Racism in association football
Racism in association football is the abuse of players, officials and fans because of the color of their skin, their nationality, or their ethnicity. Some may also be targeted because of their association with an opposing team. However, there have been instances of individuals being targeted by their own fans.
Racism in association football is centered primarily in the European Union and Russia, although racist incidents have been reported abroad. In response to racist incidents at association football matches, in May 2013, FIFA, the international governing body of association football, announced new measures to deal with racism in the sport.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Asia
- 3 Europe
- 4 Middle East
- 5 Oceania
- 6 North America
- 7 South America
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
There were reports of targeted racial attacks against the Philippine national football team while they competed at Mongkok Stadium in a friendly against the Hong Kong national football team. The event was held on June 4, 2013. Hong Kong fans reportedly called their counterparts "slaves", threw bottles at them, and booed at the Philippine national anthem. Hong Kong lost the friendly match to the Philippines with a score of 0-1. At the end of the game Hong Kong fans reportedly threw debris at the Philippine football team and gallery, occupied mostly by wives and children of the players.
Benny Chan, spokesman of the Hong Kong Football Association, announced that the football body will release an official report to FIFA and the public after its investigation is completed. Philippine football officials are likewise waiting for the report before filing a complaint to FIFA.
The Philippine Football Federation filed a complaint with GMA Network over a comment made by news anchor Arnold Clavio over controversial remarks directed at the Philippines national football team. A popular radio and television newscaster and program host of morning news show Unang Hirit, Clavio was quoted as saying that foreign-born players are not Filipinos (emphasizing the fact that they were not born in the Philippines). Clavio later retracted this statement, insisting that he had not intended to offend anyone.
Another racial incident occurred during a friendly match between the Philippines and Indonesia on 5 June 2012. A number of Indonesian fans were observed to be chanting "Hindi kayo Pilipino! (You are not Filipinos!)" at Filipino players of non-Philippine ancestry.
Oguchi Onyewu, an American of Nigerian descent, has been punched and shouted at by racist fans while playing for Standard Liège. He's also had incidents with other players, such as Jelle Van Damme, who, according to Onyewu, repeatedly called him a "dirty ape" during the 2008–09 Championship playoff, even after Onyewu relayed the information to the referees. Van Damme denied the accusations following the match, and claimed that Onyewu had called him a "dirty Flemish". Approximately two weeks later, on 2 June 2009, it was announced by Onyewu's lawyer that he was suing Van Damme in an effort to end on-field racism in European football.
Zola Matumona left FC Brussels after he accused club chairman Johan Vermeersch of making racist remarks towards him during a crisis meeting at the struggling club. He is reported to have told Matumona to "think about other things than trees and bananas."
Henri Belle moved to Croatia at the beginning of 2011, signing with NK Istra 1961. He drew attention to himself both by good games and by controversy - by being the victim of racist taunts from some supporters.
In January 2005, as part of an anti-racism initiative in the French league, Paris Saint-Germain's players wore all-white jerseys and the opposing RC Lens players wore all-black during a French league match. The move backfired as racist elements among PSG's crowd in the Kop of Boulogne sing "Come on the whites." The racist overtone was backed up with monkey chants from the Boulogne crowd when Lens players touch the ball.
On 18 April 2007, Lyon player Milan Baroš was accused of racially abusing Rennes' Stéphane M'Bia by implying that M'Bia smelt. On 4 May 2007 Baroš was found guilty of the gesture, but found not guilty of racism, and was banned for three league matches.
On 17 September 2007, Libourne's Burkinabe player Boubacar Kébé was abused by fans of Bastia; he was red-carded for retaliating. In February 2008, Bastia was again at the centre of controversy when their fans unfurled a racist banner, again aimed at Kébé, which delayed the kick-off of the match by three minutes.
On 17 February 2008, Abdeslam Ouaddou of Valenciennes was racially abused by a fan from opponents Metz; Metz and the French league announced that they would be suing the fan in question. The match referee did not see the incident, and so booked Ouaddou for challenging the fan. Valenciennes chairman Francis Decourrière later demanded that the match be replayed, "in front of children from Valenciennes and Metz." Following this incident, the French Football Federation made steps to introduce harsher punishments.
In November 2013, former defender and the French national team's most-capped player Lilian Thuram has said white players need to show solidarity with players who receive racist abuse, stating ""The action of not saying anything - somehow - it makes you an accomplice." 
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2011)|
Racism in Germany accelerated after the reunification of Germany; by 1992 neo-Nazi groups in Germany had begun to use football matches as occasions to plan and organise attacks against local ethnic communities and East European, particularly Turkish, refugees.
FC St. Pauli fans responded decisively to outbreaks of racism in the German game. With the slogan, Gegen rechts ('Against the Right'), a combination of fans and students took to the club's terraces in 1992 to stand up against politically motivated racism.
In December 1992, all the teams in the German League followed the St Pauli lead and, over one weekend, all players played in shirts displaying the slogan Mein Freund ist Ausländer ('My friend is a Foreigner'). The German Sports Youth's 1995 "No Chance for Hatred" campaign has promoted activities against racism and xenophobia on a national scale, encouraging local clubs to participate. Unfortunately, this campaign has not spurred German football authorities into further action.
Merkel (1996) reports that they vehemently refuse to acknowledge that racism is a major problem, and dismiss racist abuses as isolated incidents which have nothing to do with the sport. Most of their measures are concerned with law and order — cutting down violence at matches — but anti-racist action is very sparse. Anti-racist initiatives are designed to create positive publicity but generally consist of little more than token gestures, such as rock concerts and short term advertising campaigns - and wearing slogans on shirts.
Racism in German football is much more subtle than in other parts of Europe; monkey chants have been replaced with codes, such as the number 88, which stands for 'HH' or 'Heil Hitler' ('H' is the eighth letter of the alphabet in German and English). Some teams, for example Hannover 96, have banned such symbols from their stadiums.
On 25 March 2006, in a match between FC Sachsen Leipzig and Hallescher FC, Leipzig's Nigerian midfielder Adebowale Ogungbure was spat at and called 'Nigger' and 'ape' by opposition fans, who later aimed monkey noises at him. In retaliation he placed two fingers above his mouth in reference to Adolf Hitler's mustache and performed a Nazi salute. Ogungbure was arrested by German police, as it is illegal to make Nazi gestures for political or abusive purposes, but criminal proceedings were dropped 24 hours later.
In April 2006, in a match between St. Pauli and Chemnitzer FC, visiting Chemnitz fans stormed Turkish-owned stores chanting "Sieg Heil" and waving imitation Nazi flags. Some shouted: "We're going to build a subway from St Pauli to Auschwitz".
Ghana-born German international striker Gerald Asamoah has frequently been the target of racist abuse. On 10 September 2006 Hansa Rostock were investigated for racist abuse in a friendly game and were subsequently found guilty; the team was fined $25,000.
