Race and ethnicity in censuses

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Map showing countries where the ethnicity or race of people was enumerated at least in one census since 1991. Myanmar (Burma) and Nigeria have not had a census enumerating people by ethnicity/race since 1991, but Burma is planning to hold such a census in 2014 and Nigeria is planning to hold such a census in 2016.

Many countries and national censuses currently enumerate or have previously enumerated their populations by race, ethnicity, nationality, or a combination of these characteristics.[1][2] Different countries have different classifications and census options for race and ethnicity/nationality which are not comparable with data from other countries.[1][3] In addition, many of the race and ethnicity concepts that appear on national censuses worldwide have their origins in Europe or in the views of Europeans, rather than in the views of the locals of these countries.[4] The concept of race has no scientific basis, but distinctive sociocultural communities are important in some national contexts, as social facts.

Contents

Abkhazia[edit]

People in Abkhazia (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] the partially recognized state of Abkhazia also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 2003[8] and 2011.[9]

Afghanistan[edit]

Prior to 2010, Afghanistan had not held a census since 1979 due to the wars and conflicts that have occurred there over those three decades (since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979).[10]

Albania[edit]

Albania enumerated people by ethnicity in 1955,[11] 1989,[12] and 2011.[13][14] The 2011 Albanian census also enumerated people by language used and by their religious beliefs.[13][14]

Algeria[edit]

Algeria enumerated people by ethnicity in 1960.[11]

Andorra[edit]

Angola[edit]

Ethnic composition of Angola in 1970

The Portuguese asked about race in colonial censuses when they controlled Angola, and they provided three options: White, Mestizo, or African/Black. Africans had to then pick either "Assimilado" (assimilated) or "Indigenato" (indigenous).[15] Angola has not used any racial categories since its independence in 1975.[15] Tribe and language for Africans were recorded only in 1950 and 1960.[15]

Argentina[edit]

Argentina enumerated its population by their country of birth from 1869 to the present day.[16]

Armenia[edit]

People in Armenia (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Armenia also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 2001[17] and 2011.[18]

Australia[edit]

Australia enumerated its population by race between 1911 to 1966, by "racial origin" in 1971 and 1976, and by (ethnic) origin since 1981.[19]

Austria[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan in 2003.

People in Azerbaijan (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Azerbaijan also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 1999[20] and 2009.[21]

Bahamas[edit]

The population of the Bahamas was enumerated by ethnicity in 1953.[11]

Bahrain[edit]

Bahrain enumerated people by ethnicity in 1965[11] and 2010.[22] The 2010 Bahrain census also enumerated people by their religious beliefs.[22]

Bangladesh[edit]

British India (which Bangladesh was a part of) enumerated its population by race between 1872 and 1941.[23]

Barbados[edit]

The population of Barbados was enumerated by ethnicity in 1946, 1960, 1970, and 1980.[11]

Belarus[edit]

Belarusians as a percentage of the total population in Belarus in 2009 (note: map is in Ukrainian).

People in Belarus (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Belarus also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 1999[24] and 2009.[25]

Belgium[edit]

Belize[edit]

Back when Belize was British Honduras, it enumerated people by ethnicity in 1946. Since gaining independence, Belize has enumerated people by ethnicity from 1980 all the way up to its most recent census in 2010. In the 2012 census Spanish ethnic groups has over taken the creol population by like a lot like 56% [11][26]

Benin[edit]

The people in Benin were enumerated by ethnicity in 1979 and 1992.[11]

Bermuda[edit]

The people of Bermuda were enumerated by ethnicity since at least 1950 all the way up to the present day.[11][27]

Bhutan[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Ethnic composition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991.

