||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2014)|
A racial hoax is a hoax that occurs "when someone fabricates a crime and blames it on another person because of [his or her] race or when an actual crime has been committed and the perpetrator falsely blames someone because of [his or her] race". The term was popularised by Katheryn Russell-Brown in her book The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment and Other Macroaggressions (1998). A racial hoax can be performed by a person of any race, against a person of any race. However racial hoaxes against African Americans are most likely to receive media attention and create a more acute social problem due to the criminal black man stereotype.
Patricia L. Brougham argued that the common stereotype of criminal black men has enabled the use of racial hoaxes against this group. Brougham writes that these stereotypes cause law enforcement agencies to believe that a black perpetrator exists when in reality the allegation is false.
Russell-Brown argues that racial hoaxes are devised, perpetrated, and successful because they take advantage of fears and stereotypes. According to her, white-on-black hoaxes are the most likely to receive media attention and to cause social and economics problems. She argues that anyone performing a racial hoax should face criminal charges, particularly if a black person is targeted, and that hoaxes targeting black people create more severe problems than those against other racial groups. Letha A. See in Violence as Seen Through a Prism of Color (2001) sees the hoax as a unique method used against specific racial groups, rather than against individuals. Sally S. Simpson and Robert Agnew suggests that the unusual nature of some racial hoaxes can cause them to be dismissed.
Between 1987 and 1996 in the United States, Russell-Brown documented 67 racial hoax cases, and notes the following: 70 percent were white-on-black hoaxes; more than half were exposed within a week; hoaxes are most frequently used to allege assault, rape, or murder; hoax perpetrators were charged with filing a false report in about 45 percent of cases. These cases represent only a fraction of the total number of cases because racial hoaxes are not reported as such and most crimes are not covered in the media. According to her, a high proportion of the white-on-black cases were performed by police and judicial officers; she documents seven such cases. Historically the most common type of hoax performed against black males was rape. Because of fears over the 'black rapist', Russell-Brown suggests "it is not surprising that so many White women have created Black male rapists as their fictional criminals".
In the United States there has been little legal response to racial hoaxes. Russel-Brown wrote that (at the time of the book written) only New Jersey considered legislation to criminalize racial hoaxes.
In 1992, Jesse Anderson became infamous for stabbing his wife Barbara E. Anderson thirty-seven times while in the parking lot of a T.G.I. Friday's in Milwaukee. Anderson blamed two African-American men for attacking him and his wife, and even presented police with a Los Angeles Clippers basketball cap he claimed to have knocked off the head of one of the assailants. When details of the crime were made public, a university student told police Anderson had purchased the hat from him a few days earlier. According to employees at a military surplus store, the red-handled fishing knife which was used to murder Barbara was sold to Anderson only a few weeks earlier. Police stated that the store was the only one in Milwaukee that sold that type of knife. Anderson was shortly thereafter charged with murder, found guilty, and sentenced to life imprisonment.
The case of Charles Stuart is often cited as an example of a racial hoax. On 23 October 1989, in Boston, Stuart and his pregnant wife Carol were driving when, according to Stuart, a black gunman forced his way into the car and shot them both, hitting Carol in the head and Stuart in the body. Carol died later that night; the baby, delivered by caesarean section, died 17 days later. Still alive, Stuart drove away and called the police, who conducted a search of Mission Hill, Boston, a mostly black area. Stuart picked out Willie Bennett, a black man, from a photo lineup. The police shifted their attention onto Stuart when Stuart's brother Matthew told them that Stuart had committed the murder, and when they noted inconsistencies in Stuart's account. On 4 January 1990, Stuart committed suicide. The police later learned that Stuart had committed the murder to cash in on his wife's insurance policy.
In October 1994, in South Carolina, Susan Smith drowned her sons by putting them in her car and letting it roll into John D. Long Lake. She called the police and stated that an armed black man had hijacked her car with her two sons inside. After an extensive manhunt, Smith confessed that she had killed her sons, and, in July 1995, was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Tawana Glenda Brawley gained notoriety in 1987-88 for falsely accusing six white men of having raped her. The charges received widespread national attention because of her age (15), the persons accused (including police officers and a prosecuting attorney), and the shocking state in which Brawley was discovered after the rape (naked and covered with feces). Brawley's accusations were given widespread media attention in part from the involvement of her advisers, including the Reverend Al Sharpton and attorneys Alton H. Maddox and C. Vernon Mason, three other African-Americans). After hearing evidence, a grand jury concluded in October 1988 that Brawley had not been a victim of rape and that she herself may have created the appearance of an attack. Steven Pagones, the New York prosecutor whom Brawley had accused as being one of her assailants, successfully sued Brawley and her three advisers for defamation.