On 19 August 2007 it was announced that Borussia Dortmund goalkeeper Roman Weidenfeller would be investigated by the German Football Association (DFB) after apparently calling Asamoah a 'black pig'.
Black footballers playing in the Serie A top flight in 1992–1993 were also racially abused. Two black Dutch players, Ruud Gullit and Aron Winter, have spoken out against such racist taunts. Their complaints spurred a day of action on 13 December 1992, with the slogan No al razzimo! (No To Racism) being paraded by all players in the two Italian divisions.
On 27 November 2005, Marco Zoro attempted to stop the Messina–Inter Milan match by leaving the field with the ball, after being tormented by racist taunts from some Inter supporters. He was eventually convinced to keep playing by other players, notably by Inter's Adriano. These facts then brought strong and unanimous condemnations by the whole football community within Italy, and even a 5-minute delay for an anti-racism display for all the matches to be played in the next week in the country. The actions of the Inter supporters were also brought to the attention of the European football governing body UEFA as well as that of the European Union.
On April 2009 Inter Milan's Mario Balotelli, an Italian footballer of Ghanaian descent, was subjected to racial abuse from Juventus fans. They were handed a one-game home fan ban as a result. In Euro 2012, he fell victim to monkey chants during a match against Spain.
On 24 March 2007, in a match between France and Lithuania, a banner was unfurled by Lithuanian supporters that depicted a map of Africa, painted with the French flag colors (blue, white and red), with a slogan of "Welcome to Europe".
In a match between Rangers and FK Zeta, Rangers players DaMarcus Beasley (an African American) and Jean-Claude Darcheville (a black Frenchman) were subjected to racist abuse by FK Zeta players and Zeta were later fined £9,000.
In a 1991 interview, Heerenveen manager Fritz Korbach racially abused two black players, calling Bryan Roy "a short fucking negro" and Romário "that coffee bean of PSV"). During Euro 96, the Afro-Surinamese Dutch player Edgar Davids was sent home after publicly alleging discrimination within the team's organisation.
|This section requires expansion with: John Carew. (January 2012)|
In one case, young player Caleb Francis was severely abused in his debut match for Kongsvinger IL. The abuse halted and nearly broke his career, but he returned to Kongsvinger's senior team after a two years, and enjoyed a long career.
Top-tier club Vålerenga Fotball famously played their with the slogan "Vålerenga Against Racism" instead of a shirt sponsor in the 1997 season. An official campaign, initiated by the footballers' trade union, is called "Give Racism the Red Card".
According to The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism football stadiums in Poland are recruiting ground for extremist organisations. Until a few years ago, neo-fascist symbols were a common sight there.
During the Extraordinary Congress of the International Football Federation (FIFA), held in Buenos Aires on 6–7 July 2001, the problem of racism in Polish football was discussed and Polish national football association was called to join the struggle against racism. The problem of antisemitism in Polish football has drawn international criticism. Poland was named as one of the worst offenders, in British MP John Mann report, which describes anti-Semitic incidents in 18 countries across Europe. It was noted that Polish fans routinely call each other 'Jews' as a term of abuse. In April 2008 ŁKS Łódź player Arkadiusz Mysona wore a shirt which said "Śmierć żydzewskiej kurwie" ("Death to Widzew-Jewish Whore", which is a word play, used by the LKS Łódź supporters, who call fans of their local rivals Jews) after a match in the Polish Ekstraklasa. Mysona said afterwards that the shirt was given to him by a fan and he hadn´t checked it.
Supporters of the football club Cracovia from Kraków often refer to themselves as "Jews" in a positive manner, much in the same way as fans of AFC Ajax in the Netherlands. In a manner similar to Ajax, the self-identification is related to the team's history. Quite a few of the founders of both clubs from Łódź were Polish Jews.
The BBC Panorama program toured football matches in Poland before the UEFA Euro 2012 tournament. The journalists recorded "a chorus of anti-Semitic chanting" and witnessed "black football players enduring monkey chants from the terraces".
In March 2008, black players of French side Marseille - including André Ayew, Ronald Zubar and Charles Kaboré - were targeted by fans of Zenit Saint Petersburg; Zenit fans were later warned by police in Manchester not to repeat their behaviour ahead of the 2008 UEFA Cup Final. Later Zenit's coach Dick Advocaat revealed the club's supporters were racist. When they attempted to sign Mathieu Valbuena, a Frenchman, many fans asked "Is he a negro?" Also Serge Branco, who played for Krylia Sovetov, accused Zenit's staff of racism. "Each time I play in St Petersburg I have to listen to racist insults from the stands. Zenit bosses do not do anything about it which makes me think they are racists too."
On 20 August 2010, Peter Odemwingie, a Soviet-born Nigerian international, joined Premier League team West Bromwich Albion. Shortly after signing for West Brom, photographs showed Lokomotiv Moscow fans celebrating the sale of Odemwingie through the use of racist banners targeted at the player. One banner included the image of a banana and read "Thanks West Brom" 
On 12 February 2011, Roberto Carlos signed a contract with Russian Premier League club Anzhi Makhachkala. In March, during a game away at Zenit Saint Petersburg, a banana was held near Carlos by one of the fans as the footballer was taking part in a flag-raising ceremony. In June, in a match away at Krylia Sovetov Samara, Roberto Carlos received a pass from the goalkeeper and was about to pass it when a banana was thrown onto the pitch, landing nearby. The 38-year-old Brazilian picked it up and threw it by the sidelines, walking off the field before the final whistle and raising two fingers at the stands, indicating this was the second such incident since March.
In December 2012, Zenit Saint Petersburg fans published a manifesto demanding that the club exclude all non-white and homosexual players from the club's roster. The demands were refused by the club, which released a statement saying that "the team's policy is aimed at development and integration into the world soccer community, and holds no archaic views." Until the summer of 2012, Saint Petersburg were the only team in the Russian top flight never to have signed a minority player.
In October 2013, Yaya Toure received racist abuse from opposition fans while playing against CSKA Moscow in Russia. The club's stadium was partially closed as punishment. Toure suggest that black players might boycott the 2018 FIFA World Cup, to be held in Russia, if racism continued in the country.
In September 2014, Christopher Samba was racially abused playing in the Moscow derby. As a result Torpedo Moscow had to close part of their stadium, although Samba was also banned for two games for swearing at the racist fans.
In October 2006, 37 Borac Cacak fans were arrested and eight faced criminal charges after racially abusing the club's Zimbabwean player Mike Temwanjera during a first division match. Borac Cacak was at the centre of more controversy in March 2008 when a Ghanaian player, Solomon Opoku, was attacked by fans; six fans were later arrested, with four being later charged.
On 29 November 2006, Hajduk Kula coach Nebojša Vučićević racially insulted Red Star Belgrade's Senegal defender Ibrahima Gueye. The coach responded to the accusation: "I told my players several times to put pressure on the black guy, I don't see anything wrong with that."
