Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic
|Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic
Рада Беларускай Народнай Рэспублікі
|Facilities of Belarusian diaspora in North America, Britain and other countries|
Rada (Council) of the Belarusian Democratic Republic (Belarusian: Рада Беларускай Народнай Рэспублікі, Рада БНР, Rada BNR) is the supreme governing body of the Belarusian Democratic Republic. Since 1919 the Rada BNR is in exile where it has become one of the most influential political organizations of the Belarusian diaspora. As of 2015, the Rada BNR is the oldest existing Government in exile.
The Rada BNR was initially established as the executive body of the First All-Belarusian Congress, held in Minsk in December 1917 with over 1800 participants from different regions of Belarus including representatives of Belarusian national organisations, regional zemstva, main Christian denominations and Belarusian Jewish political parties. The work of the Congress was violently interrupted by the Bolsheviki.
After retreat of the Bolsheviki from Minsk, the Rada declared itself supreme power in Belarus. After the Bolsheviki and the Germans had signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk the Rada declared independence of Belarus as a sovereign Belarusian Democratic Republic.
As of 25 March 1918 the Rada BNR had 77 members including:
- 36 elected at the All-Belarusian Congress
- 6 representatives of the Belarusian community of Vilna
- 15 representatives of ethnic minorities (Russian, Polish, Jewish)
- 10 representatives of local authorities
- 10 representatives of major cities
Germany did not give official recognition to Belarus and hindered the activities of the institutions of the Belarusian Democratic Republic. Nevertheless, the Rada managed to start organising its governing bodies in different parts of the country as well as working on establishing a national Belarusian army and a national education system.
1919 – 1947
In April 1919, the Polish army seized Hrodna and Vilnius. Jozef Pilsudski issued the Proclamation to the Inhabitants of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania stating that the new Polish administration would grant them cultural and political autonomy. The proclamation was welcomed by the Belarusian leadership, especially considering Soviet plans for the Russification of Belarus. However, in later negotiations with the Belarusian leaders Pilsudski proposed to limit the Belarusian government's functions to purely cultural issues, which was rejected by the Belarusian prime minister Anton Luckievic. The government of Belarus managed to include a statement for minorities' rights in Poland in the resolutions of the Paris Peace Conference.
The government of the Belarusian Democratic Republic protested the Polish military mobilization in the area of Vilnius, the Polish elections held there, and the annexation of the Augustów area to Poland. They also appealed to the League of Nations, Great Britain, France, the USA and other countries to recognize the independence of Belarus.
In late 1920, the Belarusian government began negotiations anew with the Bolsheviks in Moscow and tried to persuade them to recognize the independence of Belarus and to release Belarusian political prisoners being held in Russian jails. The negotiations were unsuccessful.
On 11 November 1920, the Belarusian Democratic Republic signed a partnership treaty with the Republic of Lithuania to cooperate in liberating Belarusian and Lithuanian lands from Polish occupation.
After the establishment of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the USSR several members of the Rada BNR have in 1925 laid down their mandates and returned to Belarus. Officially the Rada BNR has never recognized the Belarusian Soviet Republic. Most of the members of the Rada who returned to Belarus, including former Prime Minister Vaclau Lastouski, were later killed in the Soviet terror in Belarus in the 1930s.
During the Second World War and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia the Rada has refused to cooperate with the Nazis and to recognize the collaborationist government of Belarus, the Belarusian Central Rada.
After the Second World War
The advance of the Red Army in 1945 forced the Rada of the BNR to relocate to the Western part of Germany, occupied by British and American troops.
In February 1948, the Rada passed a special manifesto, by which it declared its return to activity. In April 1948 the Rada, together with representatives of the Belarusian post-war refugees, held a conference in Osterhofen, Bavaria.
The primary activities of the Rada BNR in the West were lobbying and contacts with Western governments to ensure recognition of Belarus as a separate country. Together with other anti-Soviet organisations in the West, including governments in exile of Ukraine and the Baltic countries, the Rada protested against human rights violations in the Soviet Union.