Bolivia enumerated people by ethnicity in 1950,[11] 2001,[28] and 2012.[11][29] The 2012 census included 40 ethnic group options.[29] However, it did not include Mestizo as an option, which critics of current Bolivian President Evo Morales say was because he wants more Bolivians to identify as one of the indigenous groups in order to lend more legitimacy to his indigenous-friendly policies.[29]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

The population of Bosnia and Herzegovina was enumerated by ethnicity since at least 1885 all the way up to the most recent census in 1991.[30][31]

Botswana[edit]

Botswana enumerated people by race in all censuses between 1904 and 1946, and again in the 1964 census (though not in 1956), but in no censuses after 1964.[32] People were enumerated by language use in 1946 and 1956 and again in 2001.[32]

Brazil[edit]

Brazilian states according to the percentage of Whites in 2009.

The Brazilian census enumerated people by race in all censuses since 1872 with the exception of 1900, 1920, and 1970.[33] The Brazilian census classifies people by race as either white, black, pardo (brown), yellow (Asian), or indigenous.

Brunei[edit]

Since 1945, Brunei enumerated people by ethnicity in all censuses since 1947.[11][34]

Bulgaria[edit]

Dominant ethnicities in Bulgaria in 2011

Bulgaria enumerated people by mother tongue in 1880 and 1887 and used this info to determine their ethnicities.[35] Bulgaria directly enumerated people by ethnicity from 1900 all the way up to its most recent census in 2011, with the exception of the 1985 census.[36]

Burkina Faso[edit]

Burma[edit]

The people in Burma (also known as Myanmar) were enumerated by ethnicity in 1931,[37] and 1953.[11] A new census which plans to enumerate the people of Burma by ethnicity and race is planned to be held in 2014.[37][38] The 1931 Burmese census generated a lot of anger from non-Burmese ethnic groups who were marked as Burmese on the census.[37] There is hope that the scheduled 2014 Burma Census will help empower the various ethnic groups in Burma.[38]

Burundi[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

Cameroon[edit]

Canada[edit]

A map of the largest ethnic ancestry in each Canadian county

Canada counted people by ethnic origin in 1765 and again from at least 1871 to 2006, with the exception of 1891.[39][40][41][42] The options for ethnicity in the 2006 Canadian census were White, Chinese, South Asian, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Southeast Asian, Arab, West Asian, Korean, Japanese, and Other.[40] The 2011 Canadian census did not ask about race and ethnicity,[43] but the new voluntary National Household Survey (NHS) for that year did ask about race and ethnicity (as well as many other questions that were previously asked on the Canadian census).[44] Prior to the 1981 Canadian census, respondents could only mark one ethnicity/ethnic ancestry, but the 1981 census and all future ones allowed multiple ethnicity responses.[41] Canada also enumerated its population by place of birth from 1871 to the present day.[45][46]

Cape Verde[edit]

Cape Verde enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1950.[11]

Central African Republic[edit]

The Central African Republic enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1959/1960.[11]

Chad[edit]

Chad enumerated people by ethnicity in 1993.[11]

Chile[edit]

Chile enumerated people by ethnicity in 1992.[11]

China[edit]

Ethnolinguistic groups in China and Taiwan in 1983

The People's Republic of China counted people by ethnicity since at least 1952 but does not count people by mother tongue.[47]

Colombia[edit]

Democratic Republic of Congo[edit]

The people in the Democratic Republic of Congo were enumerated by ethnicity in 1955-1958.[11]

Republic of Congo[edit]

The people in the Republic of Congo were enumerated by ethnicity in 1960, 1974, and 1984.[11]

Costa Rica[edit]

Costa Rica enumerated people by ethnicity in 1950.[11]

Croatia[edit]

Ethnic composition of Croatia in 2011

The people of Croatia were enumerated by ethnicity/nationality under Yugoslavian rule from at least 1953 to the dissolution of Yugoslavia.[11] They were also enumerated by ethnicity in the post-Yugoslavian Croatian censuses of 2001 and 2011.[48][49]

Cyprus[edit]

The people of Cyprus were enumerated by ethnicity in 1960.[11]

Czech Republic[edit]

Czechoslovakia (of which the territory of the Czech Republic was a part) enumerated people by ethnicity in 1921 and 1930, and the Czech Republic did the same thing from 1991 to the present day.[50]

Denmark[edit]

Djibouti[edit]

Dominica[edit]

