Racism in Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Racism in South Africa)
Jump to: navigation, search

Racism in Africa is multi-faceted and dates back several centuries.

Botswana[edit]

Since the mid-1990s the central government of Botswana has been trying to move Bushmen out of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve even though the national constitution guarantees the Bushmen the right to live there in perpetuity. As of October 2005, the government has resumed its policy of forcing all Bushmen off their lands in the game reserve using armed police and threats of violence or death.[1] Many of the involuntarily displaced Bushmen live in squalid resettlement camps and some have resorted to prostitution and alcoholism. About 250 others remain in the game reserve or have surreptitiously returned to the Kalahari to resume their independent lifestyles.[2]

"How can you have Stone Age creatures continue to exist in the age of computers?" asked Botswana's president Festus Mogae.[3] A report released by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination condemns Botswana's treatment of the 'Bushmen' as racist.[4][5]

Burundi[edit]

Further information: Burundian Genocide

Beginning about 1880, Roman Catholic missionaries arrived in the Great Lakes region. Later, when German forces occupied the area during World War I, the conflict and efforts for Catholic conversion became more pronounced. As the Tutsi resisted conversion, the missionaries found success only among the Hutu. In an effort to reward conversion, the colonial government confiscated traditionally Tutsi land and reassigned it to Hutu tribes, igniting a conflict that has lasted into the 21st century.[6]

The area was ruled as a colony by Germany (before World War I) and Belgium. Because Tutsis had been the tradiitional governing elite, both colonial powers kept this system and allowed only the Tutsi to be educated and only they could participate in the colonial government. Such discriminatory policies engendered resentment.

When the Belgians took over the colony, they believed the colony could be better governed if they continued to identify the different populations. In the 1920s, they required people to identify with a particular ethnic group and classified them in censuses. European colonists viewed Africans in general as children who needed to be guided, but noted the Tutsi to be the ruling culture in Rwanda-Burundi.[citation needed] In 1959, Belgium reversed its stance and allowed the majority Hutu to assume control of the government through universal elections after independence. This partly reflected internal Belgian domestic politics, who later saw the discrimination against the Hutu majority as similar to oppression within Belgium suffered from the Flemish-Walloon conflict. They saw the democratization and empowerment of the Hutu as a just response to the Tutsi domination. The Belgian policies wavered and flip-flopped considerably during this period leading up to independence of Burundi and Rwanda.

The Hutu majority had revolted against the Tutsi but was unable to take power. Tutsis fled and created exile communities outside Rwanda in Uganda and Tanzania. Since the nation's independence, more extremist Tutsi came to power and oppressed the Hutus, especially those who were educated.[7][8][9][10][11] Their actions led to the deaths of up to 200,000 Hutus.[12] Overt discrimination from the colonial period was continued by different Rwandan and Burundian governments, including identity cards that distinguished Tutsi and Hutu.

The Belgian-sponsored Tutsi monarchy survived until 1959, when Kigeli V was exiled from the colony (then called Ruanda-Urundi). In Burundi, Tutsis, who are the minority, maintained control of the government and military.

In Burundi, a campaign of genocide was conducted against the country's Hutu population in 1972,[11][13][14][15][16] and an estimated 100,000 Hutus died.[12][12] In 1993, Burundi's first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, who was Hutu, was believed to be assassinated by Tutsi officers, as was the person constitutionally entitled to succeed him.[17] This sparked a period of civil strife between Hutu political structures and the Tutsi military, in which an estimated 500,000 Burundians died.[citation needed] There were many mass killings of Tutsis and moderate Hutus; these events were deemed genocide by the United Nations International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi.[18]

Ethiopia[edit]

Main article: Shanqella

Racism in Ethiopia has traditionally been directed at the country's Nilotic ethnic minorities, as well as other individuals with similarly pronounced "Negroid" physical features. Collectively, these groups are locally known as Shanqella or barya, derogatory terms originally denoting slave descent, irrespective of the individual's family history.[19][20]

Historically, the Shanqella constituted most of the slave labour in the ruling local Afro-Asiatic societies.[21] The Abyssinians (Habesha highlanders) were also noted as having actively hunted the Shanqella during the 19th century.[22] Following the abolition of the slave trade in the 1940s, the freed Shanqella and barya were typically employed as unskilled labour.[21] Racial discrimination against the barya or Shanqella communities in Ethiopia still exists, affecting access to political and social opportunities and resources.[19]

Traditionally, racism against perceived barya transcended class and remained in effect regardless of social position or parentage. As a result, former President of Ethiopia Mengistu Haile Mariam was virtually absent from the country's controlled press in the first few weeks of his seizure of power. He also consciously avoided making public appearances, here too on the belief that his "Negroid" appearance would not sit well with the country's deposed political elite, particularly the Amhara.[23] By contrast, Mengistu's rise to prominence was hailed by the southern Shanqella groups as a personal victory, with one of their own having made good.[20]

Although other populations in Ethiopia have faced varying degrees of discrimination, little of that adversity has by contrast been on account of racial differences. It is instead more typically rooted in disparities in class and competition for economic status. The often socio-economically disadvantaged Oromo and Gurage are thus not considered by the highlander groups as being racially barya, owing to their similar physical features and common Afro-Asiatic ancestry.[21]

In terms of traditional perceptions, the Shanqella likewise racially contrast themselves from the Afro-Asiatic populations. The Anywaa (Anuak) Nilotes of southern Ethiopia consequently regard the Amhara, Oromo, Tigray and other Afro-Asiatic groups collectively as gaala in contradistinction to themselves.[24]

Ivory Coast[edit]

