff. The touching climax of the movie shows Raagini's true feelings coming to surface: She is seen trying with all her might to save Veera. Although Veera tries to grab her hand amidst the gun fire, he fails to do so, dying without touching Raagini throughout the time he knew her. (In the last song, "Naan Varuvaen," it says he, Veera, will be back to touch her, with his life and soul.) Veera, content that Raagini has feelings for him, falls to his death with a smile.

Cast[edit]

Pre-production[edit]

Development[edit]

During the making of his 2007 biopic Guru starring Abhishek Bachchan and Aishwarya Rai, Mani Ratnam had finalised a script for his next directorial venture titled Lajjo.[3] Based on a short story by Ismat Chughtai,[4] it was a musical period film set in the desert and was to star Aamir Khan and Kareena Kapoor in the lead.[5] Though the film was slated to go on floors after the release of the former,[6] there were reports of a fall-out between Ratnam and Khan due to creative differences. While cinematographer P. C. Sreeram denied the reports,[7] the film's would-be lyricist Gulzar said there were actually problems with acquiring the copyright of the story,[8] and composer A. R. Rahman even confirmed to having completed 80% of the film score.[9] Yet, the project was put on the back burner for reasons unknown.[10][11]

Following the critical and commercial success of Guru, Ratnam announced his next film in February 2008.[12] A modern day retelling of the mythological epic Ramayana, the film again features the real life couple in the lead.[13] The film was initially planned to be made only in Hindi and the idea for the Tamil version came later.[14] In January 2009, while the film was in the making, it was further decided to dub the Tamil version to Telugu making it a tri-lingual.[15][16] While the film was yet to be titled,[17] it was widely reported in the media that the Tamil version was titled Ashokavanam in reference to the place where Sita was held captive by Ravana. Further reports emerged stating that since director Kasthuri Raja has already registered the title for his project, Ratnam has requested him for using the title.[18] Later, Vikram, the lead actor, clarified in an interview that the film was tentatively titled Ravana but was wrongly reported as Ashokavanam.[19] Subsequently, the film was titled Raavan in Hindi, Raavanan in Tamil and Villain in Telugu.[20]

While the plot is inspired by Ramayana, the story is narrated from Ravana's perspective making him the protagonist.[21] The film is centered on the 'Ashokavanam' episode where Ravana kidnaps Sita and keeps her in Asokavanam. Later Rama ventures to save his wife and bring her back.

Character Map
Actors Roles
Vikram Ravana
Rai Sita
Prithviraj Rama
Karthik Hanuman
Prabhu Kumbhakarna
Munna Vibhishana
Priyamani Surpanakha

Casting[edit]

While Bachchan and Vikram were roped in for the contrasting leads in Hindi, Ratnam asked them to swap roles in Tamil.[14] Though Bachchan agreed initially, he grew skeptical being unfamiliar with the language.[22] Eventually Prithviraj was cast in his place.[23] Rai plays the female lead in both versions of the film.[24] After a brief hiatus, Karthik made a comeback with this film, collaborating with Ratnam for the third time after Mouna Ragam and Agni Natchathiram.[25] Prabhu was cast in a prominent role, joining hands with Ratnam after Agni Natchathiram and Anjali.[26] While Priyamani was cast as Ravana's sister,[27] Munna was signed up to play a role synonymous with Vibhishana.[28] Bipasha Basu was to play the role of Mandodari,[29][30][31] which was later scrapped to keep the film short.[32][33][34][35][36] Comedian Vaiyapuri plays a transgender.[37]

While the cinematography was handled by V. Manikandan[38] and was later taken over by Santosh Sivan when the former left the project,[39] editing was done by Sreekar Prasad.[40] Rai's costumes were exclusively designed by fashion designer Sabyasachi Mukherjee.[41] Choreography was by Ganesh Acharya, Brinda, Shobana,[42] and Astad Deboo. Peter Hein and Shyam Koushal choreographed the action sequences and Samir Chanda took care of production design.