During a match against England U-21, an unnamed Serbia U-21 player was accused of racially abusing the black English defender Justin Hoyte, while the Serbian fans were alleged to have racially abused England's Nigerian-born full-back Nedum Onuoha.
Following racist abuse from montenegrin Club FK Zeta fans, DaMarcus Beasley recalled previous instances of racism while playing away in Belgrade, from fans of Red Star. However, Red Star has been defended by some of its black players, such as Segundo Castillo and Franklin Salas, with Castillo saying that "Red Star fans are not racist". Rangers boss Walter Smith admitted he had not heard the abuse, having been absorbed in the game.
On 4 April 2007 football supporters from Slovan Bratislava displayed a banner which contained the words 'Alles Gute Adi' and a smiley-head face of Adolf Hitler during a match against FC Senec; racist chants were also heard. Just three days later, on 7 April 2007, Slovan Bratislava fans were responsible for directing monkey chants at Artmedia's Karim Guede.
Aston Villa's Dalian Atkinson returned from Spain after one season with Real Sociedad, unhappy with the reception he received, and identifying racial abuse as a major factor in his rapid departure from the Spanish club.
Felix Dja Ettien suffered racial abuse when he first signed for Levante; he was ignored by the coach due to his inability to speak Spanish, and whenever he fell ill he was accused of having malaria or AIDS.
During a training session in 2004, a Spanish TV crew filmed Spanish national team head coach Luis Aragonés trying to motivate José Antonio Reyes by making offensive and racist references to Reyes' then teammate at Arsenal, Thierry Henry. The phrase used was "Demuestra que eres mejor que ese negro de mierda", translated as "Show that you're better than that black shit". The incident caused uproar in the British media with calls for Aragonés to be sacked. However these opinions were not widely supported in Spain, with the national football federation declining to take any action, and politicians being slow to denounce the remarks. When Spain played England in a friendly match at the Bernabéu soon after, on 17 November 2004, the atmosphere was hostile. Whenever black England players touched the ball, a significant proportion of the Spanish crowd began to make monkey chants, in particular to Shaun Wright-Phillips and Ashley Cole. And when England sang their national anthem before kick off, Spanish fans also racially chanted against English players. Aragonés' remarks were widely blamed by the British press for inciting the incident. After an investigation into the events during the match, UEFA fined the RFEF 100,000 CHF/ 87,000 USD and warned that any future incidents would be punished more severely. The incident even drew reactions from then-Prime Minister Tony Blair and Sports Minister Richard Caborn, with Caborn making the claim that the behaviour of Spanish fans was twenty or thirty years behind that their British counterparts. UEFA noted that possible punishments could include suspension from major international tournaments or the closure of Spain home international matches to supporters. On 7 February 2007 Aragonés won an appeal over the offence, with the misdemeanour being downgraded to "conduct which could be considered to be racist".
In February 2005, Samuel Eto'o suffered from racially-driven verbal abuse by some Real Zaragoza spectators during a match for FC Barcelona. The fans began making monkey-like chants whenever Eto'o had possession of the ball and peanuts were hurled onto the pitch. Eto'o threatened to leave the pitch in the middle of the game, but was prevented by the intervention of his team-mates and the referee, who rushed to the pitch to calm him down. His teammate Ronaldinho, who has suffered similar abuses but less intensely, said he was fed up with the sounds and that if Eto'o had left the pitch, he would have done the same. As Barcelona won 4-1, Eto'o danced like a monkey, saying rival fans were treating him as a monkey. Referee Fernando Carmona Mendez did not mention the incidents in his match report, commenting only that the behaviour of the crowd was "normal". The fans were identified to police by fellow spectators and they were fined and banned from attending sporting events for five months. Eto'o declared in the aftermath that the punishment was insufficient and that La Romareda, Real Zaragoza's stadium, should have been closed for at least one year. However, Eto'o's coach, Frank Rijkaard, told him to concentrate on football and to stop talking about the incident. Eto'o has stated that he does not take his children to football matches, due the prevalent racism and has also suggested that players walk off if they become victims of racism.
Many other African footballers have also been victims of racial abuse, such as Cameroon's Idriss Carlos Kameni, who was abused while playing for Espanyol against Atlético Madrid, who were fined €6000.
In January 2009, the Royal Spanish Football Federation fined Real Madrid about $3,900 after a group of fans made fascist gestures and chanted fascist slogans at a match. Match referee Alfonso Perez Burrull cited "extremist or radical symbolism", and chanted making reference to "the gas chamber."¨
On 27 April 2014 Barcelona player Dani Alves was targeted by Villarreal fans, who threw a banana at him. Alves picked up the banana, peeled it, and took a bite. Team-mate Neymar's response - to post a photograph of himself on social media also eating a banana - went viral. Other footballers have also since taken photographs of themselves eating bananas. Cyrille Regis, who had been racially abused while a player in the 1970s and 80s, expressed concern that the viral campaign would detract from the important issues of combating racism in the game. Alves said that whoever threw the banana at him should be publicly shamed, and on 30 April 2014 a man was arrested in connection with the incident. Villareal were later fined €12,000 for the incident.
In 2009, fans of Swedish football team IFK Göteborg attacked supporters of rivals Malmö FF by referring to them as "Rosengårdstattare" ("Rosengård gypsies"), in a racist reference to the large immigrant population of Malmö. Also, fans of Helsingborgs IF have been known to yell monkey chants at opposing dark-skinned players.
Fwayo Tembo left FC Basel after he accused club coach Thorsten Fink of making racist remarks towards him during a training session. Fink is reported to have told a collaborator to "get the monkey down from the tree."
The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE), the Football Supporters Association (FSA) and the Professional Footballers' Association (PFA) have all launched initiatives in a bid to encourage more people from ethnic minorities to attend matches.
Arthur Wharton, born in Gold Coast, was the world's first Black professional footballer, and played as a goalkeeper for Darlington, although he was pre-dated by Andrew Watson, who was a Scottish amateur footballer. Other early non-white footballers include Walter Tull and Hong Y Soo.
The dark-skinned Everton F.C. centre-forward, Dixie Dean, recalled how racist comments were aimed at him as he left the pitch at half time during a match in London in the 1930s. Dean, reportedly, punched the offender himself before disappearing into the players' tunnel. The authorities took no action against Dean, and a nearby police officer was alleged to have informed the victim that he had "deserved" his punishment.
Steve Mokone, a black South African who later played for Barcelona, left Coventry City after his manager said to him "We brought you over here and you are not satisfied. That's the trouble with you people"; Mokone interpreted this as being racist, and he swiftly signed for Heracles Almelo.
In the 1960s West Ham United players, Clyde Best who is black and from Bermuda, and Ade Coker were subjected to "monkey chants" and had bananas thrown at the them during West Ham's games. Best had blamed this on the influence of the National Front on the football terraces.
