Historical racial and ethnic demographics of the United States

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The racial and ethnic demographics of the United States have changed dramatically throughout its history.

White Americans in Little Italy in Manhattan, New York City, New York, around 1900.
Native American (Apache) warriors in 1886.
Hispanic American rally in San Jose, California, in 2006.
African American slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)

Sources of data[edit]

Asian American and Pacific Islander American women wearing traditional clothing in 2008.

During the American colonial period, British colonial officials conducted censuses in some of the Thirteen Colonies that included enumerations by race.[1] In addition, tax lists and other reports provided additional data and information about the racial demographics of the Thirteen Colonies during this time period.[1]

People have been enumerated by race in every United States Census since the first one in 1790.[2] Collection of data on race and ethnicity in the United States Census has changed over time, including addition of new enumeration categories and changes in definitions of those categories.[2][3][4]

Historical trends[edit]

The Black (African American) population was non-existent in 1610, but increased rapidly after 1620 with the implementation of the slave trade in colonial areas which later became parts of the United States.[1] African Americans (Blacks) made up almost one-fifth of the United States population in 1790, but their percentage of the total U.S. population declined in almost every U.S. census until 1930.[5] From at least 1790 until the start of World War I, the overwhelming majority (around ninety percent) of African Americans[5] lived in the southern United States.[6][7] In addition, before 1865, the overwhelming majority of African Americans were slaves.[5] The Great Migration throughout the twentieth century (starting from World War I)[5][6] resulted in more than six million African Americans leaving the Southern U.S. (especially rural areas) and moving to other parts of the United States (especially to urban areas) due to the greater economic/job opportunities, less anti-black violence/lynchings,[8] and a smaller amount of segregation/discrimination there.[9][10] Due to the Great Migration, many large cities outside of the former Confederacy (such as New York, Chicago, Detroit, and Cleveland) experienced huge increases in the African American percentage of their total population.[9]

Whites (including Non-Hispanic Whites) have historically made up the overwhelming majority (usually between eighty and ninety percent) of the total United States population.[5] The United States historically had few Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, especially before the late twentieth century.[5] Most Asian Americans[5] historically lived in the western United States.[11][12] The Hispanic and Asian population of the United States has rapidly increased in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and the African American percentage of the U.S. population is slowly increasing as well since reaching a low point of less than ten percent in 1930.[5]

Historical data for all races and for Hispanic origin (1610–2010)[edit]

The United States Census enumerated Whites and Blacks since 1790, Asians and Native Americans since 1860 (though all Native Americans in the U.S. were not enumerated until 1890), "some other race" since 1950, and "two or more races" since 2000.[2] Hispanics (as well as the Non-Hispanic White population) were enumerated since 1940 (with the exception of 1950 and 1960), but some estimates for the Hispanic (and Non-Hispanic White) population were made for certain years before 1940 (as well as for 1950 and 1960).[2][13][14]

Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the Thirteen Colonies (Total Numbers) Between 1610 and 1780[1][a]
Race/Ethnic Group 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780
Total Population 350 2,302 4,646 26,634 50,368 75,058 111,935 151,507 210,372 250,888 331,711 466,185 629,445 905,563 1,170,760 1,593,625 2,148,076 2,780,369
White 350 2,282 4,586 26,037 48,768 72,138 107,400 144,536 193,643 223,071 286,845 397,346 538,424 755,539 934,340 1,267,819 1,688,254 2,204,949
Black (also called Negro) 0 20 60 597 1,600 2,920 4,535 6,971 16,729 27,817 44,866 68,839 91,021 150,024 236,420 325,806 459,822 575,420
Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the United States (Total Numbers) Between 1790 and 1900[15][16][17]
Race/Ethnic Group 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900
Total Population 3,929,214 5,308,483 7,239,881 9,638,453 12,860,702 17,063,353 23,191,876 31,443,321 38,558,371 50,155,783 62,947,714 75,994,575
White 3,172,006 4,306,446 5,862,073 7,866,797 10,532,060 14,189,705 19,553,068 26,922,537 33,589,377 43,402,970 55,101,258 66,809,196
Black 757,208 1,002,037 1,377,808 1,771,656 2,328,642 2,873,648 3,638,808 4,441,830 4,880,009 6,580,793 7,488,676 8,833,994
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 44,021[b] 25,731[b] 66,407[b] 248,253 237,196
Asian and Pacific Islander 34,933 63,254 105,613 109,527 114,189
Hispanic (of any race)[14] 116,943 393,555 503,189
Non-Hispanic White[14] 19,438,451 43,065,679 66,374,317
Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the United States (Total Numbers) Between 1910 and 2010[15][16][17][c]
Race/Ethnic Group 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Total Population 91,972,266 105,710,620 122,775,046 131,669,275 150,697,361 179,323,175 203,210,158 226,545,805 248,709,873 281,421,906 308,745,538
White 81,731,957 94,820,915 110,286,740 118,214,870 134,942,028 158,831,732 178,119,221 188,371,622 199,686,070 211,460,626 223,553,265
Black 9,827,763 10,463,131 11,891,143 12,865,518 15,042,286 18,871,831 22,539,362 26,495,025 29,986,060 34,658,190 38,929,319
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 265,683 244,437 332,397 333,969 343,410 551,669 795,110 1,420,400 1,959,234 2,475,956 2,932,248
Asian and Pacific Islander 146,863 182,137 264,766 254,918 321,033 980,337 1,526,401 3,500,439 7,273,662 10,641,833 15,214,265
Some other race 48,604 87,606 230,064 6,758,319 9,804,847 15,359,073 19,107,368
Two or more races 6,826,228 9,009,073
Hispanic (of any race) 797,994[14] 1,286,154[14] 2,021,820[14] 3,231,409[14] 5,814,784[14] 8,920,940[14] 14,608,673 22,354,059 35,305,818 50,477,594
Non-Hispanic White 81,043,248[14] 93,604,612[14] 116,261,189[14] 131,805,405[14] 153,217,498[14] 169,622,593[14] 180,256,366 188,128,296 194,552,774 196,817,552
Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the United States (Percentages) Between 1610 and 1780[1][a]
Race/Ethnic Group 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780
White 100.0% 99.1% 98.7% 97.8% 96.8% 96.1% 95.9% 95.4% 92.0% 88.9% 86.5% 85.2% 85.5% 83.4% 79.8% 79.6% 78.6% 79.3%
Black (also called Negro) 0.0% 0.9% 1.3% 2.2% 3.2% 3.9% 4.1% 4.6% 8.0% 11.1% 13.5% 14.8% 14.5% 16.6% 20.2% 20.4% 21.4% 20.7%
Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the United States (Percentages) Between 1790 and 1900[15][16][17]
Race/Ethnic Group 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900
White 80.7% 81.1% 81.0% 81.6% 81.9% 83.2% 84.3% 85.6% 87.1% 86.5% 87.5% 87.9%
Black 19.3% 18.9% 19.0% 18.4% 18.1% 16.8% 15.7% 14.1% 12.7% 13.1% 11.9% 11.6%
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 0.1%[b] 0.1%[b] 0.1%[b] 0.4% 0.3%
Asian and Pacific Islander 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
Hispanic (of any race) 0.5% 0.8% 0.7%
Non-Hispanic White 83.8% 85.9% 87.3%
Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the United States (Percentages) Between 1910 and 2010[15][16][17][c]
Race/Ethnic Group 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
White 88.9% 89.7% 89.8% 89.8% 89.5% 88.6% 87.7% 83.1% 80.3% 75.1% 72.4%
Black 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.3% 12.6%
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 0.9% 0.9%
Asian and Pacific Islander 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% 2.9% 3.8% 4.9%
Other race 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 3.0% 3.9% 5.5% 6.2%
Two or more races 2.4% 2.9%
Hispanic (of any race) 0.9% 1.2% 1.5% 2.1% 3.2% 4.4% 6.4% 9.0% 12.5% 16.3%
Non-Hispanic White 88.1% 88.5% 88.3% 87.5% 85.4% 83.5% 79.6% 75.6% 69.1% 63.7%