The people in Dominica were enumerated by ethnicity in 1960 and 1981.[11]

Dominican Republic[edit]

The people in the Dominican Republic were enumerated by ethnicity in 1950.[11]

East Timor[edit]

East Timor enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1950.[11]

Ecuador[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Equatorial Guinea[edit]

The population of Equatorial Guinea was enumerated by ethnicity in 1950.[11]

El Salvador[edit]

Eritrea[edit]

Estonia[edit]

People in Estonia were enumerated by ethnicity/nationality from 1922 all the way up to the present day.[51][52][53] People in Estonia were also enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] During this time period Estonia was under the control of the Russian Empire, then independent, then (excluding World War II) under the control of the Soviet Union, and then independent again since 1991.[54] There were 192 different ethnicity/nationality options in the 2011 Estonian census.[55]

Ethiopia[edit]

Ethiopia enumerated people by ethnicity in 1994.[11]

Fiji[edit]

The population of Fiji was enumerated by ethnicity from 1881 all the way up to Fiji's most recent census in 2007.[56]

Finland[edit]

Finland has enumerated its population by language of most frequent use from at least 1990 to the present day.[57]

France[edit]

France has not counted individuals by race or ethnicity since at least 1978, when a law was passed that prevented individuals from being enumerated by these categories without their consent or a state committee waiver.[58][59] The reasons for this are that many French people consider asking people about race and ethnicity to be a contradiction of their principle of equality and equal treatment for all French people.[7] Also, there is a desire to avoid repeating what Vichy France did in regards to its Jewish population and to prevent the National Front from getting more popularity.[7][58] Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and his administration supported and proposed counting French people by race and ethnicity.[60] Due to criticism, however, this proposal was never implemented, and as of 2013 current French President Francois Hollande opposes enumerating people by race and ethnicity.[61]

Gabon[edit]

The population of Gabon was enumerated by ethnicity in 1960-1961 and 1993.[11]

Georgia[edit]

People in Georgia (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Georgia also enumerated people by ethnicity in its only post-Soviet census in 2002.[62]

Germany[edit]

Germany enumerated its citizens of Jewish descent in 1939 based on the percent of Jewish ancestry that they had.[63]

Ghana[edit]

The population of Ghana was enumerated by ethnicity in 1960, 2000,[11] and 2010.[64]

Greece[edit]

Grenada[edit]

The people of Grenada were enumerated by ethnicity in 1960 and 1981.[11]

Guatemala[edit]

Guatemala has enumerated people by ethnicity in 1950 and 1964.[11]

Guinea[edit]

The population of Guinea was enumerated by ethnicity in 1955.[11]

Guinea-Bissau[edit]

The population of Guinea-Bissau was enumerated by ethnicity in 1950.[11]

Guyana[edit]

Guyana enumerated people by ethnicity from at least 1946 to until at least 2002.[11][65]

Honduras[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Ethnic composition of the regions of Austria-Hungary in 1910

Hungary enumerated people by ethnicity in 1880, between 1900 and 1941,[66][67] and again from 1980 to the present day[11]

Iceland[edit]

India[edit]

When it was a British colony, India enumerated its population by race between 1872 and 1941.[23]

Indonesia[edit]

Ethnic composition of Indonesia

Indonesia enumerated people by ethnicity in 1930 and 2000, but not in any other censuses.[68]

Iran[edit]

Ethnic composition of Iran in 2004.

Iraq[edit]

Ireland[edit]

The 2002 Irish census enumerated people by their place of birth and their country of citizenship.[69] Ireland introduced an ethnicity question to its census in 2006.[69] The 2011 Irish census enumerated people by ethnicity as well, and offered the options White Irish, White Irish Traveller, Other White, Black or Black Irish (with options for African and Other Black), Asian or Asian Irish (with options for Chinese and Other Asian), Other, and Not Stated.[70]

Israel[edit]

Map of Arab population, 2000

The census in Israel directly asked people about their ethnicity only in 1983.[11] However, Israel has used the religion question on its census to determine the ethnic composition of its population from 1948 to the present day.[71][72] Israel has enumerated its Jewish population by their continent of birth since 1948.[73]

Italy[edit]

Ivory Coast[edit]

Ethnic composition of the Ivory Coast (note: the map is in French).