In the past recent years the Ivory Coast has seen a resurgence in ethnic tribal hatred and religious intolerance. In addition to the many victims among the various tribes of the northern and southern regions of the country that have perished in the ongoing conflict, foreigners residing or visiting the Ivory Coast have also been subjected to violent attacks. According to a report by Human Rights Watch, the Ivory Coast government is guilty of fanning ethnic hatred for its own political ends.[25]

In 2004, the Young Patriots of Abidjan, strongly nationalist organisation, rallied by the State media, plundered possessions of foreign nationals in Abidjan. Calls for violence against whites and non-Ivorians were broadcast on national radio and TV after the Young Patriots seized control of its offices. Rapes, beatings, and murders of white expatriates and local Lebanese followed. Thousands of expatriates and Lebanese fled. The attacks drew international condemnation.[26][27]

Kenya[edit]

Ethnic conflicts in Kenya occur frequently, although most are minor skirmishes a significant increase in the severity of these conflicts between the country's various ethnic groups began in the early nineties, culminating into the eventual nation-wide 2007–08 Kenyan crisis that occurred right after the winner of the presidential election was declared in December 27, 2007.[28]

Much of the ethnic conflicts in Kenya tend to usually more often occur only between the nation's larger ethnic groups such as the: Kikuyu, Luhya, Luo and the Kalenjin.

Liberia[edit]

Further information: Americo-Liberian

Americo-Liberians are an ethnic group in Liberia that trace their ancestry to free-born and formerly enslaved African-Americans who immigrated to Africa the 19th century to become founders of Liberia a country that was created by American Colonization Society from land that was colonized by the U.S. The society was created to allow the return of freed African Americans from the recently abolished slave trade to what was considered greater freedom in Africa.

Soon after colonization and immigrating the Americo-Liberians believing they were superior both culturally, ethnically, and religiously enslaved the indigenous population and tried to reeducate the them by forcing their beliefs and culture on them while enslaving them and forcing them to work on their newly created plantations modeled after the very same forms of slave labour practices that the U.S. practiced. This can be seen in the fact that Americo-Liberians converted most of the indigenous population into practicing Christianity and Liberia is now a Christian majority nation even though before that most of the population practiced traditional African religions. Owing to their belief of racial superiority Americo-Liberians rarely intermarried with the Indigenous population for fear that it would dilute their racial purity/superiority this is can seen in that majority of Liberia's presidents throughout Liberia's history when Americo-Liberians ruled the nation despite making up only a disproportionately small amount of the country's population were Mulattoes.

After enslaving the Indigenous population the Americo-Liberians dominated the nation politically, socially, economically and culturally this is true in the fact that for 133 years after independence, the Republic of Liberia was a one-party ruled nation by the Americo-Liberian dominated True Whig Party. Americo-Liberians have dominated Liberia's politic since its founding back in 1820 until Samuel Doe led a military coup in 1980. There is controversy on how Americo-Liberians held on to power for so long. Some attribute it to the fact that divisions were based on "light-skin vs. dark skin" particularly because the first president was a light skinned Mulatto. Although other observers attribute it to the Masonic Order of Liberia.[29] During the military coup most of the powerful Americo-Liberian families fled to America in the 1980s after President William Tolbert was assassinated for fear of being assassinated themselves.

Due to the tyranny of their reign which eventually led to the infamous coup in 1980 to liberate/overthrow the country from Americo-Liberian rule and return the power to the Indigenous Liberians which constitute the majority of the nation's population. The effects of Americo-Liberian rule thereafter that resulted after the coup was that much of the indigenous population did not know how to decide who should be the ruler(s) of the nation due to the fact that much of the Indigenous population did not know how to rule a society due to the oppression dealt to them by Americo-Liberians for generations and that there was much political instability due ethnic tensions which led to the subsequent civil wars and the destruction of the country's economy leading Liberia to currently being the 3rd most impoverished nation in the world with about 85% of the society's population living below the international poverty line.

Madagascar[edit]

Ethnic tensions in Madagascar often produce violent conflict between the highlanders and coastal peoples. The Merina people in particular are often the targets of violence especially during political campaigns to elect a new president.[30]

Mali[edit]

Main article: Slavery in Mali

Slavery continues to exist in Mali in all ethnic groups of the country but particularly among the Tuareg communities. The French formally abolished slavery in 1905, but many slaves remained with their masters until 1946 when large emancipation activism occurred.[31] The first government of independent Mali tried to end slavery, but these efforts were undermined with the military dictatorship from 1968 until 1991. Slavery persists today with thousands of people still held in servitude; however, an active social movement called Temedt (which won the 2012 Anti-Slavery International award) has been pressuring the government for ending slavery in the country.[32][33] Although the Malian government denies that slavery continues, National Geographic writer Kira Salak claimed in 2002 that slavery was quite conspicuous and that she herself bought and then freed two slaves in Timbuktu.[34] In addition, with the 2012 Tuareg Rebellion, there are reports of ex-slaves being recaptured by their former masters.[33]

Mauritania[edit]

Main article: Slavery in Mauritania
Further information: Slavery in modern Africa

Slavery in Mauritania persists despite its abolition in 1980 and affects the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery before generations, who live now in Mauritania as "black Moors" or haratin and who partially still serve the "white Moors", or bidhan, as slaves. The practice of slavery in Mauritania is most dominant within the traditional upper class of the Moors. For centuries, the so-called Haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by these Moors. Social attitudes have changed among most urban Moors, but in rural areas, the ancient divide is still very alive.[35]

The ruling bidanes (the name means literally white-skinned people) are descendants of the Sanhaja Berbers and Beni Ḥassān Arab tribes who emigrated to northwest Africa and present-day Western Sahara and Mauritania during the Middle Ages. Many descendants of the Beni Ḥassān tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their ancestors. This ideology has led to oppression, discrimination and even enslavement of other groups in Mauritania.[36]

According to some estimates, as many to 600,000 black Mauritanians, or 20% of the population, are still enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour.[37] Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007.[38]

Namibia[edit]

About 4,000 commercial land owners, mostly whites, own over 50% of the arable land across the country despite a land reform process.[39][40] When the country was known as South West Africa, White Namibians enjoyed a highly privileged position due to Apartheid laws enforcing strict segregation and white domination.[41]

On 12 January 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero, rebelled against German colonial rule. In August, German general Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke, where most of them died of thirst. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans only to suffer a similar fate.