In the 1980s, racism in football in England was rampant. Paul Canoville was abused by his own fans when he warmed up for Chelsea before making his début. Garth Crooks was regularly subject to racist chants and banners from opposing fans during his time at Spurs. Cyrille Regis endured monkey chants from Newcastle fans on his away début for West Bromwich Albion and was later sent a bullet in the post following his call up to the England squad. In 1987 John Barnes was pictured back-heeling a banana off the pitch during a match for Liverpool against Everton, whose fans chanted 'Everton are white'.
On 21 April 2004, Ron Atkinson resigned from ITV after he was caught making a racist remark live on air about the black Chelsea player Marcel Desailly: believing the microphone to be switched off, he said, "...he [Desailly] is what is known in some schools as a fucking lazy thick nigger". Although transmission in the UK had finished, the microphone gaffe meant that his comment was broadcast to various countries in the Middle East. He also left his job as a columnist for The Guardian "by mutual agreement" as a result of the comment. In 2004 Millwall became the first club to be charged by The Football Association over racist behaviour by their fans. The charges related to abuse aimed at Liverpool player Djimi Traore. On 13 January 2007, The FA charged Newcastle player Emre Belözoğlu with "using racially-aggravated abusive and/or insulting words", referring to an incident during the 3-0 defeat by Everton at Goodison Park on 30 December 2006. Emre was, on 16 February 2007, accused of more racist behaviour, this time against Bolton's El Hadji Diouf. However, on 1 March 2007, it was revealed that Diouf would not be pursuing his claim. It was also later revealed that Watford player Al Bangura had released a statement declaring that he was the victim of racist abuse from Emre. On 19 March he was cleared of the charges relating to the Everton game.
On 6 March 2007 it was announced that the Metropolitan Police were investigating apparent anti-Semitic chants by West Ham fans before the match with Spurs two days previously after a video of the offence surfaced on the internet.
Following his appointment as manager in September 2007, Israeli Avram Grant has been the subject of anti-Semitic taunts from some Chelsea fans; Grant's father was a Polish survivor of the German Nazi Holocaust; Grant has also received death threats and anti-Semitic post.
In November 2008, Middlesbrough's Egyptian forward Mido was subjected to Islamophobic chanting from a small number of Newcastle United fans. Mido had been subjected to similar chants the previous year, again from Newcastle fans and also in 2007 by Southampton fans and West Ham fans who had referred to Mido as a "shoe bomber" in reference to his likeness to Richard Reid, the British terrorist jailed in 2003.
During a League Cup match between Blackpool and Stoke City at the Britannia Stadium on 22 September 2009, Blackpool player Jason Euell, who at the time was sat on the substitutes bench was racially abused by a Stoke fan, who was ejected from the stadium and subsequently arrested by Staffordshire Police, before being released pending inquiries. Euell confronted the supporter that was taunting him. Blackpool manager Ian Holloway, who had to restrain Euell, was furious in his post-match interview, saying:
We are human beings and Jason is a footballer. The colour of his skin shouldn't matter. It was disgusting. The stewards believed what Jason said, got the bloke out and I hope he is banned for life. (He is) an absolute disgrace of a human being. I thought those days had gone. Jason was just sat in the dugout at the time. I saw his reaction and I had to calm him down. It's absolutely disgraceful.
Euell, who received an official apology from Stoke City, later said:
It did hurt. I felt I had to stand up for all colours and creeds and show that we won't accept it. I'm proud that I made a stand. It was a shock to hear what came out of the guy's mouth. Racism in football is not dead and buried but it's still a shock to hear that kind of thing in close proximity. There were people near the idiot who didn't agree with it, but there were others who turned a blind eye, which was disappointing.
In the wake of the incident, Tottenham Hotspur manager Harry Redknapp called for fans who racially abuse players to be imprisoned: "That is disgusting – there's no place for that in the game. Surely we can't have that sort of behaviour now? Anyone who does it should be put in prison – not banned from football. Stick them where they belong, in the nut-house. It's wrong."
In April 2011, two followers of Chesterfield were arrested before the start of a game against Torquay United after racially abusing a young black Torquay player who was taking part in the pre-match entertainment. Offenders Trevor Laughton and Joanne Worrall were subsequently banned from watching football or from approaching the venue of any Chesterfield matches for three years.
On 15 October 2011, Luis Suárez was accused of racially abusing Patrice Evra, and the English Football Association opened up an investigation into the incident. On 16 November, the FA announced they would be charging Suárez, while his club, Liverpool, announced support for their player. On 20 December, the FA concluded a seven-day hearing and fined Suárez £40,000 fine and banned him for eight matches for racially abusing Evra. Suárez had used the word "negrito" towards Evra meaning "little black man" in Spanish. Suarez claimed that he meant the term to be taken as it is purportedly used in South America, as a term of endearment, but this explanation was not accepted by the FA.
On 23 October 2011, in a match between QPR and Chelsea, Anton Ferdinand alleged racial abuse by Chelsea captain, John Terry, claiming Terry called him a "fucking black cunt" during the game; a claim denied by Terry. On 1 November, the Metropolitan Police announced a formal investigation into the allegations. In January 2012 Ferdinand received death threats and a bullet sent through the post. On 1 February 2012 at Westminster Magistrates Court, Terry was accused of a racially-aggravated public order offence in relation to the game at Loftus Road on 23 October. He entered a not-guilty plea and stood trial on 9 July. On 13 July, after a four-day trial, Terry was acquitted. In July, following the court hearing Terry was charged by The Football Association with "using abusive and/or insulting words and/or behaviour towards Ferdinand and which included a reference to colour and/or race contrary to FA Rule E3". In September 2012, after a four-day hearing, he was found guilty, banned for four games and fined £220,000. Evidence in his defence at Terry's trial had been given by his team-mate, Ashley Cole. Anton Ferdinand's brother Rio later referred to Cole via Twitter as a "choc ice" meaning someone who is black on the outside but white on the inside. In August 2012, The Football Association found this to be a reference to ethnic origin, colour or race and fined Ferdinand £45,000.
On 29 May 2012 the BBC reported that Swindon Town had conceded, in a response to a solicitor's letter from Jonathan Tehoue, that manager Paolo Di Canio, a self-described fascist, had made an inappropriate remark to the player which Tehoue deemed to be racist. Before this news had broken Swindon's Chairman had been quoted as being entirely supportive of Di Canio and had denied that the manager had racially insulted Tehoue. In October 2013 six supporters of Charlton Athletic were sent to prison having been found guilty of racially aggravated fear of violence. The supporters had been on a train returning from a game against Fulham singing songs glorifying Gary Dobson, the racially motivated murderer of Stephen Lawrence.
In August 2014 Malky Mackay and Iain Moody were accused of sending each other racist, sexist and homophobic text messages. Moody left his job as sporting director of Crystal Palace as a result. Mackay apologised for the texts. The League Manager's Association defended Mackay, claiming that the texts were merely "banter"; the LMA had to later apologise for this as well. Mackay later denied being racist, sexist or homophobic. In September 2014, Liverpool player Mario Balotelli was subjected to racist abuse on Twitter following his tweet mocking Manchester United. Balotelli had tweeted "Man Utd... LOL'", following their 5-3 defeat by Leicester City.