The people of Ivory Coast were enumerated by ethnicity in 1948, 1957-1958, and 1988.[11] The ethnicity data from 1957-1958 was only for the rural areas of the country, though.[11]

Jamaica[edit]

The population of Jamaica was enumerated by ethnicity in 1960 and again from 1982 all the way up to the present day.[11][74][75]

Japan[edit]

Kazakhstan[edit]

Ethnic Russians as a percentage of the total population in Kazakhstan in 2012 (note: map is in Russian).

People in Kazakhstan (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Kazakhstan also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 1999[76] and 2009.[77]

Kenya[edit]

Since 1945, Kenya enumerated people by ethnicity from 1948 all the way up to its most recent census in 2009 (however, the 1999 census ethnicity figures were not made public).[11][78][79][80][81][82] There were some concerns about asking an ethnicity equation in the 2009 census since it came just a year after the disputed Kenyan presidential election of 2007 and the riots that followed it, but Kenya went through with asking about ethnicity in 2009 anyway.[83]

Kosovo[edit]

Dominant ethnicities in Kosovo in 2005

The population of Kosovo was enumerated by ethnicity from at least 1948 all the way up to the present day.[84][85]

Kuwait[edit]

Kyrgyzstan[edit]

People in Kyrgyzstan (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Kyrgyzstan also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 1999[86] and 2009.[87][88]

Laos[edit]

Latvia[edit]

Ethnic Russians as a percentage of the total population in the Baltic States in 2000-2001

People in Latvia (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] Latvia enumerated people by ethnicity between 1920 and 1935.[89] The Soviet Union occupied Latvia in 1940, and it enumerated people there by ethnicity from 1959 to 1989.[7] Latvia also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 2000[90] and 2011.[91]

Lesotho[edit]

People in Lesotho were enumerated by race between 1904 and 1976, but not after 1976.[92] Language was only recorded in 1946 and 1956, tribe and language for Africans were recorded only in 1950 and 1960.[92]

Liberia[edit]

Libya[edit]

Liechtenstein[edit]

Lithuania[edit]

People in Lithuania (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] Lithuania enumerated people by ethnicity in its 1923 census and in its 1925 census of its Klaipeda region.[93] The Soviet Union occupied Lithuania in 1940, and it enumerated people there by ethnicity from 1959 to 1989.[7] Lithuania also enumerated people by ethnicity in its post-Soviet censuses of 2001[94] and 2011.[95]

Luxembourg[edit]

Macedonia[edit]

Ethnic composition of Macedonia in 2002

People in Macedonia were enumerated by ethnicity/nationality from at least 1921 all the way up to the present day.[96]

Madagascar[edit]

Malawi[edit]

People in Malawi were enumerated by race between 1911 and 1987, but not after 1987.[97] They were enumerated by language only in 1966, 1998, and 2008.[97] They were enumerated by tribal affiliation only in 1926, 1945, and 2008.[97]

Malaysia[edit]

People in Malaysia were enumerated by ethnicity/race from 1871 to the present day.[98]

Mali[edit]

Mali enumerated people in some parts of the country by ethnicity in 1950.[11]

Mauritania[edit]

Mauritius[edit]

Mauritius enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1952, 1962, and 1972.[11]

Mexico[edit]

Mexico enumerates people on whether or not they speak Spanish or indigenous languages.[99] Mexico does not enumerate its population by race and ethnicity directly.[99]

Moldova[edit]

Ethnic composition of Moldova in 1989

People in Moldova (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Moldova also enumerated people by ethnicity in its only post-Soviet census in 2004.[100]

Monaco[edit]

Monaco enumerated people by ethnicity in 1982.[11]

Mongolia[edit]

Mongolia enumerated people by ethnicity in 1963 and 2000.[11]

Montenegro[edit]

Dominant ethnicities in Montenegro in 2011

The population of Montenegro was enumerated by ethnicity from 1909 up to its most recent census in 2011.[101][102][103]

Morocco[edit]

Ethnolinguistic composition of Morocco.