a^ These population estimates include a small number of Native Americans/Indians as part of the Black/Negro population throughout this time period (1610–1780).[1]
b^ While all Native Americans in the United States were only counted as part of the (total) U.S. population since 1890, the U.S. Census Bureau previously either enumerated or made estimates of the non-taxed Native American population (which was not counted as a part of the U.S. population before 1890) for the 1860–1880 time period. The combined taxed and non-taxed Native American population in the United States was 339,421 in 1860, 313,712 in 1870, and 306,543 in 1880.[18]
c^ Data on race from the 2000 and 2010 U.S. Censuses are not directly comparable with those from the 1990 census and previous censuses due, in large part, to giving respondents the option to report more than one race.[19]

Population by race and age (census 2010)

USA 100% White alone 72.41% Black alone 12.61% Mixed* 9.11% Asian alone 4.75% American Indian and Alaska Native alone 0.95% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 0,17%
Population 0-14 61 227 213 39 826 806 8 819 453 9 009 537 2 707 849 732 923 130 645
Percent group 0-14 in race 19,83% 17,82% 22,66% 32,04% 18,45% 25,00% 24,19%
Population 0-14 compared to racial groups 100% 65,05% 14,40% 14,71% 4,42% 1,20% 0,21%
Population 15-49 148 469 487 103 153 069 20 084 707 15 334 191 8 065 404 1 527 690 304 426
Proportions 0-14 to 15-49 0,41239 0,38609 0,43911 0,58755 0,3357 0,47976 0,42915
  • some other race, two or more races and all other mixed people (about 5,3% Some other race (mainly Mestizo), 0,6% Black in combination, 0,55% Asian in combination, 0,25% American Indian or Alaska Native in combination, 2,4% Multiracial)
Age group USA 100% (percent of the population) White alone 72,41% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Black alone 12.61% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Mixed 9.11% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Asian alone 4.75% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) American Indian and Alaska Native alone 0.95% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 0,17% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)
Population 308 745 538 223 553 265 38 929 319 28 116 441 14 674 252 2 932 248 540 013
0-4 20 201 362 (6,5%) 12 795 675 (5,7%/63,34%) 2 902 590 (7,5%/14,37%) 3 315 480 (11,8%/16,41%) 898 011 (6,1%/4,45%) 244 615 (8,3%/1,21%) 44 991 (8,3%/0,22%)
5-9 20 348 657 (6,6%) 13 293 799 (5,9%/65,33%) 2 882 597 (7,4%/14,17%) 2 957 487 (10,5%/14,53%) 928 248 (6,3%/4,56%) 243 259 (8,3%/1,20%) 43 267 (8,0%/0,21%)
10-14 20 677 194 (6,7%) 13 737 332 (6,1%/66,44%) 3 034 266 (7,8%/14,67%) 2 736 570 (9,7%/13,23%) 881 590 (6,0%/4,26%) 245 049 (8,4%/1,19%) 42 387(7,8%/0,20%)
15-19 22 040 343 (7,1%) 14 620 638 (6,5%/66,35%) 3 448 051 (8,9%/15,64%) 2 704 571 (9,6%/12,27%) 956 028 (6,5%/4,34%) 263 805 (9,0%/1,20%) 47 250(8,7%/0,21%)
20-24 21 585 999 (7,0%) 14 535 947 (6,5%/67,34%) 3 111 397 (8,0%/14,41%) 2 538 967 (9,0%/11,76%) 1 106 222 (7,5%/5,12%) 240 716 (8,2%/1,12%) 52 750 (9,8%/0,24%)
25-29 21 101 849 (6,8%) 14 345 364 (6,4%/67,98%) 2 786 254 (7,2%/13,20%) 2 464 343 (8,8%/11,68%) 1 234 322 (8,4%/5,85%) 221 654 (7,6%/1,05%) 49 912 (9,2%/0,24%)
30-34 19 962 099 (6,5%) 13 573 270 (6,1%/68,00%) 2 627 925 (6,8%/13,16%) 2 273 322 (8,1%/11,39%) 1 240 906 (8,5%/6,22%) 202 928 (6,9%/1,02%) 43 748 (8,1%/0,22%)
35-39 20 179 642 (6,5%) 13 996 797 (6,3%/69,36%) 2 613 389 (6,7%/12,95%) 2 038 408 (7,2%/10,10%) 1 296 301 (8,8%/6,42%) 196 017 (6,7%/0,97%) 38 730(7,2%/0,19%)
40-44 20 890 964 (6,8%) 15 052 798 (6,7%/72,05%) 2 669 034 (6,9%/12,78%) 1 782 463 (6,3%/8,53%) 1 155 565 (7,9%/5,53%) 194 713(6,6%/0,93%) 36 391(6,7%/0,17%)
45-49 22 708 591 (7,4%) 17 028 255 (7,6%/74,99%) 2 828 657 (7,3%/12,46%) 1 532 117 (5,4%/6,75%) 1 076 060 (7,3%/4,74%) 207 857 (7,1%/0,92%) 35 645(6,6%/0,16%)