Duke lacrosse case
The Duke lacrosse case is to a criminal investigation into a 2006 false accusation of rape made against three members of the men's lacrosse team at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina by Crystal Gail Mangum, an African American student at North Carolina Central University who worked as a stripper, dancer and escort. Many people involved in, or commenting on the case, including prosecutor Mike Nifong, called the alleged assault a hate crime or suggested it might be one.
The fallout from the case's resolution led to, among other things, the disbarment of prosecutor Mike Nifong.
Ashley Todd mugging hoax
In October 2008, Ashley Todd, a volunteer for the U.S. presidential campaign of Republican John McCain, falsely claimed to have been the victim of robbery and politically motivated physical assault by a supporter of McCain's Democratic opponent Barack Obama. The story broke less than two weeks before the 2008 United States presidential election on November 4. Todd later confessed to inventing the story after surveillance photos and a polygraph test were presented. She was charged with filing a false police report, and entered a probation program for first-time offenders.
- Russell-Brown, p. 70.
- Greene, Helen Taylor; Gabbidon, Shaun L. (2009). Encyclopedia of Race and Crime (volume 1). SAGE Publications. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-4129-5085-5
- Russell-Brown, p. 71.
- Russell-Brown, pp. 70–71.
- See, p. 13.
- Simpson and Agnew, p. 56.
- Russell-Brown, pp. 71–76.
- Russell-Brown, pp. 77–78.
- Russell-Brown, p. 79.
- Simpson and Agnew, p. 5.
- Russell-Brown, p. 70.
- Once A Victim, Now A Suspect Chicago Tribune
- Henry and Lanier, p. 158.
- Willis, Jim (2010). 100 Media Moments That Changed America. ABC-CLIO. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-0-313-35517-2
- Russell-Brown, p. 69.
- Markovitz, p. 85.
- Dance, Lory Janelle (2002). Tough Fronts: The Impact of Street Culture on Schooling. Routledge. p. 132. ISBN 0-415-93300-5
- Edwin Diamond. The Media Show: The Changing Face of the News, 1985-1990, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1991. Quote: “The great paradox of Brawley 2 was that this dumb show went on for months, encouraged by the authorities and the media. The “white power structure" —as Sharpton calls it — all but propped up the advisers' shaky scenarios. The governor and the attorney general, their eyes on electoral politics as well as the case, gave the appearance of trying to avoid offense to any constituency, black or white.”
- Court TV
- Pagones v. Maddox et al.
- "Crystal Gail Mangum: Profile of the Duke Rape Accuser" Fox News April 11, 2007
- Katz, Neil (February 18, 2010). "Crystal Mangum, Stripper Who Falsely Accused Duke Lacrosse Players, Charged with Attempted Murder". CBS News. CBS. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
In 2006, Mangum, then a North Carolina Central University student earning money as a stripper, said that three Duke lacrosse players raped her
- Siemaszko, Corky (February 18, 2010). "Crystal Gail Mangum, stripper in Duke lacrosse rape case, charged with arson and attempted murder". nydailynews.com (New York). Retrieved September 11, 2010.
- Alexandria Harper, "Woman behind Duke lacrosse scandal speaks out"[dead link], The A&T Register, April 28, 2008 Archived 2009-05-16
- Melissa McNamara (March 30, 2006). "DA Stands Behind Duke Rape Charge – The Early Show". CBS News. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- Nancy Grace: Was Young Woman Assaulted by Duke Lacrosse Team? 2006-03-31
- Roberts, Selena (March 31, 2006). The New York Times http://select.nytimes.com/2006/03/31/sports/31roberts.html
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- "'Rita Cosby Live & Direct' for April 11 - Rita Cosby Specials". MSNBC. April 12, 2006. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- "John McCain volunteer admits mugging story is lie". Boston Herald (PITTSBURGH). October 25, 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "McCain Campaign Volunteer Admits Alleged Attack Was a Hoax". Fox News. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- Russell-Brown, Katheryn (1998). The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment and Other Macroaggressions see Google Books. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-7471-7
- Simpson, Sally S.; Agnew, Robert. (2000). Of Crime and Criminality: The Use of Theory in Everyday Life. Pine Forge Press. ISBN 0-7619-8638-3
- Henry, Stuart; Lanier, Mark. (2001). What Is Crime?: Controversies Over the Nature of Crime and What to Do about It. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-9807-6
- See, Letha A. (Lee) (2001). Violence as Seen Through a Prism of Color. Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-1393-2
- Markovitz, Jonathan (2004). Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3995-7