Production[edit]

The film was predominantly shot outdoors in various hitherto unseen locations in and around India.[43] Shooting took place at Tumkur (Karnataka), Orchha near Jhansi and the forests of Madhya Pradesh,[44] Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra.[45] It was also reported that Ratnam had planned to shoot at Sri Lanka[46][47] but decided against it owing to insurgency by the rebel group LTTE.[48] But Ratnam dismissed the reports as rumours.[49]

Principal photography commenced in October 2008, in the forests near Kochi, Kerala. A few scenes were filmed at Athirappilly Falls, Ratnam's favourite location. Incidentally, he has shot for the songs 'Jiya Jale' in Dil Se and 'Barso Re' in Guru at the same location.[48] Forest officials banned the shooting at Malayattoor, an eco-tourism centre, for violating rules and constructing temporary huts,[50][51][52][53][54] delaying the shoot for 11 days until the issues were resolved on 22 October 2008, while laying down reworked rules.[55][56][57] The second leg of the shooting at Ooty that began in December 2008 was also delayed as local cab drivers protested the use of film federation (FEFSI) vehicles which affected their business,[58][59] forcing a dejected Ratnam to call off the shoot temporarily and move on to Hogenakkal Falls.[60][61] In February 2009, the crew advanced to Kolkata where the song 'Kalvare' was shot by the banks of Hooghly at Agarpara.[62][63][64][65] Later, as the shooting resumed and progressed at Ooty, Ratnam fell ill in April 2009 and was hospitalised at Apollo Hospitals,[66][67][68] causing a further delay of 47 days until filming resumed in June 2009 following his recovery.[69] As the numerous delays affected his other projects, DOP Manikandan walked out in May and was replaced by Santosh Sivan.[70][71] By July, the crew moved back to Kerala,[72] to reshoot a few scenes at Chalakudy as Ratnam was reportedly unsatisfied after seeing the rushes.[49][73] This time around, heavy rains played spoilsport leading to another delay in filming.[74] Moreover, when an elephant brought for the shoot ran amok killing the mahout,[75] the Animal Welfare Board served a show cause notice to the production company (Madras Talkies) for not taking permission to use elephants.[76][77]

The film began its last schedule in August 2009 at the Malshej Ghats in Maharashtra where the climax sequence was shot,[78] the final encounter taking place on a wooden bridge.[79] Production designer Samir Chanda built three identical bridges to facilitate the scene to be captured from different angles.[80][81] Though initially planned to be built either in Sri Lanka, Australia or South Africa, the bridge was constructed in Mumbai to reduce costs.[82][83] While bad weather and heavy rains disrupted shoot for a few days,[84] the forest department filed cases against some crew members for trespassing.[85][86] The film went into post-production by the end of 2009.[87]

There are numerous action sequences performed by the actors.[88] The actors suffered from real cuts and bruises that they din't need make up.[89][90] For his introduction scene, the protagonist has to jump from a 90-foot high cliff near the Hogenakkal Falls into the river below.[91] This risky dive was performed by a body double, Balram, a Bangalore based former national diving champion.[92] Kalarippayattu, a martial art form origaniting from Kerala, was also featured in the film. Sunil Kumar, a Kalari gym trainer from Kozhikode, trained the actors.[93] Contemporary dancer Astad Deboo choreographed a stunt scene for the film.[94][95][96][97]

Vikram got his hair cropped short for his look and it was kept under wraps until the release.[98] Supporting actor Munna tonsured his head and went bald for a scene.[99] Rai was training in Tamil to voice her lines. While Ratnam was impressed with her Tamil and had planned to let her dub,[100][101][102][103] actress Rohini, who had earlier dubbed for Rai in Iruvar and Guru, ended up lending her voice.[104][105]

Release[edit]

Marketing[edit]

A 10 min teaser was released for a promo event.[106][107] The film look was unveiled at Cannes Film Festival.[108] Villain promotion in Andhra.[109]

Film festival screenings[edit]

The film screened at 67th Venice Film Festival.[110][111] The film was well received at Venice where the audience gave it a thunderous applause after it was screened.[112] The master filmmaker was honoured with the Jaeger-LeCoultre Glory to the Filmmaker Award, an award shared by the likes of legends like Takeshi Kitano, Abbas Kiarostami and Sylvester Stallone.[113][114][115] Later, the film has been screened at the 15th Pusan International Film Festival.[116][117][118] Indian Panorama Film Festival.[119] The film was premiered at the 10th Annual Mahindra Indo-American Arts Council Film Festival in New York City.[120][121] Jim Luce praised mani ratnam's work and mentioned 'Raavanan is a must see international film of 2010.[122] 29th San Francisco Asian American Film Festival.[123][124]