50-54 22 298 125 (7,2%) 17 178 632 (7,7%/77,04%) 2 694 247 (6,9%/12,08%) 1 222 175 (4,3%/5,48%) 980 282 (6,7%/4,40%) 191 893 (6,5%/0,86%) 30 896 (5,7%/0,14%)
55-59 19 664 805 (6,4%) 15 562 187 (7,0%/79,14%) 2 205 820 (5,7%/11,22%) 873 943 (3,1%/4,44%) 844 490 (5,8%/4,29%) 154 320 (5,3%/0,78%) 24 045 (4,5%/0,12%)
60-64 16 817 924 (5,4%) 13 693 334 (6,1%/81,42%) 1 686 695(4,3%/10,03%) 611 144 (2,2%/3,63%) 689 601 (4,7%/4,10%) 118 362 (4,0%/0,70%) 18 788 (3,5%/0,11%)
65-69 12 435 263 (4,0%) 10 313 002 (4,6%/82,93%) 1 162 577 (3,0%/9,35%) 394 208 (1,4%/3,17%) 474 327 (3,2%/3,81%) 79 079 (2,7%/0,64%) 12 070 (2,2%/0,10%)
70-74 9 278 166 (3,0%) 7 740 932 (3,5%/83,43%) 852 317 (2,2%/9,19%) 268 574 (1,0%/2,89%) 354 268 (2,4%/3,82%) 53 926 (1,8%/0,58%) 8 149 (1,5%/0,09%)
75-79 7 317 795 (2,4%) 6 224 569 (2,8%/85,06%) 616 789 (1,6%/8,43%) 184 596 (0,7%/2,52%) 251 210 (1,7%/3,43%) 35 268 (1,2%/0,48%) 5 363 (1,0%/0,07%)
80-84 5 743 327 (1,9%) 5 002 427(2,2%/87,10%) 424 592 (1,1%/7,39%) 122 249 (0,4%/2,13%) 168 879 (1,2%/2,94%) 21 963(0,7%/0,38%) 3 217 (0,6%/0,06%)
85+ 5 493 433 (1,8%) 4 858 307 (2,2%/88,44%) 382 122 (1,0%/6,96%) 95 824 (0,3%/1,74%) 137 942 (0,9%/2,51%) 16 824 (0,6%/0,31%) 2 414 (0,4%/0,04%)

Historical Hispanic Population by Race (1850–2010)[edit]

The overwhelming majority of Hispanics in the United States (85% or above) were consistently identified as White until 1980, when only around half of Hispanics in the United States were identified as White.[14] Around forty percent of Hispanics since 1980 consistently identified themselves as belonging to Some other race.[14][20][21]

Historical Hispanic Population by Race (1850–2010)[14]
Race 1850 1880 1900 1910 1920 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000[20] 2010[21]
White 114,617 337,291 434,879 688,709 1,216,303 1,953,681 3,136,623 5,614,234 8,496,628 8,115,256 11,557,774 16,907,852 26,735,713
Black 2,326 35,319 18,216 23,792 36,330 45,996 70,599 135,389 253,835 390,852 769,767 710,353 1,243,471
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 0 20,845 25,047 27,318 17,268 18,804 16,994 35,471 54,574 165,461 407,073 685,150
Asian and Pacific Islander 0 100 0 58 1,513 2,631 5,885 21,818 31,083 305,303 165,155 267,565
Some other race 0 0 25,047 58,117 14,740 708 1,308 7,872 84,820 6,102,565 9,555,754 14,891,303 18,503,103
Two or more races 2,224,082 3,042,592
Historical Hispanic Population by Race (as a Percentage of the Total Hispanic Population) (1850–2010)[14]
Race 1850 1880 1900 1910 1920 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000[20] 2010[21]
White 98.0% 85.7% 86.4% 86.3% 94.6% 96.6% 97.1% 96.6% 95.2% 55.6% 51.7% 47.9% 53.0%
Black 2.0% 9.0% 3.6% 3.0% 2.8% 2.3% 2.2% 2.3% 2.8% 2.7% 3.4% 2.0% 2.5%
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 0.0% 5.3% 5.0% 3.4% 1.3% 0.9% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.0% 0.7% 1.2% 1.4%
Asian and Pacific Islander 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.0% 1.4% 0.5% 0.5%
Some other race 0.0% 0.0% 5.0% 7.3% 1.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 1.0% 41.8% 42.7% 42.2% 36.7%
Two or more races 6.3% 6.0%

Black Population as a Percentage of the Total Population by U.S. Region and State (1790–2010)[edit]

Many Southern U.S. states historically had African Americans compose 35% or more of their total population(s), with three of them (Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina) even having an African American majority at certain periods in their history. In contrast, the African American percentage of the total population in other parts of the U.S. (outside of the South) was historically almost always in the single digits (0.0% to 9.9%). Even after the Great Migration, no or almost no U.S. state outside of the Southern U.S. has ever had an African American percentage of its total population be greater than 16%.