This violence and war eventually led to genocide performed by the Germans against the Herero and Nama people known as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide it is considered to have been the first genocide of the 20th century. In total, from 24,000 up to 100,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama died.[42][43][44][45][46] The genocide was characterised by widespread death by starvation and thirst because the Herero who fled the violence were prevented from returning from the Namib Desert. Some sources also claim that the German colonial army systematically poisoned desert wells.[47][48] The genocide took place between 1904 and 1907 in German South-West Africa (now modern day Namibia), during the Herero Wars.

In 1926, except for archive copies, it was withdrawn and destroyed following a "decision of the then Legislative Assembly".[49][50] Survivors, majority of whom were women and children, were eventually put in concentration camps, such as that at Shark Island, where the German authorities forced them to work as slave labour for German military and settlers, all prisoners were categorised into groups fit and unfit for work, and pre-printed death certificates indicating "death by exhaustion following privation" were issued.[51] The British government published their well-known account of the German genocide of the Nama and Herero peoples in 1918.[52]

Many Herero died later of disease, overwork and malnutrition.[53][54] Camps, such as that in Windhoek, showed mortality rates as high as 61%[55] The mortality rate in the camps reached 45% in 1908.[56] The death rates are calculated at between 69 and 74%.[57]

Food in the camps was extremely scarce, consisting of rice with no additions.[58] Shootings, hangings and beatings were common,[59] and the sjambok was used by guards who treated the forced labourers harshly. Medical experiments were performed on the Herero and Nama people by the Germans much similar to the ways the Germans did to the European Jews during the Holocaust. Eugen Fischer, a German anthropologist, came to the concentration camps to conduct medical experiments on race,[60] using children of Herero people and mulatto children of Herero women and German men as test subjects.[60] Other experiments were made by Dr Bofinger, who injected Herero that were suffering from scurvy with various substances including arsenic and opium; afterwards he researched the effects of these substances by performing autopsies on dead bodies[61]

With the closure of concentration camps all surviving Herero were distributed as labourers for settlers in the German colony, and from that time on, all Herero over the age of seven were forced to wear a metal disc with their labour registration number,[60] and banned from owning land or cattle, a necessity for pastoral society.[62]

It is believed that the Herero and Namaqua genocide influenced the Nazis and Nazi Germany.

In 1985, the United Nations' Whitaker Report classified the aftermath as an attempt to exterminate the Herero and Nama peoples of South-West Africa, and therefore one of the earliest attempts at genocide in the 20th century. The German government recognised and apologised for the events in 2004, but has ruled out financial compensation or land reparation for the victims' descendants.[63] In 2004, there was only minor media attention in Germany on this matter.[64]

Niger[edit]

In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport to Chad the so-called Diffa Arabs: Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger.[65] This population numbered about 150,000.[66] While the government was rounding up Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government had eventually suspended a controversial decision to deport Arabs.[67][68]

In Niger, where the practice of slavery was outlawed in 2003, a study has found that more than 800,000 people are still slaves, almost 8% of the population.[69][70] Slavery dates back for centuries in Niger and was finally criminalised in 2003, after five years of lobbying by Anti-Slavery International and Nigerian human-rights group, Timidria.[71]

Descent-based slavery, where generations of the same family are born into bondage, is traditionally practiced by at least four of Niger's eight ethnic groups. The slave masters are mostly from the lighter-skinned nomadic tribes — the Tuareg, Fulani, Toubou and Arabs.[72] It is especially rife among the warlike Tuareg, in the wild deserts of north and west Niger, who roam near the borders with Mali and Algeria. In the region of Say on the right bank of the river Niger, it is estimated that three-quarters of the population around 1904–1905 was composed of slaves.[73]

Historically, the Tuareg swelled the ranks of their black slaves during war raids into other peoples’ lands. War was then the main source of supply of slaves, although many were bought at slave markets, run mostly by indigenous peoples.[69][74]

Republic of the Congo[edit]

In the Republic of Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live as slaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The Pygmy slaves belong from birth to their Bantu masters in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say Pygmies are often paid at the master's whim; in cigarettes, used clothing, or even nothing at all. As a result of pressure from UNICEF and human-rights activists, a law that would grant special protections to the Pygmy people is awaiting a vote by the Congo parliament.[75][76]

Rwanda[edit]

Further information: Rwandan Genocide

Beginning about 1880, Roman Catholic missionaries arrived in the Great Lakes region. Later, when German forces occupied the area during World War I, the conflict and efforts for Catholic conversion became more pronounced. As the Tutsi resisted conversion, the missionaries found success only among the Hutu. In an effort to reward conversion, the colonial government confiscated traditionally Tutsi land and reassigned it to Hutu tribes, igniting a conflict that has lasted into the 21st century.[6]

The area was ruled as a colony by Germany (before World War I) and Belgium. Because Tutsis had been the tradiitional governing elite, both colonial powers kept this system and allowed only the Tutsi to be educated and only they could participate in the colonial government. Such discriminatory policies engendered resentment.