In February 2015, Chelsea fans were involved in an incident in which they pushed a black passenger off a Métro carriage at Richelieu-Drouot station in Paris before a Champions League match against Paris Saint-Germain. The supporters were heard chanting: "We're racist, we're racist, and that's the way we like it." Afterwards, Chelsea released a statement condemning the actions, and vowed to ban those involved. The incident prompted criticism from the football world. The FA condemned the incident, and backed Chelsea to take action. UEFA said they were "appalled" by the incident. FIFA president Sepp Blatter tweeted "there is no place for racism in football." Chelsea later suspended three people from attending Chelsea games pending further investigation.
Date indicates when the incident occurred, rather than when an outcome was reached.
|15 October 2011||Danny Hylton of Aldershot racially abused two Barnet players.||Hylton was given an eight-match ban and fined £1,000.||Report|
|12 March 2012||Sky Sports cameras caught an Arsenal fan abusing Newcastle's Cheick Tioté.||The man was arrested on suspicion of a racially-aggravated public-order offence.||Report|
|20 March 2012||Crawley Town's Dean Howell was allegedly racially abused by a Gillingham supporter.||Unknown.||Report|
|15 April 2012||A 55-year-old man racially abused Didier Drogba during the 2011-12 FA Cup semi-final.||The fan was given a lifetime ban from Stamford Bridge and a three-year football banning order.||Report|
|6 October 2012||Marvin Sordell claimed he was racially abused by a Millwall fan whilst playing for Bolton Wanderers.||The 13-year-old was given a ban for "the foreseeable future".||Report|
|31 October 2012||A Chelsea fan was caught making a "monkey" gesture to Manchester United's Danny Welbeck.||The 28-year-old is banned from Stamford Bridge pending a police investigation.||Report|
|10 November 2012||Six Millwall fans arrested after unfurling a racist banner aimed at Marvin Sordell.||Report|
Andrew Watson was the first black football player to represent Scotland. Watson never turned professional, however, so Arthur Wharton is sometimes reported as being the first black British footballer.
The book Race, Sport and British Society says there was racist abuse of Celtic player Paul Wilson by Rangers fans in the 1970s: "Rangers fans repeatedly bayed 'Wilson's a Paki' when Celtic played Rangers". There have been reports that some Rangers fans used to sing "I'd rather be a darkie than a Tim". The book Sport and National Identity In the Post-War World says "black players in Scotland were greeted with bananas thrown from the crowd and a barrage of 'monkey grunts', notably Mark Walters of Rangers and Paul Elliott of Celtic." On 2 January 1988, Rangers winger Mark Walters made his debut in the Old Firm derby match at Celtic Park. Rangers lost 2–0 and Walters was subjected to racist abuse from opposing Celtic fans who were caught on camera chanting like monkeys, throwing fruit, (mostly bananas) onto the pitch and dressing in monkey costumes. It was reported that Rangers fans used "implicit racism" on the same day by singing "I'd rather be a darkie than a Tim (Celtic Fan)". Although Celtic slammed the perpetrators, the Scottish Football Association remained silent. According to Walters, he experienced even worse racial abuse in Edinburgh against Hearts. Following racist abuse aimed at Walters, Rangers banned some of their own season ticket holders. Andrew Smith from The Scotsman newspaper stated: "It is depressing to think that enforcement as much as enlightenment might account for Walters being the only black footballer in this country to have had bananas thrown at them."
Rangers captain Lorenzo Amoruso issued a public apology after a match in December 1999 for making racist comments against Borussia Dortmund's Nigerian striker Victor Ikpeba. In March 2003, Rangers fans were accused of racially abusing Bobo Balde and Momo Sylla. Rangers chairman John McClelland stated that ""There was such a crescendo during Saturday's match although I thought I heard noises of this kind I can't be 100% sure." In May 2004, Marvin Andrews condemned racism from some Rangers fans.
During a 2007 Scottish Cup tie, St. Johnstone player Jason Scotland was the target of racist taunts by a handful of Motherwell fans. The offenders were promptly reprimanded by the spectators around them and were reported to police and match stewards. Motherwell chairman John Boyle later issued an apology on behalf of the club. Motherwell were to court further controversy on 3 September 2007 when Laryea Kingston of Hearts was abused, although Motherwell refuted the claims.
In October 2009, Rangers player Maurice Edu said he was racially abused by some Rangers fans while leaving Ibrox after a UEFA Champions League defeat by Unirea Urziceni. Edu wrote on Twitter: "Not sure what hurt more: result or being racially abused by couple of our own fans as I'm getting in my car."
Three Scottish judges ruled in June 2009 that The Famine song is racist because it targets people of Irish origin. George Peat, President of the Scottish Football Association, has suggested that the song causes embarrassment for Scottish football and should be stamped out. Peat has also stated that the SFA is determined to contribute to the eradication of offensive songs from Scottish football. In November 2008, a Rangers fan was found guilty of a breach of the peace (aggravated by religious and racial prejudice) for singing The Famine Song during a game against Kilmarnock. It was widely reported after an Old Firm game in February 2009 that Rangers fans had sung The Famine Song at Celtic Park. The Famine Song was also sung in March 2011 at a Scottish football game by Rangers fans, nevertheless, Scottish Justice Secretary Kenny MacAskill described the match as a "great advert for Scottish football."  The Herald journalist Doug Gillon has written that "the sectarian intolerance which divides Scottish society [...] is rooted in anti-Irish racism."
In February 2011, in an Old Firm match at Celtic Park a Celtic supporter was caught mocking black Rangers player El Hadji Diouf with monkey noises and gestures as he was about to take a corner kick.
In April 2011, the Manager of Celtic Neil Lennon received an explosive device in the post. Brian McNally described this as due to "anti-Catholic and anti-Irish racism". A number of high profile Celtic fans also were sent suspected explosive devices. Leader of the Scottish Conservative Party Annabel Goldie MSP described bullets sent to Neil Lennon and a number of Celtic players as "racism and sectarianism". After an attempted assault on Neil Lennon at Hearts stadium Tynecastle, a motion against anti-Irish racism was lodged in the Scottish Parliament.
Emre and I came face to face during the match. I'll tell you what he said word for word. He called me: 'A fucking nigger'. This is the first time in my life something like this has happened to me. Emre has Africans like Yobo and Sow as team-mates – I can't understand why he'd say such a thing. We're trying to get on with our jobs. What does the colour of our skin matter? Fans, FIFA, the press are all against racist statements. I hope something like this doesn't go unpunished.
Lip-reading professionals say Emre has said the words "fucking nigger". Emre received a two-game ban for his actions, after it was concluded that he had used abusive, but not racist, language by the authorities. There are still questions about the low ban he received.