African-American % of Population (1790–2010) by U.S. State[22][23][24]
State/Territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
United States United States of America 19.3% 18.9% 19.0% 18.4% 18.1% 16.8% 15.7% 14.1% 12.7% 13.1% 11.9% 11.6% 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.3% 12.6%
Northeast 3.4% 3.2% 2.9% 2.5% 2.3% 2.1% 1.7% 1.5% 1.5% 1.6% 1.6% 1.8% 1.9% 2.3% 3.3% 3.8% 5.1% 6.8% 8.9% 9.9% 11.0% 11.4% 11.8%
Midwest 1.2% 2.4% 2.1% 2.6% 2.7% 2.5% 2.0% 2.1% 2.2% 1.9% 1.9% 1.8% 2.3% 3.3% 3.5% 5.0% 6.7% 8.1% 9.1% 9.6% 10.1% 10.4%
South 35.2% 35.0% 36.7% 37.2% 37.9% 38.0% 37.3% 36.8% 36.0% 36.0% 33.8% 32.3% 29.8% 26.9% 24.7% 23.8% 21.7% 20.6% 19.1% 18.6% 18.5% 18.9% 19.2%
West 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2% 2.9% 3.9% 4.9% 5.2% 5.4% 4.9% 4.8%
Alabama Alabama 41.4% 29.0% 33.2% 38.5% 43.3% 44.7% 45.4% 47.7% 47.5% 44.8% 45.2% 42.5% 38.4% 35.7% 34.7% 32.0% 30.0% 26.2% 25.6% 25.3% 26.0% 26.2%
Alaska Alaska 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 3.0% 3.0% 3.4% 4.1% 3.5% 3.3%
Arizona Arizona 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.0% 2.4% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 3.3% 3.0% 2.8% 3.0% 3.1% 4.1%
Arkansas Arkansas 13.0% 11.7% 15.5% 20.9% 22.7% 25.6% 25.2% 26.3% 27.4% 28.0% 28.1% 27.0% 25.8% 24.8% 22.3% 21.8% 18.3% 16.3% 15.9% 15.7% 15.4%
California California 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4% 1.8% 4.4% 5.6% 7.0% 7.7% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2%
Colorado Colorado 0.1% 1.1% 1.3% 1.5% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 1.5% 2.3% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 3.8% 4.0%
Connecticut Connecticut 2.3% 2.5% 2.6% 2.9% 2.7% 2.6% 2.1% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.6% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.7% 4.2% 6.0% 7.0% 8.3% 9.1% 10.1%
Delaware Delaware 21.6% 22.4% 23.8% 24.0% 24.9% 25.0% 22.2% 19.3% 18.2% 18.0% 16.8% 16.6% 15.4% 13.6% 13.7% 13.5% 13.7% 13.6% 14.3% 16.1% 16.9% 19.2% 21.4%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 30.4% 33.1% 31.2% 30.1% 29.1% 26.6% 19.1% 33.0% 33.6% 32.8% 31.1% 28.5% 25.1% 27.1% 28.2% 35.0% 53.9% 71.1% 70.3% 65.8% 60.0% 50.7%
Florida Florida 47.1% 48.7% 46.0% 44.6% 48.8% 47.0% 42.5% 43.7% 41.0% 34.0% 29.4% 27.1% 21.8% 17.8% 15.3% 13.8% 13.6% 14.6% 16.0%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 35.9% 37.1% 42.5% 44.4% 42.6% 41.0% 42.4% 44.0% 46.0% 47.0% 46.7% 46.7% 45.1% 41.7% 36.8% 34.7% 30.9% 28.5% 25.9% 26.8% 27.0% 28.7% 30.5%
Hawaii Hawaii 0.2% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.8% 2.5% 1.8% 1.6%
Idaho Idaho 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6%
Illinois Illinois 7.4% 6.4% 2.5% 1.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.4% 1.1% 1.5% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.8% 4.3% 4.9% 7.4% 10.3% 12.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.1% 14.5%
Indiana Indiana 4.4% 2.6% 1.0% 1.1% 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 1.5% 2.0% 2.1% 2.3% 2.2% 2.8% 3.5% 3.6% 4.4% 5.8% 6.9% 7.6% 7.8% 8.4% 9.1%
Iowa Iowa 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4% 1.7% 2.1% 2.9%
Kansas Kansas 0.6% 4.7% 4.3% 3.5% 3.5% 3.2% 3.3% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8% 4.2% 4.8% 5.3% 5.8% 5.7% 5.9%
Kentucky Kentucky 17.0% 18.6% 20.2% 22.9% 24.7% 24.3% 22.5% 20.4% 16.8% 16.5% 14.4% 13.3% 11.4% 9.8% 8.6% 7.5% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.3% 7.8%
Louisiana Louisiana 55.2% 51.8% 58.5% 55.0% 50.7% 49.5% 50.1% 51.5% 50.0% 47.1% 43.1% 38.9% 36.9% 35.9% 32.9% 31.9% 29.8% 29.4% 30.8% 32.5% 32.0%
Maine Maine 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 1.2%
Maryland Maryland 34.7% 36.7% 38.2% 36.1% 34.9% 32.3% 28.3% 24.9% 22.5% 22.5% 20.7% 19.8% 17.9% 16.9% 16.9% 16.6% 16.5% 16.7% 17.8% 22.7% 24.9% 27.9% 29.4%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 1.4% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2% 0.9% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.6% 2.2% 3.1% 3.9% 5.0% 5.4% 6.6%