When the Belgians took over the colony, they believed the colony could be better governed if they continued to identify the different populations. In the 1920s, they required people to identify with a particular ethnic group and classified them in censuses. European colonists viewed Africans in general as children who needed to be guided, but noted the Tutsi to be the ruling culture in Rwanda-Burundi.[citation needed] In 1959, Belgium reversed its stance and allowed the majority Hutu to assume control of the government through universal elections after independence. This partly reflected internal Belgian domestic politics, who later saw the discrimination against the Hutu majority as similar to oppression within Belgium suffered from the Flemish-Walloon conflict. They saw the democratization and empowerment of the Hutu as a just response to the Tutsi domination. The Belgian policies wavered and flip-flopped considerably during this period leading up to independence of Burundi and Rwanda.

The Hutu majority had revolted against the Tutsi but was unable to take power. Tutsis fled and created exile communities outside Rwanda in Uganda and Tanzania. Since the nation's independence, more extremist Tutsi came to power and oppressed the Hutus, especially those who were educated.[7][8][9][10][11] Their actions led to the deaths of up to 200,000 Hutus.[12] Overt discrimination from the colonial period was continued by different Rwandan and Burundian governments, including identity cards that distinguished Tutsi and Hutu.

The Belgian-sponsored Tutsi monarchy survived until 1959, when Kigeli V was exiled from the colony (then called Ruanda-Urundi). In Rwanda, the political power was transferred from the minority Tutsi to the majority Hutu.[77]

In Rwanda, a Tutsi rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, invaded Rwanda from Uganda, which started a civil war against Rwanda's Hutu government in 1990. A peace agreement was signed, but violence erupted again, culminating in the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, when Hutu extremists killed[78] an estimated 800,000 Rwandans, mostly Tutsis.[79] About 30% of the Twa population of Rwanda were also killed.[80]

Somalia[edit]

Main article: Slavery in Somalia

The Bantu (also called Wagosha) are an ethnic minority group in Somalia.[81] They are the descendants of people from various Bantu ethnic groups originating in what are modern-day Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique who were sold into slavery as part of the recent Arab slave trade.[81] Bantus are ethnically, physically and culturally distinct from Somalis, and have remained marginalized ever since their arrival in Somalia.[81][82]

Bantu adult and children slaves (referred to collectively as jareer by their Somali masters[83]) were purchased in the slave market exclusively to do undesirable work on plantation grounds.[83] They toiled under the control of and separately from their Somali patrons. In terms of legal considerations, Bantu slaves were also devalued. Additionally, Somali social mores strongly discouraged, censured and looked down upon any kind of sexual contact with Bantu slaves. Freedom for these plantation slaves was also often acquired through escape.[83]

In addition to Bantu plantation slaves, Somalis sometimes enslaved peoples of Oromo pastoral background that were captured during wars and raids on Oromo settlements.[84][85] However, there were marked differences in terms of the perception, capture and treatment of the Oromo pastoral slaves versus the Bantu plantation slaves. On an individual basis, Oromo subjects were also not viewed as racially jareer by their Somali captors.[84]

During the civil war in Somalia, many Bantu were evicted from their farms by various armed factions.[86] In the 2000s, thousands of Bantus began returning to their ancestral lands in southeastern Africa, after being granted citizenship and allocated land in areas where their ancestors are known to have been taken from as slaves.[87]

South Africa[edit]

Racism is still a fact of life in South Africa.[88] The end of Apartheid might have removed the legal framework allowing institutionalised racism, but racism in South Africa both predates and encompasses more than just the institutionalised racism of apartheid.

Colonial racism[edit]

The establishment of the Dutch East India Company settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 brought with it the established slave labor practices of the company.[89] Many of these slaves were imported from the company's more established settlements in India and the East Indies.[90] Slavery was by no means just restricted to the European slave trade. During the Difaqane, the Zulu under Shaka overran many smaller tribes and enslaved them.[91]

Slavery in South Africa was officially abolished in 1833 with the Slavery Abolition Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.[92]

There are many examples of racism and discriminatory practices during the colonial period, such as the allocation of rations during the Siege of Ladysmith

For Whites—Biscuit, 1/4 lb.; Maize meal, 3 oz.

For Indians and Kaffirs—Maize meal, 8 oz.
Europeans—Fresh meat, 1 lb.
Kaffirs—Fresh meat, 1-1/4 lbs. (Chiefly horseflesh.)
For White men—Coffee or tea, 1/12 oz.; pepper, 1/64 oz.; salt, 1/3 oz.; sugar, 1 oz.; mustard, 1/20 oz.; Vinegar, 1/12 gill.

For Indians—a little rice.
— H. W. Nevinson [93]

Even Mohandas Gandhi who worked to eradicate racism and in particular racism that affected the Indian communities in South Africa, was not immune to racism during this period. In one of his early articles for the Indian Opinion he writes:

Kaffirs are as a rule uncivilised - the convicts even more so. They are troublesome, very dirty and live almost like animals.

— Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi [94]

Apartheid racism[edit]

Post apartheid racism[edit]

Sudan[edit]

Main article: Racism in Sudan

In the Sudan, black African captives in the civil war were often enslaved, and female prisoners were often used sexually,[95] with their Arab captors claiming that Islamic law grants them permission.[96] According to CBS news, slaves have been sold for US$50 a piece.[97] In September 2000, the U.S. State Department alleged that "the Sudanese government's support of slavery and its continued military action which has resulted in numerous deaths are due in part to the victims' religious beliefs."[98] Jok Madut Jok, professor of History at Loyola Marymount University, states that the abduction of women and children of the south is slavery by any definition. The government of Sudan insists that the whole matter is no more than the traditional tribal feuding over resources.[99]

The United States government's Sudan Peace Act of October 21, 2002 accused Sudan of genocide in an ongoing civil war which has cost more than 2,000,000 lives and has displaced more than 4,000,000 people since the war started in 1983.[100]

During the Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery; estimates of abductions range from 14,000 to 200,000. Abduction of Dinka women and children was common.[101]

In 2004, it became widely known that there was an organised campaign by Janjaweed militias (nomadic Arab shepherds with the support of Sudanese government troops) to get rid of 80 black African groups from the Darfur region of western Sudan. These peoples include the Fur, Zaghawa and Massalit.[102][103]

Mukesh Kapila (United Nations humanitarian coordinator) is quoted as saying: "This is more than just a conflict. It is an organised attempt [by Khartoum] to do away with a group of people. The only difference between Rwanda [in 1994] and Darfur now is the numbers of dead, murdered, tortured and raped involved"[104][105][106][107] A July 14, 2007 article notes that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chad and Niger crossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by the Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. Some 2.5 million have now been forced to flee their homes after attacks by Sudanese troops and Janjaweed militia.[108]

Tanzania[edit]

Prior to the 16th century, the bulk of slaves exported from Africa were shipped from East Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. Zanzibar became a leading port on this trade. Arab slave traders differed from European ones in that they would often conduct raiding expeditions themselves, sometimes penetrating deep into the continent. They also differed in that their market greatly preferred the purchase of female slaves over male ones. Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port, and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the city each year.[109]

David Livingstone wrote of the slave trade:

"To overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility.... We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path. [Onlookers] said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer. We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead.... We came upon a man dead from starvation.... The strangest disease I have seen in this country seems really to be broken heartedness, and it attacks free men who have been captured and made slaves."

Livingstone estimated that 80,000 Africans died each year before ever reaching the slave markets of Zanzibar.[110][111][112][113]

The Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964 put an end to the local Arab dynasty. As many as 17,000 Arabs were massacred by the descendants of black African slaves, according to reports, and thousands of others were detained and their property either confiscated or destroyed.[114][115]

Tunisia[edit]

The accession of the Almohade dynasty to the throne of the Maghreb provinces in 1146 proved very disastrous to the Jews of Tunis. Jews as well as Christians were compelled either to embrace Islam or to leave the country. Abd al-Mu'min's successors pursued the same course, and their severe measures resulted either in emigration or in forcible conversions. Soon becoming suspicious of the sincerity of the new converts, the Almohades compelled them to wear a special garb, with a yellow cloth for a head-covering.[116]

Mistranslations of Arab scholars and geographers from this time period have led many to attribute certain racist attitudes that weren't prevalent until the 18th and 19th century to writings made centuries ago.[117] Although bias against those of very black complexion existed in the Arab world in the 15th century it didn't have as much stigma as it later would. Older translations of Ibn Khaldun, for example in The Negro land of the Arabs Examined and Explained which was written in 1841 gives excerpts of older translations that were not part of later colonial propaganda and show black Africans in a generally positive light.

When the conquest of the West (by the Arabs) was completed, and merchants began to penetrate into the interior, they saw no nation of the Blacks so mighty as Ghanah, the dominions of which extended westward as far as the Ocean. The King's court was kept in the city of Ghanah, which, according to the author of the Book of Roger (El Idrisi), and the author of the Book of Roads and Realms (El Bekri), is divided into two parts, standing on both banks of the Nile, and ranks among the largest and most populous cities of the world. The people of Ghanah had for neighbours, on the east, a nation, which, according to historians, was called Susu; after which came another named Mali; and after that another known by the name of Kaukau ; although some people prefer a different orthography, and write this name Kagho. The last-named nation was followed by a people called Tekrur. The people of Ghanah declined in course of time, being overwhelmed or absorbed by the Molaththemun (or muffled people;that is, the Morabites), who, adjoining them on the north towards the Berber country, attacked them, and, taking possession of their territory, compelled them to embrace the Mohammedan religion. The people of Ghanah, being invaded at a later period by the Susu, a nation of Blacks in their neighbourhood, were exterminated, or mixed with other Black nations. [[118]]

Ibn Khaldun suggests a link between the decline of Ghana and rise of the Almoravids. however, there is little evidence of there actually being an Almoravid conquest of Ghana [[119]] [120]

Uganda[edit]

Former British colonies in Sub-Saharan Africa have many citizens of South Asian descent. They were brought there by the British Empire from British India to do clerical work in Imperial service.[121] The most prominent case of anti-Indian racism was the ethnic cleansing of the Indian (sometimes simply called "Asian") minority in Uganda by strongman dictator and human-rights violator Idi Amin.[121]

The 1968 Committee on "Africanization in Commerce and Industry" in Uganda made far-reaching Indophobic proposals. A system of work permits and trade licenses was introduced in 1969 in order to restrict the role of Indians in economic and professional activities. Indians were segregated and discriminated against in all walks of life. After Amin came to power, he exploited these divisions to spread propaganda against Indians, stereotyping and scapegoating the Indian minority. Indians were stereotyped as "only traders" and so "inbred" to their profession. Indians were attacked as "dukawallas" (an occupational term that degenerated into an anti-Indian slur during Amin's time).[121]

In the 1970s Uganda and other East African nations implemented racist policies that targeted the Asian population of the region. Uganda under Idi Amin's leadership was particularly virulent in its anti-Asian policies. In August 1972, Idi Amin declared what he called an "economic war", a set of policies that included the expropriation of properties owned by Asians and Europeans. Uganda's 80,000 Asians were mostly Indians born in the country, whose ancestors had come to Uganda when the country was still a British colony.[122][123] Indians were stereotyped as "greedy" and "conniving", without any racial identity or loyalty but "always cheating, conspiring and plotting" to subvert Uganda. Amin used this propaganda to justify a campaign of "de-Indianization", eventually resulting in the expulsion and ethnic cleansing of Uganda's Indian minority.[121]

India had refused to accept them.[124] Most of the expelled Indians settled in Britain.[125] The forced expulsion of Uganda's entire Asian population attests to the persecution of Asian peoples residing in the country at the time. Today, Asian/Indian residents of Uganda continue to face marginalization, being given an inferior status.