Theatrical release[edit]

Prior to its release, the film was given a "U" (Universal) certificate by the Central Board of Film Certification.[125] Raavanan released in 375 screens worldwide. The overseas distribution rights of Raavanan was sold for a record price of $1.5 million to Ayngaran International.[126]Raavanan was previewed at the Devi-Sri Devi Cinema Complex in Chennai, where it received a standing ovation led by the actor Rajnikanth.[127][128][129][130] The film was also previewed at Inox and was attended by celebrities from tinsel town.[131] It was released worldwide on 18 June 2010[132] in 375 Screens (225 Screens in India and 150 Screens Overseas).[133] 'The Telugu version Villain released with 215 screens in Andhra and 25 screens overseas. In the US, it was distributed by Big Cinemas.[134][135][136] Raj TV bought the satellite rights for $1.1 million.[137]

Controversy[edit]

It was agreed to screen the film in Bangalore in across 21 screens.[138] But both the versions were screened in more centres, the Karnataka Film Chamber of Commerce (KFCC) approached the court.[139] The film chamber banned the exhibition completely.[140] The Competition Commission of India (CCI), in an interim order, stayed the chamber ban and permitted Reliance Big Entertainment Limited (RBEL) to exhibit the film in 36 cinemas.[141] This order was to be in effect till 22 June[142][143]

The film also created a furore in Sri Lanka. Since Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek and Aishwarya boycotted the IIFA awards that was held in Sri Lanka, the film release was protested and theatres were torched.[144][145][146][147][148] Films of those who attended IIFA in Sri Lanka were banned in Tamil Nadu.[149]

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

The film received positive to mixed reviews. Malathi Rangarajan of The Hindu called Ravanan a "masterstroke".[150] A. Srivathsan said that it was "Rai's most genuine performance till date".[151] Deepak Kumaar's review.[152] Hindustan Times review.[153] The CNN-IBN stated that "The film is certainly not the best from Mani Ratnam's Madras Talkies, but it can't be dismissed as shabby. Even if this Raavanan has no shades of grey, overall the film falls under the greyish form of art from Mani Ratnam enterprises, and Aishwarya Rai Bachchan plays the strong woman who does not fear her kidnapper. Her performance is worth a mention but her male co-stars steal the show".[154] IANS praises Mani Ratnam's style, but calls some of the performances "inadequate".[155] Twitch Film review.[156] Madurai Messenger review.[157] Rai's performance was also noted as a highlight of the film according to Rediff, with her performance placing her in a "different league" than other Bollywood actresses.[158] Indiaglitz praised the music, cast, dialogues and cinematography, but stated that the first half was "an utter waste of film reels".[159] The cinematography was called "brilliant" by Behindwoods, although they found a "lack of 'Tamil' feel in the film and its music".[160] Sify rated the film as above average and noted "the film’s best-written role, Aishwarya Rai has made a sensational comeback as Ragini, is mesmeric and has come out with an award-winning performance. Prithviraj is the ideal foil for Vikram, and is good. The movie lacks the Mani Ratnam touch in the story and screenplay department, and has a wobbly first half, where the story just does not move. The last 10 minutes are the best part of this 2 hours 7 minutes film".[161] Film critic Sudhish Kamath review.[162] On Rotten Tomatoes the film has a rating of 62% with 8 fresh and 5 rotten reviews.[163]

The Tamil version was regarded as the better version of the film,[158] with critics particularly applauding the lead performances and the technical work of the film.[161][164]

Box office[edit]

Unlike its Hindi counterpart, which tanked at the box office, the Tamil version tasted success in the South.[165][166] During its opening weekend on 15 screens in the Chennai, it was the number one film and netted INR9 million (US$150,000), an opening weekend record then.[167][168] Though the film opened to packed houses, it slumped a little due to mixed reviews but later picked up following a local holiday.[169] The film collected $8 million at the box office in the first month of release[170] including $400,000 from Kerala.[171][172] It went on to make over INR 600 million at the worldwide box office and remained one of the top Tamil grossers of the year.[2] Uk opening weekend.[173] UK boxoffice second week.[174] New York boxoffice.[175][176]