Michigan Michigan 3.7% 3.0% 2.1% 0.8% 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 1.6% 3.5% 4.0% 6.9% 9.2% 11.2% 12.9% 13.9% 14.2% 14.2%
Minnesota Minnesota 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 2.2% 3.5% 5.2%
Mississippi Mississippi 41.5% 47.0% 44.1% 48.4% 52.3% 51.2% 55.3% 53.7% 57.5% 57.6% 58.5% 56.2% 52.2% 50.2% 49.2% 45.3% 42.0% 36.8% 35.2% 35.6% 36.3% 37.0%
Missouri Missouri 17.6% 15.9% 18.3% 15.6% 13.2% 10.0% 6.9% 6.7% 5.6% 5.2% 4.8% 5.2% 6.2% 6.5% 7.5% 9.0% 10.3% 10.5% 10.7% 11.2% 11.6%
Montana Montana 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 0.6% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4%
Nebraska Nebraska 0.3% 0.6% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.5% 2.1% 2.7% 3.1% 3.6% 4.0% 4.5%
Nevada Nevada 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 2.7% 4.7% 5.7% 6.4% 6.6% 6.8% 8.1%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 1.1%
New Jersey New Jersey 7.7% 8.0% 7.6% 7.2% 6.4% 5.8% 4.9% 3.8% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.7% 3.5% 3.7% 5.2% 5.5% 6.6% 8.5% 10.7% 12.6% 13.4% 13.6% 13.7%
New Mexico New Mexico 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.2% 0.8% 0.5% 1.6% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 1.8% 1.9% 1.8% 2.0% 1.9% 2.1%
New York New York 7.6% 5.3% 4.2% 2.9% 2.3% 2.1% 1.6% 1.3% 1.2% 1.3% 1.2% 1.4% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% 4.2% 6.2% 8.4% 11.9% 13.7% 15.9% 15.9% 15.9%
North Carolina North Carolina 26.8% 29.4% 32.2% 34.4% 35.9% 35.6% 36.4% 36.4% 36.6% 38.0% 34.7% 33.0% 31.6% 29.8% 29.0% 27.5% 25.8% 24.5% 22.2% 22.4% 22.0% 21.6% 21.5%
North Dakota North Dakota 1.0% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 1.2%
Ohio Ohio 0.5% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0% 1.1% 1.3% 1.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 3.2% 4.7% 4.9% 6.5% 8.1% 9.1% 10.0% 10.6% 11.5% 12.2%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 8.4% 7.0% 8.3% 7.4% 7.2% 7.2% 6.5% 6.6% 6.7% 6.8% 7.4% 7.6% 7.4%
Oregon Oregon 0.5% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 1.6% 1.8%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 2.4% 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.3% 2.0% 1.9% 2.0% 2.0% 2.5% 2.5% 3.3% 4.5% 4.7% 6.1% 7.5% 8.6% 8.8% 9.2% 10.0% 10.8%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 6.3% 5.3% 4.8% 4.3% 3.7% 3.0% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.1% 2.1% 1.8% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 2.1% 2.7% 2.9% 3.9% 4.5% 5.7%
South Carolina South Carolina 43.7% 43.2% 48.4% 52.8% 55.6% 56.4% 58.9% 58.6% 58.9% 60.7% 59.8% 58.4% 55.2% 51.4% 45.6% 42.9% 38.8% 34.8% 30.5% 30.4% 29.8% 29.5% 27.9%
South Dakota South Dakota 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 1.3%
Tennessee Tennessee 10.6% 13.2% 17.5% 19.6% 21.4% 22.7% 24.5% 25.5% 25.6% 26.1% 24.4% 23.8% 21.7% 19.3% 18.3% 17.4% 16.1% 16.5% 15.8% 15.8% 16.0% 16.4% 16.7%
Texas Texas 27.5% 30.3% 31.0% 24.7% 21.8% 20.4% 17.7% 15.9% 14.7% 14.4% 12.7% 12.4% 12.5% 12.0% 11.9% 11.5% 11.8%
Utah Utah 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 1.1%
Vermont Vermont 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 1.0%
Virginia Virginia 43.4% 44.6% 47.1% 47.8% 47.9% 46.9% 45.0% 43.3% 41.9% 41.8% 38.4% 35.6% 32.6% 29.9% 26.8% 24.7% 22.1% 20.6% 18.5% 18.9% 18.8% 19.6% 19.4%
Washington (state) Washington 12.7% 0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.1% 3.2% 3.6%
West Virginia West Virginia 9.5% 9.8% 11.5% 12.1% 11.2% 9.6% 7.8% 5.6% 4.1% 4.2% 4.3% 4.5% 5.3% 5.9% 6.6% 6.2% 5.7% 4.8% 3.9% 3.3% 3.1% 3.2% 3.4%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 1.2% 1.8% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 1.9% 2.9% 3.9% 5.0% 5.7% 6.3%
Wyoming Wyoming 2.0% 1.4% 1.5% 1.0% 1.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.9% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 8.0% 12.4%