Zimbabwe[edit]

Racial discrimination has occurred against White Zimbabwean communities.[126][127][128] The government has forcefully evicted them from their farms and committed ethnic cleansing against them.[129][130]

Since independence, in recent years there has been a surge in violence and racism against the dwindling white community and particularly against white farmers. On 18 September 2010 droves of white people were chased away from participating in the constitutional outreach programme in Harare at the weekend, in which violence and confusion marred the process with similar incidents occurring in Graniteside. In Mount Pleasant, white families were subjected to a torrent of abuse by suspected Zanu PF supporters who later drove them away shouting racial slurs.[131] There have also been many illegal seizures of farm land owned by white farmers by the government and pro government supporters. Most of the seizures have taken place in Nyamandhalovu and Inyati.[132] After the beating to death of a prominent White farmer in September 2011, the head of the Commercial Farmers' Union decried the attack saying its white members continue to be targeted by violence without protection from the government.[133] Genocidewatch.org has declared the violence against whites in Zimbabwe a stage 5 case.[134]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bushmen forced out of desert after living off land for thousands of years". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2005-10-29. 
  2. ^ African Bushmen Tour U.S. to Fund Fight for Land
  3. ^ Exiles of the Kalahari
  4. ^ News by tribe |Survival International
  5. ^ UN condemns Botswana government over Bushman evictions
  6. ^ a b Berg, Irwin M. "Jews in Central Africa". Kulanu Highlights. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  7. ^ a b Michael Bowen, Passing by;: The United States and genocide in Burundi, 1972, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1973), p. 49
  8. ^ a b René Lemarchand, Selective genocide in Burundi (Report - Minority Rights Group; no. 20, 1974)
  9. ^ a b Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center and Cambridge University Press, 1996)
    • Edward L. Nyankanzi, Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi (Schenkman Books, 1998)
  10. ^ a b Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa: conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002
  11. ^ a b c Weissman, Stephen R. "Preventing Genocide in Burundi Lessons from International Diplomacy", United States Institute of Peace
  12. ^ a b c d Christian Davenport and Allan Stam, "Rwanda 1994: Genocide + Politicide"
  13. ^ Michael Bowen, Passing by;: The United States and genocide in Burundi, 1972, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1973), 49 pp
  14. ^ René Lemarchand, Selective genocide in Burundi (Report - Minority Rights Group; no. 20, 1974), 36 pp.
  15. ^ Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center and Cambridge University Press, 1996), 232 pp.
    • Edward L. Nyankanzi, Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi (Schenkman Books, 1998), 198 pp.
  16. ^ Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa: conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.
  17. ^ International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi: Final Report. Part III: Investigation of the Assassination. Conclusions at USIP.org
  18. ^ International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi (2002)
  19. ^ a b Uhlig, Siegbert (2003). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C, Volume 1. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 489–490. ISBN 3447047461. 
  20. ^ a b Thomson, Blair (1975). Ethiopia: The Country That Cut Off Its Head: A Diary of the Revolution. Robson Books. p. 117. ISBN 0903895501. 
  21. ^ a b c Congrès international des sciences anthropologiques et ethnologiques, Pierre Champion (1963). VIe [i.e. Sixième] Congrès international des sciences anthropologiques et ethnologiques, Paris, 30 juillet-6 août 1960: Ethnologie. 2 v. Musée de l'homme. p. 589. 
  22. ^ Fisher, Richard Swainson (1852). The Book of the World. p. 622. 
  23. ^ Newsweek, Volume 85, Issues 1-8. Newsweek. 1975. p. 13. 
  24. ^ Katsuyoshi Fukui, Eisei Kurimoto, Masayoshi Shigeta (1997). Ethiopia in Broader Perspective: Papers of the XIIIth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Kyoto, 12-17 December 1997, Volume 2. Shokado Book Sellers. p. 804. ISBN 487974977X. 
  25. ^ [news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/Africa/1932930.stm Ivory Coast "fanning ethnic hatred"]
  26. ^ The night westerners were hunted for being white - Telegraph
  27. ^ Europeans flee Ivory Coast violence. 13 November 2004. ABC News Online
  28. ^ Undercurrents of Ethnic Conflicts in Kenya by John O. Oucho | Questia, Your Online Research Library
  29. ^ For Liberians, old ties to US linger | csmonitor.com
  30. ^ Ethnic strife rocks Madagascar
  31. ^ Mauxion, Aurelien (2012). "Moving to Stay: Iklan Spatial Strategies Towards Socioeconomic Emancipation in Northern Mali, 1898-1960". The Journal of African History 53 (2): 195–213. doi:10.1017/s0021853712000394. 
  32. ^ Hahonou, Eric; Pelckmans, Lotte (2011). "West African Antislavery Movements: Citizenship Struggles and the Legacies of Slavery". Stichproben. Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien (20): 141–162. 
  33. ^ a b Tran, Mark (23 October 2012). "Mali conflict puts freedom of 'slave descendants' in peril". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2012-11-24. 
  34. ^ Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade, More; Handwerk, Brian; December 5, 2002.
  35. ^ Reuters AlertNet - Slavery still exists in Mauritania
  36. ^ Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance
  37. ^ The Abolition season on BBC World Service
  38. ^ Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law
  39. ^ Namibians plan white farm grabs in BBC News, 5 November 2003
  40. ^ Video on YouTube Al Jazeera, 2012
  41. ^ Amid Namibia's White Opulence, Majority Rule Isn't So Scary Now in the New York Times, 26 December 1988
  42. ^ Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908 (PSI Reports) by Jeremy Sarkin-Hughes
  43. ^ Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation and Subaltern Resistance in World History (War and Genocide) (War and Genocide) (War and Genocide) A. Dirk Moses -page 296(From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. 296, (29). Dominik J. Schaller)
  44. ^ The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy (Social History, Popular Culture, and Politics in Germany) by Sara L. Friedrichsmeyer, Sara Lennox, and Susanne M. Zantop page 87 University of Michigan Press 1999
  45. ^ Walter Nuhn: Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904. Bernhard & Graefe-Verlag, Koblenz 1989. ISBN 3-7637-5852-6.
  46. ^ Marie-Aude Baronian, Stephan Besser, Yolande Jansen, "Diaspora and memory: figures of displacement in contemporary literature, arts and politics", pg. 33 Rodopi, 2007,
  47. ^ Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny, "Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts" pg. 51, Routledge, 2004,
  48. ^ Dan Kroll, "Securing our water supply: protecting a vulnerable resource", PennWell Corp/University of Michigan Press, pg. 22
  49. ^ ‘Stolen’ Blue Book was just misplaced 23.04.2009 accessed 17 Dec 2011
  50. ^ Gewald, Jan-Bart (1999), Herereo Heroes: A Socio-Political History of the Herero of Namibia 1890-1923, Ohio University Press, p. 242, ""Of late it has been claimed that the infamous 'Blue Book' which detailed the treatment of Africans in GSWA was little more than a piece of propaganda put about to further South Africa's territorial ambitions and Britain's position at the negotiating table. Granted that the book was used to strengthen Britain's position vis-a-vis Germany, it must however be borne in mind that the bulk of the evidence contained in the 'Blue Book' is little more than the literal translation of German texts published at the time which were the findings of a German commission of inquiry into the effects of corporal punishment." Thus, when the Blue Book was withdrawn from the public after Germany and England came to an agreement about how to share access to GSWA minerals, this was not censorship; it was just business" 
  51. ^ The colonising camera: photographs in the making of Namibian history Wolfram Hartmann, Jeremy Silvester, Patricia Hayes, page 118, University of Cape Town Press, 1999
  52. ^ Jan-Bart Gewald, Jeremy Silvester, "Words Cannot Be Found: German Colonial Rule in Namibia : An Annotated Reprint of the 1918 Blue Book (Sources on African History, 1)", Brill Academic Publishers, annotated edition (1 June 2003)
  53. ^ Michael Mann (2004), The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing, Cambridge University Press, p. 105 
  54. ^ Hitler's African Victims: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 83 
  55. ^ Helmut Walser Smith (2008), The continuities of German history: nation, religion, and race across the Long Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 199 
  56. ^ Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experiences of European Blacks, Africans and African Americans During the Nazi Era (Crosscurrents in African American History) by Clarence Lusane, page 50-51 Routledge 2002
  57. ^ Steinmetz, George, The devil's handwriting, pp 196-216
  58. ^ The practice of war Production, Reproduction and Communication of Armed Violence Edited by Aparna Rao, Michael Bollig and Monika Böck, page 92, Berghahn Books; 2011
  59. ^ Klaas van Walraven (2003), Rethinking resistance: revolt and violence in African history, Brill Academic Publishers, p. 282 
  60. ^ a b c Mamdani, p. 12
  61. ^ The Kaiser's Holocaust: Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism, page 225, Casper Erichsen, David Olusoga, Faber and Faber 2010
  62. ^ Production, Reproduction and Communication of Armed Violence Aparna Rao, Michael Bollig and Monika Böck,page 89, Berghahn Books 2008
  63. ^ "Germany admits Namibia genocide". BBC News. 2004-08-14. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  64. ^ Krabbe, Alexander. "Remembering Germany's African Genocide". OhmyNews International. Retrieved 2004-08-06. 
  65. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa |Niger starts mass Arab expulsions
  66. ^ Reuters AlertNet - Niger's Arabs say expulsions will fuel race hate
  67. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa |Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion
  68. ^ UNHCR |Refworld - The Leader in Refugee Decision Support
  69. ^ a b The Shackles of Slavery in Niger
  70. ^ Born to be a slave in Niger By Hilary Andersson, BBC Africa Correspondent, Niger
  71. ^ On the way to freedom, Niger's slaves stuck in limbo
  72. ^ Born into Bondage
  73. ^ Slavery in Niger
  74. ^ NIGER: Slavery - an unbroken chain
  75. ^ Thomas, Katie (March 12, 2007). "Congo's Pygmies live as slaves". The News & Observer. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. 
  76. ^ Nicholas D. Kristof (June 16, 1997). "As the World Intrudes, Pygmies Feel Endangered". New York Times. 
  77. ^ Adekunle, Julius. 2007. Culture and Customs of Rwanda. P.17
  78. ^ "Timeline of the genocide". PBS. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 
  79. ^ "How the genocide happened". BBC. 2004-04-01. Retrieved 2006-10-31. [dead link]
  80. ^ "Minorities Under Siege: Pygmies today in Africa". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  81. ^ a b c Bantu - People