Morocco enumerated people by ethnicity in 1950 and 1971.[11]

Mozambique[edit]

People in Mozambique were counted by race only in 1894, 1970, 1997, and 2007.[104] The race categories in Mozambique were the same ones as in Angola, due to both being controlled by Portugal before acquiring their independence.[104] People were counted by language between 1940 and 1997, but not after 1997.[104]

Nagorno Karabakh[edit]

Ethnic composition of Nagorno Karabakh in 1989

People in Nagorno Karabakh (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] the de facto independent state of Nagorno-Karabakh also enumerated people by ethnicity in its only post-Soviet census of 2005.[105]

Namibia[edit]

People in Namibia were enumerated by race in all 20th century censuses but not in the 2001 census. They were enumerated by language in all censuses since 1951.[106]

Nauru[edit]

The population of Nauru was enumerated by ethnicity between 1947 and 1977.[11]

Nepal[edit]

Ethnic composition of Nepal.

Nepal enumerated people by ethnicity in 1991.[11]

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Maoris as a percentage of the total population of New Zealand in 2006.

New Zealand enumerated people by ethnicity from 1858 to the present day.[107] People were enumerated by tribal affiliation in 1901 and again from 1991 to the present day.[107]

Nicaragua[edit]

Niger[edit]

Niger enumerated people by ethnicity in 1959/1960.[11]

Nigeria[edit]

Ethnic composition of Nigeria.

Nigeria enumerated people by ethnicity in 1963.[11] In addition, Nigeria has announced plans to enumerate its population by ethnicity in its 2016 census.[108]

North Korea[edit]

Norway[edit]

Norway enumerated the population in the northern part of the country by ethnicity between 1845 and 1930.[109]

Oman[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

British India (which Bangladesh was a part of) enumerated its population by race between 1872 and 1941.[23]

Palau[edit]

Palau enumerated people by ethnicity in 1995.[11]

Palestine[edit]

The population in the Palestinian territories was enumerated by ethnicity in 1997.[11]

Panama[edit]

Panama has enumerated people by ethnicity from the 1970 census all the way up to its most recent census in 2010.[11][110] People in the then-United States-controlled Panama Canal Zone were numerated by ethnicity in 1950 and 1960.[11]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

Papua New Guinea only enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1971.[11]

Paraguay[edit]

Peru[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Ethnic composition of the Philippines in 2000.

The Philippines enumerated their population by ethnicity in 1948 and 1970.[11]

Poland[edit]

The population of Poland by mother tongue in 1931 (note: Poland's borders significantly changed since 1931).

People in Poland (when a large part of it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] Poland enumerated people by ethnicity/nationality in 1921.[111] It enumerated people by mother tongue in 1931, and used this data to determine ethnicity/nationality.[112] After World War II, the Communist Polish government did not enumerate people by nationality/ethnicity.[112] The post-Communist 2002 Polish census did enumerate people by nationality/ethnicity and language used at home.[112]

Portugal[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

Puerto Rico enumerated people by race in its census since at least 1877 with the exception of the period from 1960 to 1990.

Qatar[edit]

Romania[edit]

Ethnic map of Romania in 2011

Romania enumerated people by ethnicity in 1859-1860,[113] 1887,[114] 1899,[115] and in every census since 1930, with the exception of the 1948 census, which enumerated people only by mother tongue.[116][117][118][119] The World Jewish Congress also carried out a census of Romania's Jewish population in 1947.[120]

Russia/Soviet Union[edit]