Accolades[edit]

Raavanan was one among the films shortlisted for the Academy Awards.[177][178] V. Manikandan won the Best Cinematography award in the Asia Pacific Screen Awards (APSA).[179][180][181][182] Karunanidhi praises.[183] Added to Austrian Film Museum.[184][185][186][187] Peter Hein world stunts award.[188][189][190][191]

58th Filmfare Awards South[192]
  • Won – Filmfare Best Actor Award – Vikram[193]
  • Won – Filmfare Best Male Playback Singer – Karthik
  • Nominated – Filmfare Best Actress Award – Aishwarya Rai
  • Nominated – Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award – Prithviraj Sukumaran
5th Vijay Awards
  • Won – Best Actor Award – Vikram
  • Nominated – Best Actress Award – Aishwarya Rai
  • Nominated – Best Cinematographer – Santhosh Sivan
  • Nominated – Best Male Playback Singer – Karthik
  • Nominated – Best Female Playback Singer – Anuradha Sriram
  • Nominated – Favorite Director – Mani Ratnam
  • Nominated – Favorite Actress – Aishwarya Rai

Soundtrack[edit]

Main article: Raavanan (soundtrack)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Raavanan Budget". IMDb. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  2. ^ a b "2010 — Top 20 Movies in Chennai Box office". Behindwoods. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  3. ^ Savitha Gautham (12 January 2007). "From real to reel". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  4. ^ Subhash K. Jha (11 April 2007). "Lajjo a double bonanza for Kareena". Hindustan Times. IANS. 
  5. ^ Faridoon Shahryar (7 August 2006). "Aamir, Kareena in Rathnam's Lajjo". IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  6. ^ Faridoon Shahryar (5 December 2006). "Mani Rathnam's 'Lajjo' to start in August, 2007". IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  7. ^ Sangeetha Devi. K (6 June 2007). "Through the master’s lens". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  8. ^ "Gulzar takes his poems to Japan". DNA India. IANS. 11 June 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  9. ^ Rachana Dubey (26 May 2007). "Lajjo has not been shelved: AR Rahman". Hindustan Times. 
  10. ^ "Lajjo shelved!". The Times of India. Mumbai Mirror. 26 May 2007. 
  11. ^ Vajir Singh (12 May 2007). "Whatever happened to Mani Ratnam's Lajjo?". Hindustan Times. 
  12. ^ "Abhishek-Aishwarya to play Ram-Sita in Mani Ratnam’s Ramayan". Zee News. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Ashok Rai (21 July 2008). "Ramayan retold". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Ziya Us Salam (18 June 2010). "Mani Exchange". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Mani Ratnam's 'Ashokavanam' in Telugu". IndiaGlitz. 23 January 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  16. ^ S. Aishwarya (4 June 2010). "In Kollywood, it's the season of the tri-lingual film". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  17. ^ Subhash K Jha (23 October 2008). "Mani is on their minds". Mid-day. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  18. ^ "Mani seeks Ashokavanam from Kasthuriraja". Behindwoods.com. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  19. ^ Namita Nivas (17 July 2009). "Crossing boundaries!". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  20. ^ "Why Mani Ratnam did not get the title?". Behindwoods. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  21. ^ Nikhil Raghavan (20 March 2009). "Itsy Bitsy: Epic Effort". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  22. ^ Harshikaa Udasi (11 June 2010). "Ab tak Bachchan". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  23. ^ "Prithviraj back as villain in Mani Ratnam's film". IndiaGlitz. 16 May 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  24. ^ "Raavan preview". Moviewood. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  25. ^ T. Krithika Reddy (28 May 2010). "Second coming". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  26. ^ "Prabhu on cloud nine". IndiaGlitz. 13 October 2008. 
  27. ^ Meena Iyer (31 August 2009). "Abhishek’s sister? Not me!". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  28. ^ P Sangeetha (24 June 2010). "Ash liked my work: Munna". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  29. ^ Vickey Lalwani (9 September 2009). "Bipasha is ‘Ravana’ Abhi’s wife". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  30. ^ Geety Sahgal (18 September 2009). "Bipasha Basu joins the cast of ‘Raavan’". The Indian Express. 
  31. ^ Baiju NT (11 September 2009). "Bipasha Basu as Mandodari". Galatta. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  32. ^ Meena Iyer (5 October 2009). "Bipasha's role in Raavan scrapped". The Times of India. 
  33. ^ "Not doing 'Raavan' an amicable decision: Bipasha". The Hindu. IANS. 11 October 2009. 