Mexican (1910–1930) and Hispanic/Latino (1940–2010) Population as a Percentage of the Total Population by U.S. Region and State[edit]

Historically, the U.S. states with the largest Mexican/Hispanic/Latino populations were primarily located in the Southwestern United States. However, the percentage of the Hispanic/Latino population has dramatically increased in many U.S. states both inside and outside the Southwest in recent decades.

% of Population of Mexican Origin (1910–1930) and of Hispanic/Latino Origin (1940–2010) by U.S. State[25][26][27][28][a]
State/Territory 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
United States United States of America 0.4% 0.7% 1.2% 1.4% 4.7% 6.4% 9.0% 12.5% 16.3%
Northeast 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 4.1% 5.3% 7.4% 9.8% 12.6%
Midwest 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 1.5% 2.2% 2.9% 4.9% 7.0%
South 1.1% 1.7% 2.5% 1.9% 4.4% 5.9% 7.9% 11.6% 15.9%
West 1.9% 3.1% 5.4% 6.1% 11.3% 14.5% 19.1% 24.3% 28.6%
Alabama Alabama 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.9% 0.6% 1.7% 3.9%
Alaska Alaska 2.1% 2.4% 3.2% 4.1% 5.5%
Arizona Arizona 28.6% 30.4% 30.2% 20.4% 17.2% 14.9% 17.3% 16.2% 18.8% 25.3% 29.6%
Arkansas Arkansas 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.8% 0.8% 3.2% 6.4%
California California 2.1% 3.7% 6.8% 6.0% 7.2% 9.1% 13.7% 19.2% 25.8% 32.4% 37.6%
Colorado Colorado 0.4% 1.6% 5.7% 8.2% 9.0% 9.0% 11.6% 11.8% 12.9% 17.1% 20.7%
Connecticut Connecticut 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 2.4% 4.0% 6.5% 9.4% 13.4%
Delaware Delaware 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 1.1% 1.6% 2.4% 4.8% 8.2%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 2.1% 2.8% 5.4% 7.9% 9.1%
Florida Florida 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.3% 6.6% 8.8% 12.2% 16.8% 22.5%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 1.1% 1.7% 5.3% 8.8%
Hawaii Hawaii 3.0% 7.4% 7.3% 7.2% 8.9%
Idaho Idaho 0.0% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 2.6% 3.9% 5.3% 7.9% 11.2%
Illinois Illinois 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.3% 3.3% 5.6% 7.9% 12.3% 15.8%
Indiana Indiana 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.2% 1.3% 1.6% 1.8% 3.5% 6.0%
Iowa Iowa 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.6% 0.9% 1.2% 2.8% 5.0%
Kansas Kansas 0.5% 0.9% 1.1% 0.7% 2.1% 2.7% 3.8% 7.0% 10.5%
Kentucky Kentucky 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.7% 0.6% 1.5% 3.1%
Louisiana Louisiana 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 1.9% 2.4% 2.2% 2.4% 4.2%
Maine Maine 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 1.3%
Maryland Maryland 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 1.5% 2.6% 4.3% 8.2%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 1.1% 2.5% 4.8% 6.8% 9.6%
Michigan Michigan 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.2% 1.4% 1.8% 2.2% 3.3% 4.4%
Minnesota Minnesota 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.6% 0.8% 1.2% 2.9% 4.7%
Mississippi Mississippi 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.4% 1.0% 0.6% 1.4% 2.7%
Missouri Missouri 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.9% 1.1% 1.2% 2.1% 3.5%
Montana Montana 0.0% 0.1% 0.5% 0.4% 1.1% 1.3% 1.5% 2.0% 2.9%
Nebraska Nebraska 0.0% 0.2% 0.5% 0.4% 1.4% 1.8% 2.3% 5.5% 9.2%
Nevada Nevada 1.1% 1.8% 3.7% 2.8% 5.6% 6.7% 10.4% 19.7% 26.5%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.6% 1.0% 1.7% 2.8%
New Jersey New Jersey 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 4.3% 6.7% 9.6% 13.3% 17.7%
New Mexico New Mexico 6.9% 9.8% 15.2% 41.7% 36.5% 28.3% 37.4% 36.6% 38.2% 42.1% 46.3%
New York New York 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.0% 8.0% 9.5% 12.3% 15.1% 17.6%
North Carolina North Carolina 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 1.0% 1.2% 4.7% 8.4%
North Dakota North Dakota 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.3% 0.6% 0.7% 1.2% 2.0%
Ohio Ohio 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.9% 1.1% 1.3% 1.9% 3.1%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 1.4% 1.9% 2.7% 5.2% 8.9%
Oregon Oregon 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 1.7% 2.5% 4.0% 8.0% 11.7%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.9% 1.3% 2.0% 3.2% 5.7%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.7% 2.1% 4.6% 8.7% 12.4%
South Carolina South Carolina 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 1.1% 0.9% 2.4% 5.1%
South Dakota South Dakota 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 1.4% 2.7%
Tennessee Tennessee 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.7% 0.7% 2.2% 4.6%
Texas Texas 7.1% 9.9% 13.8% 11.5% 13.3% 14.8% 17.7% 21.0% 25.5% 32.0% 37.6%
Utah Utah 0.0% 0.3% 0.8% 0.5% 4.1% 4.1% 4.9% 9.0% 13.0%
Vermont Vermont 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.9% 1.5%
Virginia Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.0% 1.5% 2.6% 4.7% 7.9%
Washington (state) Washington 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 2.1% 2.9% 4.4% 7.5% 11.2%
West Virginia West Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.7% 0.5% 0.7% 1.2%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.9% 1.3% 1.9% 3.6% 5.9%
Wyoming Wyoming 0.2% 1.1% 3.2% 2.4% 5.6% 5.2% 5.7% 6.4% 8.9%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 98.8% 99.0%

a^ There are other estimates on this page which are a little different. These estimates here come from the U.S. Census Bureau.

Projections for 2020 through 2060[edit]

The U.S. Census Bureau has projected that the U.S. white non-Hispanic population will become a minority (that is, less than half of the total U.S. population) during the 2040s.[29] In December 2012, the Bureau projected that 2043 would be the year in which the U.S. would become a majority minority nation, with no single ethnic classification constituting a majority of the population.[30] By 2060, Hispanics are projected to account for about one-third of the total population.[30] The tables present Census Bureau "middle series" projections published in May 2013.

Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the United States (Total Numbers) Between 2020 and 2060 (Projected)[31]
Race/Ethnic Group 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060
Total Population 333,896,000 358,471,000 380,016,000 399,803,000 420,268,000
White 255,346,000 267,604,000 276,438,000 282,959,000 289,587,000
Black 44,810,000 49,246,000 53,412,000 57,553,000 61,822,000
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 4,328,000 4,889,000 5,407,000 5,881,000 6,308,000
Asian and Pacific Islander 19,708,000 23,802,000 27,945,000 31,967,000 35,815,000
Two or more races 9,704,000 12,929,000 16,814,000 21,443,000 26,737,000
Hispanic (of any race) 63,784,000 78,655,000 94,876,000 111,732,000 128,780,000
Non-Hispanic White 199,313,000 198,817,000 193,887,000 186,334,000 178,951,000
Racial and Ethnic Demographics of the United States (Percentages) Between 2020 and 2060 (Projected)[32][33]
Race/Ethnic Group 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060
White 76.5% 74.7% 72.7% 70.8% 68.9%
Black 13.4% 13.7% 14.1% 14.4% 14.7%
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 1.3% 1.4% 1.4% 1.5% 1.5%
Asian and Pacific Islander 5.9% 6.6% 7.4% 8.0% 8.5%
Two or more races 2.9% 3.6% 4.4% 5.4% 6.4%
Hispanic (of any race) 19.1% 21.9% 25.0% 27.9% 30.6%
Non-Hispanic White 59.7% 55.5% 51.0% 46.6% 42.6%