Dominant ethnicity in each Russian oblast in 2010

The Russian Empire began counting people by native tongue with its first modern census in 1897.[5] In 1920, the Soviet Union replaced this question with a question about ethnicity.[121] The Soviet government organized lists of ethnicities and wanted to shape these various ethnic groups in the mold of Communism.[122] In the words of Soviet politician Anastas Mikoyan, the Soviet Union was "creating and organising new nations"[122] The government of the U.S.S.R. was eager to get ethnic data for many ethnic groups in order to create republics and autonomous regions for many of these ethnic groups and nationalities, and later on (under Joseph Stalin) in order to deport some of them.[123][124] The Bolsheviks also wanted to get more support from ethnic minority groups within the Soviet Union, many of whom were previously oppressed under Tsarist rule.[124] The Soviet Union continued to ask about ethnicity for the rest of its existence, and Russia also asked about ethnicity in its two post-Soviet censuses of 2002 and 2010.[125] Unlike in 1989, the 2002 census did not require respondents to prove their ethnicity/nationality when they responded to this question.[126] The number of ethnicity/nationality options available on Soviet censuses was enormous—the Soviet Union offered 194 different choices for ethnicity/nationality in its 1926 census.[127] There were 97 options in 1939, 126 options in 1959, 122 options in 1970, 123 options in 1979, and 128 options for the Soviet Union in 1989.[127] There were 192 ethnicity/nationality options for Russia in 2002.[127]

Rwanda[edit]

Rwanda enumerated people by ethnicity from at least 1958 to 1991.[11] Due to the 1994 Rwandan Genocide and the ethnic hatred and tensions that caused it, the Rwandan census of 2002 did not enumerate people by ethnicity.[128]

San Marino[edit]

Sao Tome and Principe[edit]

The people Sao Tome and Principe were enumerated by ethnicity in 1950 and 1960.[11]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Senegal[edit]

The people of Senegal were enumerated by ethnicity in 1960-1961 and 1988.[11]

Seychelles[edit]

The Seychelles enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1947, 1987, and 1994.[11]

Serbia[edit]

Ethnic composition of Serbia in 2002

In addition to Yugoslavia enumerating people by ethnicity/nationality, Serbia enumerated people by ethnicity/nationality in its 2002 and 2011 censuses.[129][130]

Seychelles[edit]

The people of Seychelles were enumerated by ethnicity in 1947, 1987, and 1994.[11]

Sierra Leone[edit]

Singapore[edit]

The people in Singapore were numerated by ethnicity from at least 1947 up to the most recent Singaporean census in 2010.[11][131]

Slovakia[edit]

The population of Slovakia was enumerated by ethnicity/nationality since 1910 all the way up to the present day.[132][133][134]

Slovenia[edit]

Hungarians as a % of the population in Slovakia in 2001

The population of Slovenia was enumerated by ethnicity since 1953 all the way up to the present day.[135]

Somalia[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Whites as a percentage of the total South African population in 2011.

South Africa has enumerated people by race in all of its censuses since 1904, and recently four options were provided: White, Black/African, Coloured, and Indian/Asian.[136] South Africa has also asked about language use since 1921 for Europeans/Whites and since 1936 for all races.[136]

South Korea[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sri Lanka enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1971 and 1981.[11]

Sudan[edit]

Sudan enumerated people by ethnicity in 1956.[11]

Suriname[edit]

Swaziland[edit]

The Swazi census counted people by race in all censuses between 1904 and 1976.[137] People were counted by ethnic group and tribe only in 1966 and 1976.[137]

Sweden[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

Linguistic map of Switzerland in 2000.

Syria[edit]

Tajikistan[edit]

Ethnic composition of Tajikistan in 1992

People in Tajikistan (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Tajikistan also enumerated people by ethnicity in its only post-Soviet census in 2000.[138]

Tanzania[edit]

The Tanzanian census enumerated people by race from colonial times until 1967, by ethnicity and tribe from colonial times until 1973. It enumerated people by language only in 1952 and 1958.[139]

Thailand[edit]

Ethnic composition of Thailand in 1974

Thailand enumerated people by ethnicity in 1947.[11]

Togo[edit]

The people in Togo were enumerated by ethnicity in 1948, 1958-1960, and 1970.[11]

Transnistria[edit]

People in Transnistria (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] the de facto independent country of Transnistria also enumerated people by ethnicity in its only post-Soviet census in 2004.[140] Romania also enumerated people in Transnistria by ethnicity in its 1941 census.[141]