  34. ^ Dheeraj Juneja (7 October 2009). "Bipasha out of Raavan?". India Today. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  35. ^ "Bipasha Basu out of Raavan". Behindwoods. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  36. ^ "No Mandodari in Raavan". Behindwoods. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  37. ^ "Vaiyapuri plays a transgender". IndiaGlitz. 2 February 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  38. ^ K. Jeshi (1 November 2008). "Visuals speak". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  39. ^ "Santosh Sivan joins team 'Raavan'". IndiaGlitz. 19 May 2009. 
  40. ^ Subha J Rao (2 November 2010). "Master of montage". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  41. ^ Shefalee Vasudev (24 August 2009). "Khadi’s Refinement Lies In Its Humility". Outlook India. 
  42. ^ "Shobana turns Ash's choreographer". IndiaGlitz. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  43. ^ "Southern fare". The Indian Express. 2 November 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  44. ^ Nikhil Raghavan (23 January 2009). "Itsy Bitsy: Out in the woods". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  45. ^ Malathi Rangarajan (7 May 2010). "Raavan, a re-incarnation". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  46. ^ "Mani Ratnam’s ‘Raavan’ can turn a new chapter in Tourism". Sunday Times. 3 May 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  47. ^ "Maniratnam Ashokavanam to shoot in Srilanka". CineGola. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  48. ^ a b Gullu Gupshup (7 October 2008). "Ash, Abhishek to shoot in Kerala". Rediff. 
  49. ^ a b "Raavan goes to Chalakudy via Pollachi!". Sify. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  50. ^ "Forest officials stop film shooting". The Hindu. 12 October 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  51. ^ Nirmala Ravindran (13 October 2008). "Mani Ratnam forced to cancel shooting in Kerala". India Today. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  52. ^ "Mani Ratnam violates Kerala forest rules, shooting stopped". Zee News. IANS. 11 October 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  53. ^ "Conditional permission to Ratnam's film shoot in Kerala forest". Mathubhumi. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  54. ^ "Shooting of mani ratnam's Ravana banned". 13 October 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  55. ^ Prithwish Ganguly (4 November 2008). "Mani can shoot in the wilderness". DNA India. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  56. ^ "Mani's Ravana secrets!". Behindwoods. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2010. 
  57. ^ Ashok Rao (7 November 2008). "Shooting of Mani Ratnam’s ‘Raavan’ resumes after forest row". TopNews. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  58. ^ "Confrontation over transport". The Hindu. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  59. ^ "More problems for Mani Ratnam". Sify. 18 December 2008. 
  60. ^ "Mani Ratnam cancels film shooting after drivers' protest". Outlook India. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  61. ^ S. Aishwarya (4 July 2010). "Indian locations provide stunning backdrops for film shoots". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  62. ^ "Raavan brings Sita to town: Ash -Abhi to shoot for Mani". The Telegraph. 15 February 2009. 
  63. ^ "Missing in action: Abhishek!". The Telegraph. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  64. ^ Anindya Shankar Ray, Mohua Das (4 March 2009). "Watching you!". The Telegraph. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  65. ^ Priyanka Dasgupta (15 February 2009). "Mani ratnam to shoot Ravana". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  66. ^ Subhash K Jha (16 April 2009). "Mani walked out of recording... into hospital!". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  67. ^ PTI (15 April 2009). "Mani Ratnam recovering after complaints of breathing problem". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  68. ^ "Mani Ratnam admitted to hospital". The Hindu. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  69. ^ "Mani Ratnam shoots in Ooty!". Sify. 2 June 2009. 
  70. ^ Kunal M Shah, Bharti Dubey (20 May 2009). "Mani's distress call to Sivan". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  71. ^ Sreedhar Pillai (9 June 2010). "Raavanan happened by accident: Sivan". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  72. ^ Subhash K Jha (21 July 2009). "Ash sets aside work for Amar Singh". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  73. ^ Sonal Chawla (3 April 2009). "Chalo Chalakudy!". Mid Day. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  74. ^ "Rains spoil Raavan's mood". Hindustan Times. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  75. ^ "Mahot killed in 'Ravana' shooting". IndiaGlitz. 30 July 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  76. ^ "Mani Ratnam's 'Ravan' ends up in more trouble". The Indian Express. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  77. ^ "Mani Ratnam's film company served notice". NDTV. PTI. 30 July 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  78. ^ K. V. Vasudevan (25 September 2009). "Raavan climax at the historic Malshej Ghat". Galatta. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  79. ^ "Abhishek, Vikram fight on wooden bridge in Raavan". Oneindia. 2 June 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  80. ^ "The story of 'Raavan's 3 bridges". The New Indian Express. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  81. ^ "3 bridges, 2500 planks for climactic bridge-fight in Raavan". Bollywood Hungama. 2 June 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  82. ^ Subhash K. Jha (7 June 2010). "Abhi carried Ash to the Raavan bridge". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  83. ^ Subhash K Jha (20 August 2011). "Gods needed him to redesign heaven". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  84. ^ "Bad weather causes further delay in Raavan shoot". Bollywood Hungama. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  85. ^ "Forest Dept files cases against 14". Deccan Herald. PTI. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  86. ^ "Mani Ratnam’s film ‘Ravan’ in trouble in the forest area of Junnar taluka". The Punekar. 24 August 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  87. ^ Joginder Tuteja (21 August 2009). "Raavan embarks for last schedule, gears up for Apr-May'10 release". Bollywood Hungama. Archived from the original on 27 April 2010. 
  88. ^ "Raavan was my most challenging film to date: Abhishek Bachchan". Deccan Herald. IANS. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  89. ^ Jigar Shah (20 June 2010). "Shooting on the edge". Mid Day. Bollywood News Service. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  90. ^ "Aishwarya bruised on Raavana sets". Mid Day. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  91. ^ Prema Manmadhan (23 June 2010). "Ram-Ravanan up close". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  92. ^ Nandini Kumar (19 June 2010). "So who is the real hero?". DNA India. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  93. ^ Priya M Menon (13 December 2009). "Where the stars line up to learn Kalaripayattu". The Times of India. 
  94. ^ Subhash K Jha (27 July 2009). "Ash learns new steps!". The Times of India. 
  95. ^ Shilpa Krishnan (21 June 2010). "The dance choreographer who did a stunt scene". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  96. ^ Dipti Nagpaul D'souza (17 May 2010). "Deboo choreographed an escape sequence in Raavan". The Indian Express. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  97. ^ Riddhi Doshi (26 September 2009). "from the street to the stage". DNA India. 
  98. ^ Nikhil Raghavan (16 January 2009). "Contagious caps". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  99. ^ "Munna tonsures for 'Raavanan'". IndiaGlitz. 10 June 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  100. ^ Prithwish Ganguly (24 December 2008). "Mani floored by Ash's Tamil talk". DNA India. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  101. ^ Subhash K Jha (13 April 2010). "Ash dubs in Tamil". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  102. ^ "Aishwarya dubs in Tamil for 'Raavanan'". IndiaGlitz. 13 April 2010. 
  103. ^ Pichumani (27 December 2009). "Aish’s voice in ‘Ashokavanam’". kollynews. 
  104. ^ "The other face of Rohini". IndiaGlitz. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  105. ^ Meera Srinivasan (14 July 2010). "Success of dubbing artist lies in not letting audience know who you are". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  106. ^ Malathi Rangarajan (17 May 2010). "The run-up to Raavanan". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  107. ^ "Raavanan crew share their experiences". The Hindu. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  108. ^ PTI (14 May 2010). "Cannes fete off to a start with ‘Robin Hood'". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  109. ^ Yogendra Kalavalapalli (18 June 2010). "‘One-woman show' disappoints". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  110. ^ Asish Samanta (25 September 2010). "Raavanan enthralls Venice". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  111. ^ "Showcasing Raavan in Venice". Rediff. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  112. ^ "Raavan and Raavanan a big hit in film festivals". Bollywood Trade. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  113. ^ P Sangeetha (6 October 2010). "Raavanan goes to Korea". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  114. ^ "Mani Ratnam honoured at Venice Film Festival". Rediff. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  115. ^ "Ash, Abhishek cheer for Mani Ratnam in Cannes". Rediff. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  116. ^ "Raavanan at Pusan festival". The Hindu. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  117. ^ Lekha J. Shankar (5 November 2010). "French star steals the show". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  118. ^ "Raavanan at Pusan International Film Festival". NDTV. PTI. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  119. ^ Ziya Us Salam (4 March 2011). "Port calling: Indian Panorama Film Festival". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  120. ^ Sampurn Wire (20 October 2010). "Raavanan Will Be Screened At MIAAC 2010". Thaindian. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  121. ^ http://www.iaac.us/MIAAC2010/raavanan/ Tenth Annual MIAAC Film Festival
  122. ^ Jim Luce (16 November 2010). "Mani Ratnam's Raavanan: The Must-See International Film of 2010". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 November 2010. 
  123. ^ "Raavanan still a favorite". Behindwoods. 19 February 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  124. ^ "San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival". Center for Asian American Media. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  125. ^ Moviebuzz (5 June 2010). "13 days to Raavanan- Triple delight for Mani". Sify. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  126. ^ "10 Days to Raavanan  - Overseas sold!". Sify. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  127. ^ "Rajini sees 'Raavanan'". IndiaGlitz. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  128. ^ "Rajnikant gives standing ovation to 'Raavanan'". IndiaGlitz. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  129. ^ Moviebuzz (18 June 2010). "Rajinikanth watches Raavanan". Sify. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  130. ^ "Rajnikanth on Raavanan". Behindwoods. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  131. ^ Dev (20 June 2010). "The 10 headed monster reborn". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  132. ^ S. Aishwarya (15 June 2010). "Raavanan set to hit the screens on Friday". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  133. ^ IANS (17 June 2010). "Raavan to hit 2200 screens worldwide today". Hindustan Times. 
  134. ^ "Tamil, Telugu versions of Raavan to release in US". Hindustan Times. IANS. 12 June 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  135. ^ "BIG cinemas to release RAAVANAN and VILLAIN in USA". The Siasat Daily. 12 June 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  136. ^ "BIG cinemas to release RAAVANAN and VILLAIN in USA". Bollywood Trade. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  137. ^ "Raj TV grabs Raavanan for record price". Sify. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  138. ^ "Raavan to play in only 24 theatres in Bangalore". Rediff.com. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  139. ^ "KFCC moves court over film release". The Hindu. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  140. ^ Moviebuzz (14 June 2010). "4 Days to Raavanan- Bad news from B’lore!". Sify. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  141. ^ "KFCC barred from stopping Raavan show". The Times of India. TNN. 19 June 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  142. ^ "Raavan is now out of court". The Hindu. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  143. ^ "Competition Commission to Raavan's rescue". The Hindu. 19 June 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  144. ^ "Protests against ‘Raavanan’ in Lanka". The Navhind Times. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  145. ^ N. V. Subramanian (23 June 2010). "Raavanan and Ravana". The Diplomat. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  146. ^ "'Raavanan' faces protests in Sri Lanka, theatre torched". The Economic Times. PTI. 20 June 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  147. ^ "Lanka theatre torched ahead of Raavanan". CNN IBN. 20 June 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  148. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/raavanan-faces-protests-in-sri-lanka,-theatre-torched/1/102293.html
  149. ^ Sharadha Narayanan (18 June 2010). "Hey Ram! Raavanan escapes industry ban". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  150. ^ Malathi Rangarajan (19 June 2010). "A masterstroke yet again". The Hindu. 