On 12 May 2013, before the match between Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray, Galatasaray striker Didier Drogba along with his international teammate Emmanuel Eboue were racially abused by certain Fenerbahçe fans during the pre-match warmups. They were allegedly shown bananas. Television cameras and some pictures clearly captured a fan waving around a banana. Though there were no monkey chants or gestures of that sort, the "banana" caused a huge controversy and Fenerbahce has been condemned. This is the second ever racism incident in Turkey, which involves Fenerbahçe again, after the events that took place between Emre Belozoglu and Didier Zokora in 2012.
|This section requires expansion with: Beitar Jerusalem. (January 2012)|
Racist incidents date back to at least the 1970s, such as when Arab-Israeli player Jimmy Turk joined Hapoel Tel Aviv. Turk was subjected to anti-Arab abuse during nearly every game he played. According to Itzik Shanan, director of communications at the New Israel Fund, among most racist fans are supporters of Beitar Jerusalem, also Hapoel Tel Aviv fans have been using slogans promoting a Holocaust against Maccabi Tel Aviv. Israeli right-wing football supporters taunt Arab players during games, especially those who play for the mixed Arab-Jewish team Bnei Sakhnin.
Under Israeli law, football fans can be prosecuted for incitement of racial hatred. The "New Voices from the Stadium" program, run by the New Israel Fund (NIF) amasses a "racism index" that is reported to the media on a weekly basis, and teams have been fined and punished for the conduct of their fans. According to Steve Rothman, the NIF San Francisco director, "Things have definitely improved, particularly in sensitizing people to the existence of racism in Israeli society." In 2006, Israel joined Football Against Racism in Europe (FARE), a network set up to counter racism in football.
At a 1994 match in Melbourne between the Croatian community supported Melbourne Knights and the Greek community supported South Melbourne, many ethnic slurs were exchanged between the two sets of supporters.
In the first day of the Apertura 2006 tournament, the fans of Santos Laguna made guttural sounds imitating a chimpanzee against the Panamanian player Felipe Baloy of Monterrey as he scored a goal. During the game, Santos Laguna's fans had also chanted other racial slurs towards Baloy, including chango (monkey) and come platano (banana eater). The disciplinary commission of the Mexican Football Federation sanctioned the Santos club to a sum equivalent of 5,600 days of league minimum wage for the racist insults.
Overt displays of racism at U.S. soccer matches are extremely rare, compared to the European Union and Russia. However, during a May 24, 2008 Major League Soccer game between the Columbus Crew and the New England Revolution, Revolution forward Kheli Dube (originally from Zimbabwe) scored a goal against the Crew in the 89th minute of the game. An unidentified fan in the audience shouted out a racist slur. The incident was subsequently posted to the video sharing website YouTube, and MLS promised an investigation. In response to the epithet Revolution player Shalrie Joseph reportedly made an obscene gesture towards the offending fan. Assuming that MLS could have identified the fan, commisoner Don Garber promised to ban him.
On 14 April 2005, the Quilmes player Leandro Desabato was arrested for racially abusing Grafite, a black Brazilian player. He was held for 40 hours, and no charges were brought against the player after Grafite decided not to press charges.
- Football Against Racism in Europe
- Racism Breaks the Game
- Show Racism the Red Card
- Stand Up Speak Up
- Serbia v Albania (UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying)
- Sport and national identity in the ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Fact Sheet 6: Racism and Football". University of Leicester. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "BBC Sport | Football | My Club | R | Rangers | Police probe into abuse of Edu". BBC News. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Fifa racism measures could see teams expelled or relegated". BBC Sport. 31 May 2013.
- Gondwe, Kennedy (25 February 2008). "Faz presidency marred by racial abuse.". BBC Sport. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Racist issue mars Azkals win vs HK". Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "HKFA probes claims of 'racist abuse' in home friendly against Azkals - SPIN.PH". Sports Interactive Network Philippines. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Urawa Reds play to empty stadium after fans banned for racist banner". BBC Sport. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Quick response to racist displays in Japan". When Saturday Comes. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Whiteside, Kelly; Contributor: Johnnie Whitehead (2 June 2006). "Concerns raised over racism during Cup". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- Seltzer, Greg (22 May 2009). "S365 Exclusive: No Onyewu Slur Look Pending". Soccer365.com. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- Adubato, Michael (22 May 2009). "Onyewu: We'll Make Liege Proud". Yanks-Abroad.com. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
I almost ended up fighting him (Van Damme). He called me a monkey several times. The league has these anti-racism campaigns, but when I told the referee what Van Damme was saying, he chose not to do anything about it. I also told the journalists after the game last night about this.
- "U.S.' Onyewu sues over alleged racist slur". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- "Matumona quits club over racism". BBC Sport. 3 November 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Boysi rasplakali Kamerunca Bellea degutantnim hukanjem". Večernji.hr. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Major racist incidents in European soccer". Fox Sports. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- "Baroš in racism row over M'Bia". BBC Sport. 20 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Baroš banned for M'Bia incident". BBC Sport. 4 May 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Kebe in racist abuse claim". BBC Sport. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Bastia face sanctions for racism". BBC Sport. 23 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Referee unaware of Ouaddou abuse". BBC Sport. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- "Racism row club wants replay". BBC Sport. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- "French officials to combat racism". BBC Sport. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Mendy in racist abuse claim". BBC Sport. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
- "Lilian Thuram wants white players to make a stand against racism". BBC Sport. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Tzortzis, Andreas (6 March 2003). "Fighting Racism in the Soccer Stadium". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- Longman, Jere (4 June 2006). "Surge in Racist Mood Raises Concerns on Eve of World Cup". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
- Lodde, Eva; Mike Glindmeier and Jens Todt (3 April 2006). "Player Silences German Racists With Hitler Salute". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Asamoah targeted by racist taunts". BBC Sport. 10 September 2006. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Rostock fined for Asamoah abuse". BBC Sport. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Asamoah in racist abuse claim". BBC Sport. 19 August 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "German fans single out 'racist'". BBC Sport. 4 February 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "German player banned for racism". BBC. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- "Racism in European football". Kick It Out. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Juve president slams own fans for racist chants". Reuters. 19 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-21.[dead link]
- "Juve punished over racial abuse". BBC. 20 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
- "Balotelli Suffers Racist Abuse as Spaniards Aim Monkey Chants at Italy Striker.". mail online.
- Rosenburg, Joseph. "Racism in Soccer.".
- "AC Milan: Bananas thrown at players by Atalanta fans". BBC Sport. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Atalanta fined over banana incident in Italy's Serie A". BBC Sport. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Racist banner exhibited at Lithuania-France Euro 2008 qualifier". Football Against Racism in Europe. 30 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Rangers welcome inquiry by Uefa". BBC Sport. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Gers opponents fined over racism". BBC Sport. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Pap, Wesley praat ook zo hoor". NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). 30 November 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
- Gee, Jason (18 October 2004). "Racist chanting stops match". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Fernandez hit for six". Soccerway. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Fernandez claims van Eijden abuse". Soccerway. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Sjem, Sturla (21 May 1991). "Mobbeofferet som ikke lot seg knekke". VG (in Norwegian). p. 23.