Tunisia[edit]

Tunisia enumerated people by ethnicity in 1956.[11]

Turkey[edit]

Between 1881 and 1893 the Ottoman Empire implemented its first census, which enumerated the people in the empire by ethnicity.[142][143] Some other censuses and studies were conducted in the Ottoman Empire for enumerating the population by ethnicity after the first Ottoman census.[142][143]

Turkmenistan[edit]

People in Turkmenistan (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Turkmenistan also enumerated people by ethnicity in its only post-Soviet census in 1995.[144]

Uganda[edit]

The people of Uganda were enumerated by ethnicity from 1948 all the way up to Uganda's most recent census in 2012,[11][145] with the exception of 1980 and possibly 1969.[146]

Ukraine[edit]

Ethnolinguistic composition of Ukraine.

People in Ukraine (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] In addition to the Soviet Union enumerating people by ethnicity for its entire existence,[7] Ukraine also enumerated people by ethnicity in its only post-Soviet census in 2001.[147]

United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom began counting people by ethnicity in 1991.[148] There eventually became more of an interest in enumerating ethnic minorities after large-scale ethnic minority immigration to the United Kingdom began in the post-World War II era.[149] The United Kingdom previously planned to enumerate people by ethnicity in 1981, but changed its mind after the large non-response rate to this question in the 1979 Test Census. In 1979, many ethnic minorities refused to answer this question due to the fear of deportation.[150] In the 2011 census, the ethnicity options for England and Wales were White, Mixed, Asian British, Black British, Chinese or other ethnic group, and Not stated, with ethnic sub-group choices for most of these.[151] The census in the United Kingdom also included a question on country of citizenship between 1851 and 1961.[4]

United States[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Race and ethnicity in the United States Census.
The plurality (not majority) ethnic ancestry in each county in the United States of America

Before the U.S. acquired independence from Great Britain, many of the Thirteen Colonies conducted censuses of their own where they enumerated their populations by race.[152][153] The United States as a whole enumerated people by race in every census since its first census in 1790.[154] Part of the reason why the United States began counting people by race much sooner than many other countries was due to the Three Fifths Compromise, which determined the amount of representation that Southern states had based on how many slaves they had (slaves were counted as three-fifths of a person for representation purposes, and a new census every ten years was needed to enumerate the current slave population).[155] Initially, the United States Census only counted Americans as either white or black, with blacks classified as either free or slaves until 1860 (slavery in the United States was abolished in 1865).[156] Over time, the United States has also added some other racial categories as well.[156] Asian and Native American categories were added in 1860.[156] However, the first census to enumerate all Native Americans occurred in 1890.[156] Before that point Native Americans living on reservations were not counted, and thus most Native Americans in the U.S. were not counted in census data before 1890.[156] Between 1850 to 1870, and in 1890, 1910, and 1920, the U.S. Census Bureau also enumerated Mulattoes and sometimes other partially black groups (Quadroons and Octoroons) separately.[156]

The U.S. Census Bureau counted Mexicans as a separate race in 1930[157] and tried to retroactively determine the number of Mexicans in the U.S. in 1910 and 1920 as well.[156]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted a "good neighbor" policy that sought better relations with Mexico. In 1935, a federal judge ruled that three Mexican immigrants were ineligible for citizenship because they were not white, as required by federal law. Mexico protested, and Roosevelt decided to circumvent the decision and make sure the federal government treated Hispanics as white. The State Department, the Census Bureau, the Labor Department, and other government agencies therefore made sure to uniformly classify people of Mexican descent as white. This policy encouraged the League of United Latin American Citizens in its quest to minimize discrimination by asserting their whiteness.[158]