  151. ^ A. Srivathsan (11 July 2010). "Promises not kept". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  152. ^ J. M. Deepak Kumaar (29 June 2010). "Raavanan - revisiting an epic". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  153. ^ Gautaman Bhaskaran (19 June 2010). "Gautaman Bhaskaran's Review: Raavanan". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  154. ^ Renju Joseph. "Vikram, Prithviraj excel in 'Raavanan'". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  155. ^ IANS (19 June 2010). "'Raavanan'  - compelling tale of modern-day Sita's plight". Sify. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  156. ^ Matthew Lee (6 February 2011). "Raavanan UK BluRay review". Twitch film. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  157. ^ Allen Worwood Somerset (July 2010). "Raavanan: Old Wine in New Bottle". Madurai Messenger. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  158. ^ a b Saisuresh Sivaswamy (18 June 2010). "Vikram's Raavanan is better, as is Prithviraj's Dev". Rediff. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  159. ^ "Raavanan - Ten Faced Persona". IndiaGlitz. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  160. ^ "Raavanan - Movie Review". Behindwoods. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  161. ^ a b Moviebuzz. "Raavanan: Not among Mani's best". Sify. Retrieved 31 June 2010. 
  162. ^ Sudhish Kamath (21 June 2010). "Raavanan: Epic Vacuity". Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  163. ^ "Raavanan 2010". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 31 June 2010. 
  164. ^ Pavithra Srinivasan. "Raavanan is all style, little substance". Rediff. Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  165. ^ "Limelight - Going places". The Telegraph. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  166. ^ Sangeetha Devi Dundoo (25 June 2010). "It's a bear run out there". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  167. ^ Movie Buzz (22 June 2010). "Chennai Box Office – June 18 to 25". Sify. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  168. ^ "Reliance: Raavan collects 38 crore, Raavanan: 11 crore; Final public verdict". IBOS network. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  169. ^ "A big relief for Raavanan!". The Times of India. TNN. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  170. ^ "Chennai Box Office Collections". Behindwoods. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  171. ^ Movie Buzz (25 June 2010). "Mani's Raavanan rocks Kerala!". Sify. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  172. ^ "Raavan performs better on Mani Ratnam's home turf". Business Standard. 22 June 2010. 
  173. ^ "UK Box Office: 18 - 20 June 2010". British Film Institute. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  174. ^ "UK Box office: Weekend of June 25, 2010 - June 27, 2010". The New York Times. Nielsen EDI, Inc. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  175. ^ "New York City Box office: Weekend of June 25, 2010 - June 27, 2010". The New York Times. Nielsen EDI, Inc. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  176. ^ "Raavanan: Box-Office". Screenrush. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  177. ^ "Peepli Live is India's official entry for Oscars". The Hindu. 25 September 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  178. ^ "Peepli Live deserved it: K-town". The Times of India. TNN. 26 September 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  179. ^ "India gets five nominations at Asia Pacific Screen Awards". Deccan Herald. IANS. 18 October 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  180. ^ Sampurn Wire (2 November 2010). "Raavanan is awarded, after being a flop". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  181. ^ "'Raavanan' cinematography nominated for APSA award". IndiaGlitz. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  182. ^ "Raavanan reaches APSA award nominations". 88db.com. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  183. ^ "Vikram is loaded with accolades". The Times of India. TNN. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  184. ^ "Mani Ratnam's 'Raavanan' part of Austrian Film Museum". CNN IBN. IANS. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  185. ^ "Aishwarya's 'Raavanan' in Austrian Film Museum". Emirates 24/7. 4 March 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  186. ^ "Raavanan In Austrian Film Museum". Box Office India. 10 March 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  187. ^ "Ratnam’s ‘Raavanan’ part of Austrian Film Museum". Thaindian News. IANS. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  188. ^ "Peter Heins nominated for World Stunt Awards". The Times of India. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  189. ^ "Stunt master Peter Hein nominated for Taurus World Stunt Award". 88db.com. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  190. ^ "Peter Heins nominated for Taurus World Stunt Award". Galatta. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  191. ^ "Stunt master brings glory to Tamil cinema". Behindwoods. 14 May 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  192. ^ "Vedam wins big at Filmfare Awards (South) 2011". Rediff. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  193. ^ "Mani sir, I owe you one". The Times of India. TNN. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 

External links[edit]