- "Nordiske fotballspillere mot rasisme" (in Norwegian). Norwegian News Agency. 19 December 2005.
- "Hetset av en hel sving". VG (in Norwegian). 16 October 2002.
- "Kaasa fra mobbeoffer til helt". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 29 April 197. Check date values in:
- "Antisemitism And Racism". Tau.ac.il. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Polityka — Archiwum — Artykuł". Polityka.pl. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Mihir Bose — BBC sports editor. "BBC Sport | Mihir Bose". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Śmierć żydzewskiej k.....". sport.pl. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- "BBC News - Sol Campbell warns fans to stay away from Euro 2012". Bbc.co.uk. 28 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "Bikey embraces English culture". BBC. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Racism in football". Luciano Monteiro. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
- Joachim Barbier (13 March 2008). "Marseille to decide on complaint". BBC. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- "Racism warning for Zenit support". BBC. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- Will Stewart (3 May 2008). "Zenit fans are racist, admits Dick Advocaat". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- "Odemwingie attacks 'racist' fans". BBC News. 27 August 2010.
- Peck, Brooks (23 March 2011). "Russian fan presents Roberto Carlos with a racist banana". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Antonova, Maria (23 June 2011). "Roberto Carlos banana attack alarms Russia". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "Zenit rebuffs fans' demands". ESPN FC. Associated Press. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Manchester City's Yaya Toure wants action on racist chants". BBC Sport. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "CSKA Moscow: Uefa opens racist chants case after Man City match". BBC Sport. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Yaya Toure: Fifa & Uefa must act over football racism". BBC Sport. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Yaya Toure: CSKA Moscow punished for racist chants". BBC Sport. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Yaya Toure: Black players may boycott 2018 Russia World Cup". BBC Sport. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Rafael Saakov (25 September 2014). "Torpedo Moscow: Partial fan ban over racism at Christopher Samba". BBC Sport. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- Rafael Saakov (27 September 2014). "Samba banned for his reaction to racist abuse in Moscow". BBC Sport. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Arrests over Zimbabwean abuse". BBC. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Ghanaian injured in racist attack". BBC. 10 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- "Senegal defender in racism storm". BBC. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Uefa probes England & Serbia U21". BBC. 18 June 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Beasley wants hard line on racist chants". Edinburgh Evening News. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Kosanovic blasts Rangers striker". BBX. 27 August 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Public display of Nazi propaganda at Slovak First Division match". Football Against Racism In Europe. 25 May 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- Phil Minshull (17 November 2004). "Felix who?". BBC. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "European Soccer's Racism Problem". Deutsche Welle. 2 December 2005. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- Paul Kelso and Giles Tremlett (19 November 2004). "Spanish apologise for soccer racism". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- Kelso, Paul; Giles Tremlett (19 November 2004). "Spanish apologise for soccer racism". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Aragones wins Henry case appeal". BBC. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Eto'o responds to racist abuse". BBC. 13 February 2005. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Two fined for Eto'o taunts". BBC. 17 December 2004. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Eto'o keeps kids from racist fans". BBC. 4 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Eto'o seeks racism walk-off". BBC. 7 May 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Major racist incidents in European soccer". Fox Sports. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- "Dani Alves: Barcelona defender eats banana after it lands on pitch". BBC Sport. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Bruno Garcez (28 April 2014). "'We are all monkeys'". BBC News. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "Dani Alves: Barcelona player backed by banana-eating stars". BBC Sport. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "Dani Alves: Keep focus on racism issue - Cyrille Regis". BBC Sport. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Dani Alves says banana thrower should be publicly shamed". BBC Sport. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "Spanish police arrest Dani Alves banana thrower suspect". BBC News. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Dani Alves: Villarreal fined £9,850 for banana throw racism". BBC Sport. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Atletico Madrid fans accused of racist chants by Levante's Diop". BBC News. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Senegal's Diop complains of racist abuse from Atletico fans". BBC News. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Av Lars Johansson 26 FEBRUARI 18.00 (15 March 2010). "Malmö — Skånskan.se". Skanskan.se. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Änglarna.se - "Rosengårdstattare" - en omistlig del av vår läktarrepertoar?". Anglarna.se. 18 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Rasistattack mot Blåvitts stjärna — Nyheter — Senaste nytt | Expressen — Nyheter Sport Ekonomi Nöje". Expressen.se. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Fotbalistul dorit de Becali a regresat în carieră după ce a fost victima rasismului: "Jos cu maimuţa din copac!"". gsp.ro (in Romanian). Gazeta Sporturilor. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- "Racism and football fans". Social Issues Research Centre. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Pioneering Black footballers". Football Unites, Racism Divides. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Steve "Kalamazoo" Mokone". knet.co.za. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- Harmit Singh Kamboe (June 2007). "Interview with Roger Verdi". IndianFootball.com. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
- "There should be no place for racism in football". www.sprotsjournalists.co.uk. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Hoult, Nick (15 October 2008). "Top 10: Football hate figures". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Regis on Big Ron, racism and death threats sent with a bullet « Sports Journalists' Association". Sportsjournalists.co.uk. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "Barnes: 'There are lots of bad white managers – but they usually get second chances'". The Independent (London). 18 August 2009.
- Walker, Paul (6 March 1998). "Football: Harkness denies racist slur". www.independent.co.uk. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "FA charges Liverpool and Millwall". BBC Sport. 9 December 2004. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "Newcastle's Emre denies FA charge". BBC. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "FA to probe new Emre race claims". BBC. 16 February 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Emre faces new racism allegation". BBC. 1 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Emre cleared of FA racism charge". BBC. 19 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Police probe Hammers racism claim". BBC. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Life ban for racist football fan". BBC. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Chelsea angry at Grant barracking". BBC. 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Chelsea boss gets death threats". BBC. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "Major racist incidents in European soccer". Fox Sports. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- Hardy, Martin (28 August 2007). "I just wanted to silence the drunkards, says Mido". www.dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Racist fans 'should go to prison'". Blackpool Gazette. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- Canavan, Steve (22 September 2009). "Holloway slams 'disgusting' attack". Blackpool Gazette. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- "Jason Euell insists he has no regrets about confronting racist supporter". The Guardian (London). 24 September 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2009.[dead link]
- "Top players back David Baddiel's anti-semitism campaign". BBC Sport. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Published on Tuesday 14 June 2011 08:26 (14 June 2011). "Two football fans who used racist abuse get match bans - Local". The Star. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "The FA will look into claims Luis Suárez racially abused Patrice Evra". BBC Sport. 16 October 2011.
- Daniel Taylor (16 November 2011). "Liverpool's Luis Suárez will plead not guilty to FA racism charge". The Guardian (London).
- "Liverpool striker Luis Suarez handed eight-match FA ban". BBC Sport. 20 December 2011.