Hispanics were counted as whites in 1940, but for the first time ever, the U.S. made an attempt to measure the size of the Hispanic population that year.[156] The U.S. resumed enumerating its Hispanic/Latino population in 1970, with Hispanics being enumerated in every U.S. census since then.[156] The U.S. Census Bureau also began offering Hispanics several sub-group options from which they could identify themselves, such as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, et cetera (these Hispanic sub-group options have changed over time).[159][160] The Other race category was added in 1950, and the Multiracial ("two or more races") category was added in 2000.[156] Due to the adding of the Multiracial category, U.S. Census data since 2000 is not directly comparable with that of previous censuses.[156] While people nowadays are enumerated by race based on self-identification, until 1950 their race on the census was mainly determined by their census enumerator.[156] During this time multiracial people who were White and of another race were usually marked down as belonging to the other race due to the One drop rule.[156]

It is worth noting that some of the definitions of race in the United States changed over time. For instance, Indian Americans were previously marked as Hindu in 1920-1940, Other race in 1950-1960, and White in 1970 before being marked as Asian (Indian) since 1980.[156] The U.S. census counted certain Asian ethnic groups separately since 1870, initially counting only Chinese and Japanese, but having other categories as well since 1910.[156] It only began counting all people by ethnic ancestry since the 1980 census, though.[161] The United States enumerated most or all foreign-born Americans by mother between 1910 and 1970, with the exception of 1950.[162] It counted the foreign-born aged five or more by the language that they spoke at home since 1980.[163] Before 1970, Alaska and Hawaii had different choices for race on their censuses in contrast to the continental United States.[156]

The 2020 United States Census might allow Middle Easterners and North Africans to write in their ethnicity/race instead of merely marking them as White.[164][165] Right now, and in the past, Arabs have been marked in the U.S. Census as White.[164] This began in the early twentieth century when Arabs coming to the United States successfully petitioned to be marked as White in order to avoid entry quotas and have a greater chance of achieving success and avoiding discrimination.[164][166]

The United States is one of the countries that uses racial and ethnic census data in order to create minority-majority districts, as is required by the 1965 Voting Rights Act.[167] These districts were created in order to increase minority representation in the United States Congress following the end of legal segregation and racial discrimination in the Southern United States.[167]

Since 1850, the United States enumerated its population by their country of birth of its population.[168] The whole U.S. population was enumerated by country of birth between 1850 and 1930 and again from 1960 to the present day.[168] Meanwhile, only the White population of the United States was enumerated by their country of birth in 1940 and 1950.[168]

Uruguay[edit]

Uzbekistan[edit]

People in Uzbekistan (when it was still a part of the Russian Empire) were enumerated by native tongue in the 1897 Russian Empire Census.[5][6] The Soviet Union (to which Uzbekistan also belonged) enumerated people by ethnicity for its entire existence.[7] Uzbekistan has not conducted any censuses at all since 1989.[169]

Vatican City[edit]

Vatican City enumerated people by ethnicity in 1948.[11]

Venezuela[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Communist North Vietnam enumerated people by ethnicity in 1960, when Vietnam was still divided into two countries.[170] After Vietnamese reunification, Vietnam enumerated its population by ethnicity from 1979 up to the most recent census in 2009.[170][171][172]

Yemen[edit]

Ethnoreligious composition of Yemen in 2002.

Yemen enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1994.[11] The British Colony of Aden (which is within Yemen's current borders) enumerated its population by ethnicity in 1946 and 1955.[11]

Zambia[edit]

People in Zambia were not continuously counted by race before independence, and when they were counted by race it were primarily the non-Africans/non-blacks who were counted.[173] People were counted by language only in 1931, while they were counted for ethnicity at various points since 1969.[173] The 1969 census asked about language but not ethnic group, and the 1974 census asked about ethnic group, but not language. The 1980 census asked about ethnic group, mother tongue, and language of most frequent use, while the 1990 census asked about ethnic group and mother tongue. The 2000 census asked about ethnic group, language of most frequent use, and second language.[173]

Zimbabwe[edit]

People in Zimbabwe were enumerated by race between 1901 and 2002, but many censuses were done separately for Whites/Europeans and Blacks/Africans before the 1970s.[174] People were enumerated by language only in 1982 (when they were enumerated by "[their] father's dialect").[174]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Historical data[edit]

Future population projections, including by race and/or ethnicity[edit]