Vital statistics of Racial and Ethnic Groups (since 1990)[edit]

Source: National Center for Health Statistics,[34] Census Bureau Intercensal Estimates [9][35]

White (non-Hispanic)[edit]

The natural increase is slightly smaller than shown for non-Hispanic whites and slightly different for non-Hispanic blacks because the birth figures shown refer to mothers of that race, not the children. Most non-white babies of non-Hispanic white mothers are either Hispanic or black, and non-Hispanic black mothers occasionally have Hispanic children. On the other hand, all children born to Hispanic mothers, even if the mothers are white Hispanic, are counted as Hispanic.

Average population (x 1,000) Live births1 Deaths Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
19902 2,626,500 14.4 1.85
19912 2,589,878 13.9 1.82
19922 2,527,207 13.4 1.80
1993 2,472,031 13.1 1.79
1994 2,438,855 12.8 1.78
1995 2,382,638 12.5 1.78
1996 2,358,989 12.3 1.78
1997 2,333,363 1,895,461 437,902 12.2 9.7 2.5 1.79
1998 2,361,462 1,912,802 448,660 12.2 9.7 2.5 1.82
1999 2,346,450 1,953,197 393,253 12.1 9.9 2.2 1.84
2000 195,702 2,362,968 1,959,919 403,049 12.2 9.9 2.3 1.87
2001 195,975 2,326,578 1,962,810 363,768 11.9 9.9 2.0 1.85
2002 196,141 2,298,156 1,981,973 316,183 11.7 10.0 1.7 1.84
2003 196,233 2,321,904 1,979,465 342,439 11.8 9.9 1.9 1.87
2004 196,462 2,296,683 1,933,382 363,301 11.7 9.7 2.0 1.87
2005 196,621 2,279,768 1,967,142 312,626 11.6 9.8 1.8 1.87
2006 196,833 2,308,640 1,944,617 364,023 11.7 9.7 2.0 1.90
2007 197,011 2,310,333 1,939,606 370,727 11.7 9.6 2.1 1.91
2008 197,184 2,267,817 1,981,198 286,619 11.5 9.8 1.7 1.87
2009 197,275 2,212,552 1,944,606 267,946 11.2 9.6 1.6 1.83
2010 197,371 2,162,406 1,967,619 194,050 10.9 9.8 1.1 1.79
2011 197,511 2,146,566 2,005,481 141,085 10.8 10.1 0.7 1.77
2012 2,134,044 10.7 1.76
2013 2,140,273

Black (non-Hispanic)[edit]

Average population (x 1,000) Live births1 Deaths Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
19902 661,701 23.0 2.55
19912 666,758 22.4 2.53
19922 657,450 21.6 2.48
1993 641,273 20.7 2.41
1994 619,198 19.5 2.31
1995 587,781 18.2 2.19
1996 578,099 17.6 2.14
1997 581,431 273,381 308,050 17.4 7.4 10.0 2.14
1998 593,127 275,264 317,863 17.5 7.4 10.1 2.16
1999 588,981 281,979 307,002 17.1 7.6 9.5 2.13
2000 34,406 604,346 282,676 321,670 17.3 7.6 9.7 2.18
2001 34,780 589,917 284,343 305,574 16.6 7.5 9.1 2.11
2002 35,130 578,335 286,573 291,762 16.1 7.5 8.6 2.05
2003 35,438 576,033 287,968 288,065 15.9 7.4 8.5 2.04
2004 35,798 578,772 283,859 294,913 15.8 7.2 8.6 2.03
2005 36,147 583,759 289,163 294,596 15.8 7.3 8.5 2.03
2006 36,521 617,247 286,581 330,666 16.5 7.1 9.4 2.13
2007 36,906 627,191 286,366 340,825 16.6 7.0 9.6 2.14
2008 37,291 623,029 285,959 337,070 16.3 7.0 9.3 2.12
2009 37,657 609,584 282,982 326,602 15.7 7.2 8.5 2.05
2010 38,008 589,808 282,750 306,389 15.1 7.2 7.9 1.97
2011 38,337 582,345 287,482 294,863 14.7 7.2 7.5 1.92
2012 583,489 14.6 1.90
2013 587,612

Hispanics (of all racial groups)[edit]

New Hampshire did not start reporting Hispanic origin until 1993, and Oklahoma until 1991, so data from those states are excluded before then.

Average population (x 1,000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
19902 595,073 26.7 2.96
19912 623,085 26.5 2.96
19922 643,271 26.1 2.96
1993 654,418 25.4 2.89
1994 665,026 24.7 2.84
1995 679,768 24.1 2.80
1996 701,339 23.8 2.77
1997 709,767 95,460 614,307 23.0 3.1 19.9 2.68
1998 734,661 98,406 636,255 22.7 3.0 19.6 2.65
1999 764,339 103,740 660,599 22.5 3.1 19.4 2.65
2000 35,662 815,868 107,254 708,614 23.1 3.0 20.1 2.73
2001 37,144 851,851 113,413 738,438 22.9 3.1 19.9 2.73
2002 38,618 876,642 117,135 759,507 22.7 3.0 19.7 2.71
2003 40,049 912,329 122,026 790,303 22.8 3.1 19.8 2.74
2004 41,501 946,349 122,416 823,933 22.8 3.0 19.9 2.76
2005 43,024 985,505 131,161 854,344 22.9 3.1 19.9 2.79
2006 44,606 1,039,077 133,004 906,073 23.3 3.0 20.3 2.86
2007 46,197 1,062,779 135,519 927,260 23.0 3.0 20.1 2.84
2008 47,794 1,041,239 140,103 901,136 21.8 3.0 18.9 2.71
2009 49,327 999,548 141,576 857,972 20.3 2.9 17.4 2.53
2010 50,790 945,180 144,427 801,573 18.7 2.9 15.8 2.35
2011 52,045 918,129 149,234 768,895 17.6 2.9 14.7 2.24
2012 907,677 17.1 2.19
2013 907,859