- Herbert, Ian (18 November 2011). "Suarez 'only has himself to blame' for storm over alleged slur". www.independent.co.uk. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Fifield, Dominic (24 October 2011). "John Terry to learn fate after alleged racial slur of Anton Ferdinand". guardian.co.uk (London). Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "John Terry to face police investigation over race allegations". BBC Sport (BBC). Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Burt, Jason (27 January 2012). "QPR defender Anton Ferdinand receives a bullet in the post ahead of Chelsea FA Cup match". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "John Terry denies Anton Ferdinand racism charge". BBC news. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- "John Terry banned and fined by FA over Anton Ferdinand incident". BBC Sport. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- "Rio Ferdinand fined £45,000 by FA over 'choc ice' tweet". www.telegraph.co.uk. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- Roan, Dan (29 May 2012). "BBC Sport - Paolo Di Canio: Swindon apologised for 'inappropriate' comment". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "Football fans jailed for abusive Stephen Lawrence chants". BBC News. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- "Wolves complain to Walsall and FA about racial abuse". BBC Sport. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Walsall to face no action over Wolves racist abuse complaint". BBC Sport. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- David Ornstein (21 August 2014). "Malky Mackay text claims: Iain Moody leaves Crystal Palace". BBC Sport. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Malky Mackay: Ex-Cardiff boss sorry for two 'disrespectful' texts". BBC Sport. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Malky Mackay: LMA apologises for statement over text 'banter'". BBC Sport. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Malky Mackay texts: Cardiff want LMA chief Richard Bevan to resign". BBC Sport. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Malky Mackay: 'I'm not racist nor sexist'". BBC Sport. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Mario Balotelli the subject of racist Twitter abuse after mockery of Manchester United". Telegraph.co.uk. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Chelsea FC suspends trio in 'racist' Paris Metro probe". BBC News. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Film shows Chelsea fans in Paris Metro incident". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 18 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Club statement". chelseafc.com. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Chelsea condemn fans who pushed black man off Paris Métro". The Guardian. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Police hunt for Chelsea fans involved in racist Paris incident". Sky Sports. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Ben Carrington and Ian McDonald  (p.40)
- 7.23.04 @ 12:01AM. "The American Spectator : Waco Wars". Spectator.org. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Race, Sport and British Society by Ben Carrington and Ian McDonald, p. 40
- ''Sport and National Identity In the Post-War World'' by Adrian Smith and Dilwyn Porter, p. 83. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Smith, Andrew (30 December 2007). "A black day for Scots football — Scotsman.com News". Edinburgh: News.scotsman.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Andrew Smith — The Scotsman (December 2007). "A Black Day For Scottish Football". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Retrieved 6 July 2008.
- Sir Norman Chester Centre for Football Research (June 2002). "Black Footballers in Britain — The Late 1980s and After — A 'New Era'?". University of Leicester. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
- Gaunt, Ken (10 December 1999). "Football: Amoruso apologises for racist remarks to Ikpeba — Sport". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Latest News". Kickitout.org. 25 April 2002. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Irvine, Neil (11 March 2003). "Rangers to get rid of racist fans". Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Knowles, Matthew; Alexander, Douglas (24 August 2003). "SFA to appoint racism officer". The Times (London).
- "Rangers to root out racists | Football | guardian.co.uk". The Guardian (London). 10 March 2003. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Latest News". Kickitout.org. 12 May 2004. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Celtic invited to make complaint". BBC News. 24 November 2004.
- "Scotland disappointed at racism". BBC. 1 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Motherwell apologise for racism". BBC. 1 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "SPL seek reply to racism claims". BBC. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Court Rules Famine Song is Racist". stv. June 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- "Judges brand Famine Song 'racist'". BBC. June 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- Spiers, Graham (28 October 2008). "SFA president warns Rangers over Famine Song". The Times (London).
- , BBC Sport.
- , Kilmarnock Standard.
- , BBC Sport.
- "Is it now officially OK to sing anti-Irish, anti-Catholic hate songs in Scottish football stadiums?". The Daily Telegraph (London). 29 March 2011.
- Custom byline text: (29 March 2011). "Why the fans who sing songs of hate are committing an offence". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "Church to create 'hate song' dossier as fans claim cops allowed sectarianism at Hampden". The Daily Record. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- Doug Gillon (11 February 2009). "Friendly timing could not be worse as Spain try to cast off racism shame". Theherald.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Stephen Houston (27 February 2011). "Shame of Race Yob". News of the World.
- "Brian McNally on Celtic Neil Lennon letterbombs Why ALL football fans must unite against football terrorism growing out of sectarian divides in Scotland - Mirror Football Blog". MirrorFootball.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "Annabel Goldie shows racism the red card". Scottish Conservatives. January 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-27.
- "Scottish Independence - Doris leads Parliament in support of Neil Lennon". Glasgow SNP. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "Trabzonspor’s Zokora accuses Emre of racist slur". goal.com (London). 15 April 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
"Emre and I came face to face during the match. I'll tell you what he said word for word. He called me: 'A fucking nigger'," Zokora told Lig TV after the match.
- "TFF HUKUK KURULU AĞIZ OKUMUŞ ve EMRE'nin "Sİ...MİN ZENCİSİ" DEDİĞİNİ TESBİT ETMİŞ.. SADECE O MU, DAHA DA FAZLASI VAR...". Turkspor.net. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Racism Strikes in Turkey as Former Chelesa Man Didier Drogba Abused". Soccer Without Limits. 12 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-16.
- "Sindirim sistemim bozuk". Fanatik.com.tr. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-16.
- "Galatasaray: Didier Drogba questions racists who abused him". BBC Sport. 14 May 2013.
- "England and Israel join for anti-racism football campaign". European Jewish Press. 7 March 2006. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- Zalen, Matt (1 November 2006). "Israel joins fight against soccer racism". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- A noble goal: Can Israel give soccer racism the boot?, by Joe Eskenazi, JWeekly
- Israel joins fight against soccer racism, by MATT ZALEN, Jerusalem Post
- "Medio Tiempo, la casa del futbol en Prodigy MSN". Mediotiempo.com. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- Tuesday, 22 August 2006 @ 03:17 UTC by David Sasaki (22 August 2006). "Racism in Mexican Football". Global Voices Online. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Associated Press (28 May 2008). "MLS investigating fan's slur captured on camera". Toronto: thestar.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Goal.com Features (30 May 2008). "The 3-5-2: Crewd Behavior, Bad Yanks and McReturn". Goal.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- 4 Jun 2008 (4 June 2008). "US soccer promises to ban racist fan — if they find him | AFP | MyWire Reference". Mywire.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Bill Faries (12 May 2005). "Soccer slide-tackles racism". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- Pedro Fonseca (14 April 2005). "Argentine player held in Brazil for racist insults". ESPN. Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Racism causes concern in Brazil ahead of World Cup". When Saturday Comes. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Brazil football club Gremio banned over racism incident". BBC Sport. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.