  82. ^ L. Randol Barker et al., Principles of Ambulatory Medicine, 7 edition, (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 2006), p.633
  83. ^ a b c Catherine Lowe Besteman, Unraveling Somalia: Race, Class, and the Legacy of Slavery, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1999), pp. 83-84
  84. ^ a b Catherine Lowe Besteman, Unraveling Somalia: Race, Class, and the Legacy of Slavery, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1999), p. 116.
  85. ^ Bridget Anderson, World Directory of Minorities, (Minority Rights Group International: 1997), p. 456.
  86. ^ Africa's Lost Tribe Discovers American Way
  87. ^ Tanzania accepts Somali Bantus
  88. ^ Englert, Birgit. "Interview with Prof. Alfred Tokollo Moleah, South African Ambassador to Vienna" (PDF). Universität Wien. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  89. ^ "Slavery at the Cape". Iziko Museums of Cape Town. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  90. ^ "Indian Slaves in South Africa". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 2008-06-22. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  91. ^ "Destinations: South Africa - Pre 20th Century History". International Student Travel Conveduration. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  92. ^ "Slavery Abolition Act 1833". Houses of Parliament, Palace of Westminster, London. 1833-10-29. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  93. ^
  94. ^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi 8. p. 199. 
  95. ^ Arab militia use 'rape camps' for ethnic cleansing of Sudan
  96. ^ Islam and Slavery
  97. ^ Curse Of Slavery Haunts Sudan CBS News. January 25, 1998
  98. ^ U.S. State Department report says 'religious intolerance remains far too common' around world. September 6, 2000 CNN US News
  99. ^ Jok Madut Jok (2001), p.3
  100. ^ U.S. Department of State: Sudan Peace Act October 21, 2002
  101. ^ "Slavery, Abduction and Forced Servitude in Sudan". US Department of State. 22 May 2002. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  102. ^ Jonathan Clayton Desert hides world's worst humanitarian crisis in The Times May 13, 2004, Page 2
  103. ^ Hilary AnderssonGenocide lays waste Darfur’s land of no men in Sunday Times November 14, 2004
  104. ^ Fred Bridgland Darfur: Africa’s hidden holocaust? in Sunday Herald April 11, 2004
  105. ^ Darfur, Sudan: Crisis, response and lessons UK Parliament Press Notice 14, Session 2004-05
  106. ^ Collins, Robert O., "Civil Wars and Revolution in the Sudan: Essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan, and Darfur, 1962-2004 ", (p. 156), Tsehai Publishers (US), (2005) ISBN 0-9748198-7-5 .
  107. ^ Power, Samantha "Dying in Darfur: Can the ethnic cleansing in Sudan be stopped?"[1], The New Yorker, 30 August 2004. Human Rights Watch, "Q & A: Crisis in Darfur" (web site, retrieved 24 May 2006). Hilary Andersson, "Ethnic cleansing blights Sudan", BBC News, 27 May 2004.
  108. ^ Arabs pile into Darfur to take land 'cleansed' by janjaweed
  109. ^ Swahili Coast
  110. ^ Remembering East African slave raids, BBC
  111. ^ David Livingstone; Christian History Institute
  112. ^ The blood of a nation of Slaves in Stone Town
  113. ^ Zanzibar
  114. ^ Country Histories - Empire's Children
  115. ^ Heartman, Adam (2006-09-26). "A Homemade Genocide". Who's Fault Is It?. 
  116. ^ The History of The Jews of Tunisia
  117. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/3590803 Translation and the Colonial Imaginary: Ibn Khaldun Orientalist, by Abdelmajid Hannoum © 2003 Wesleyan University.
  118. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=6swTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA61 The Negro land of the Arabs Examined and Explained
  119. ^ http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/~amcdouga/Hist446/readings/conquest_in_west_african_historiography.pdf Not Quite Venus from the Waves: The Almoravid Conquest of Ghana in the Modern Historiography of Western Africa by Pekka Masonen; Humphrey J. Fisher 1996
  120. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/3171598 The Conquest That Never Was: Ghana and the Almoravids, 1076. I. The External Arabic Sources, by David Conrad and Humphrey Fisher © 1982 African Studies Association
  121. ^ a b c d General Amin and the Indian Exodus from Uganda Hasu H. Patel, Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Winter, 1972), pp. 12-22 doi:10.2307/1166488
  122. ^ [2]
  123. ^ "1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda". BBC News. 1972-08-07. 
  124. ^ UK Indians taking care of business
  125. ^ Uganda's loss, Britain's gain
  126. ^ "Zimbabwe has its racists too: iLIVE". Times LIVE. 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  127. ^ Comment (2001-08-12). "We will not tolerate racism, except in Zimbabwe". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  128. ^ "Beauty queen tells of racist abuse". Newzimbabwe.com. 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  129. ^ Jeff Koinange (2005-03-30). "Tale of two farms in Zimbabwe - CNN". Articles.cnn.com. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  130. ^ "Zimbabwe champions new racism Editorial News | goldcoast.com.au | Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia". goldcoast.com.au. 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  131. ^ http://www.zimdiaspora.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4026:racism-against-white-zimbabweans-reach-shocking-levels&catid=38:travel-tips&Itemid=18
  132. ^ Hyslop, Leah (11 June 2010). "White farmers in Zimbabwe struggle against increasing violence". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  133. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/zimbabwes-white-farmers-still-target-violence-142808799.html
  134. ^ genocidewatch.com Zimbabwe