Asian or Pacific Islander (including of Hispanic origin)[edit]

Average population (x 1,000) Live births1 Deaths Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1990 141,635 21,127 120,508 19.0 2.00
1991 145,372 22,173 123,199 18.3 1.93
1992 150,250 23,660 126,590 17.9 1.90
1993 152,800 25,386 127,414 17.3 1.84
1994 157,632 27,103 130,529 17.1 1.83
1995 160,287 28,297 131,990 16.7 1.80
1996 165,776 29,508 136,268 16.5 1.79
1997 169,769 30,756 139,013 16.2 1.76
1998 172,652 31,987 140,665 15.9 1.73
1999 180,776 33,675 147,101 15.9 1.75
2000 11,173 200,543 34,875 165,668 17.1 1.89
2001 11,670 200,279 37,048 163,231 16.1 1.79
2002 12,157 210,907 38,332 172,575 16.3 1.79
2003 12,626 221,203 40,127 181,076 16.4 1.82
2004 13,090 229,123 40,533 188,590 16.4 1.83
2005 13,576 231,108 43,194 187,914 15.9 1.78
2006 14,067 241,045 44,707 196,338 16.0 1.80
2007 14,548 254,488 45,609 208,879 16.4 1.85
2008 15,031 253,185 47,966 205,219 15.7 1.80
2009 15,492 251,089 49,225 201,864 15.1 1.74
2010 15,922 246,886 51,158 195,728 14.5 1.69
2011 16,270 253,915 53,298 200,617 14.5 3.3 11.2 1.71
2012 272,802 15.1 1.77
2013 268,559

American Indian or Alaskan Native (including of Hispanic origin)[edit]

Average population (x 1,000) Live births1 Deaths Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1990 39,051 8,316 30,735 18.9 2.19
1991 38,841 8,621 30,220 18.3 2.14
1992 39,453 8,953 30,500 17.9 2.14
1993 38,732 9,579 29,153 17.0 2.01
1994 37,740 9,637 28,103 16.0 1.95
1995 37,278 9,997 27,281 15.3 1.88
1996 37,880 10,127 27,753 14.9 1.86
1997 38,572 10,576 27,996 14.7 1.83
1998 40,272 10,845 29,427 14.8 1.85
1999 40,170 11,312 28,858 14.2 1.78
2000 2,684 41,668 11,363 30,305 14.0 1.77
2001 2,770 41,872 11,977 29,895 13.6 1.72
2002 2,857 42,368 12,415 29,953 13.3 1.68
2003 2,948 43,052 13,147 29,905 13.0 1.64
2004 3,045 43,927 13,124 30,803 12.8 1.61
2005 3,148 44,813 13,918 30,895 12.6 1.59
2006 3,259 47,721 14,037 33,684 13.0 1.63
2007 3,377 49,443 14,367 35,076 12.9 1.63
2008 3,505 49,537 14,785 34,752 12.5 1.57
2009 3,637 48,665 14,960 33,705 11.8 1.50
2010 3,755 46,760 15,520 31,240 11.0 1.40
2011 3,815 46,419 15,875 30,544 10.7 4.1 6.6 1.37
2012 46,093 10.5 1.35
2012 46,167

Notes:
Estimates for the population of each race by year (available starting in 2000) do not include multiracial individuals which have been "bridged" to the single-race categories for the purposes of calculating the birth and fertility rates.
p Preliminary data.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d Gibson, Campbell; Kay Jung (September 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States" (Working Paper Series No. 56). Population Division, U. S. Census Bureau. 
  3. ^ "A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15". American Anthropological Association. 1997. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Office of Management and Budget. October 30, 1997. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
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  6. ^ a b Gibson, Campbell; Kay Jung (September 13, 2002). "Table 4. South Region – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990". Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 15, 2013. 
  7. ^ Copeland, Larry (2011-07-01). "Blacks return to Southern roots - USATODAY.com". Usatoday30.usatoday.com. Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  8. ^ "Lynching Statistics". Law2.umkc.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-03. 
  9. ^ a b c Wilkerson, Isabel. "Fresh Air Interview: Journalist Isabel Wilkerson – Exploring The Great African-American Migration". NPR. Retrieved 2013-05-12. 
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  12. ^ "Asian Americans". History-world.org. 1941-12-07. Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  13. ^ http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/immigration/Hispanics-US-1850-1990.pdf
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron (January 2006) [2006], Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition 1 (First Edition ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–177 to 1–179. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). March 2001. Retrieved 2013-05-04. 
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  19. ^ "Questions and Answers for Census 2000 Data on Race". Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-17. 
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  21. ^ a b c http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf
  22. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Powered by Google Docs". Docs.google.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
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  26. ^ "U.S. Census of Population: 1960". Www2.census.gov. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
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  29. ^ "An Older and More Diverse Nation by Midcentury" (Release CB08-123). U.S. Census Bureau. August 14, 2008. 
  30. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau Projections Show a Slower Growing, Older, More Diverse Nation a Half Century from Now" (Release CB12-243). U.S. Census Bureau. December 12, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Table 4. Projections of the Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2015 to 2060. Middle Series.". 2012 National Population Projections: Summary Tables. U.S. Census Bureau. May 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Table 5. Percent Distribution of the Projected Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2015 to 2060. Middle Series.". 2012 National Population Projections: Summary Tables. U.S. Census Bureau. May 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
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  35. ^ Population Estimates: Intercensal Estimates – U.S Census Bureau. Census.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-24.