After dissolution of the USSR
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, similar governments-in-exile of the neighboring countries (Lithuania, Poland and others) handed back their mandates to the corresponding independent governments.
Upon declaration of independence of the Republic of Belarus in 1990, interest in the Belarusian Democratic Republic has increased in Belarusian society. The Belarusian Popular Front, which was the main pro-Perestroika anti-Communist opposition party, has in many aspects appealed to the restoration of an independent Belarus as the Belarusian Democratic Republic since the late 1980s. In 1991, the Belarusian parliament adopted the state symbols of the Belarusian Democratic Republic, the Pahonia and the White-red-white flag, as state symbols of the Republic of Belarus.
In 1993, the government of the Republic of Belarus held official celebrations of the 75th anniversary of the Belarusian Democratic Republic in Minsk. Members of the Rada BNR took part in the celebrations along with the senior political leaders of the Republic of Belarus. It was stated then that the Rada was ready to hand its status to a democratically elected parliament of Belarus – however, not to the parliament of Belarus of that time which had been elected under Soviet rule.
However, these plans were cancelled after president Alexander Lukashenko, elected in 1994, has established an authoritarian regime accompanied by a return to Soviet policies in regards to Belarusian language and culture.
Today the Rada BNR attempts to promote democracy and independence for Belarus using contacts and lobbyism in countries where it has its representatives: USA, Canada, Great Britain, Estonia and others. The President of the Rada regularly holds meetings with western policymakers and makes official statements criticizing the human rights violations and continuing Russification in Belarus. The Rada became a consolidating center for several exiled Belarusian opposition politicians.
Since the late 1980s, 25 March, the Independence Day of the Belarusian Democratic Republic, is widely celebrated by the Belarusian national democratic opposition as Freedom Day (Belarusian: Дзень волі). It is usually accompanied by mass opposition rallies in Minsk and by celebration events of the Belarusian diaspora organizations supporting the Belarusian government in exile.
Structure and functions
Initially the Rada was meant to be a provisional parliament which should perform its functions till a constitutional convention of Belarus would be held. The Rada BNR formed a government consisting of its members.
Today the Rada sees itself as bearer of a symbolic mandate and as a guarantor of the independence of Belarus. The ultimate goal of the Rada is to transfer its mandate to a democratically elected Parliament of Belarus under the condition that no threat to the independence of Belarus should be present.
The Rada is led by the President of the Rada BNR (Старшыня Рады БНР) and a Presidium (Executive council) consisting of 14 members.
The Rada includes several Secretariates as working groups or individual secretaries responsible for relevant directions:
- Secretariate for External Affairs
- Secretariate for Internal Affairs
- Secretariate for Information
- Secretariate for Education
The activity of the Rada BNR is regulated by the Provisional Constitution of the Belarusian People's Republic and the Statute of the Rada BNR.
Presidents of the Rada BNR
- Janka Sierada (9 March – 14 May 1918)
- Jazep Losik (14 May 1918 – 13 December 1919)
- Piotra Krečeŭski (13 December 1919 – 1928)
- Vasil Zacharka (1928–1943)
- Mikoła Abramčyk (1944–1970)
- Vincent Žuk-Hryskievič (1970–1982)
- Jazep Sažyč (1982–1997)
- Ivonka Survilla (since 1997)
- Ivonka Survilla – President
- Siarhiej Navumčyk, former member of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus and the Belarusian Popular Front – 1st Vice-President
- Viačaslau Stankievič, member of the Council of the Belarusan-American Association – Vice-President
- Alesia Siomucha – Secretary
- Siarhiej Piatrovič – Treasurer
- Ała Kuźmickaja – Recording Secretary
- Dr. Ała Orsa Romano, president of the Orsa Romano Foundation – Secretary of Education
- Mikoła Pačkajeŭ, Association of Belarusians in Great Britain, former senior activist of the Belarusian Popular Front and Malady Front
- Alaksandar Starykievič
- Pavał Šaŭcoŭ, Association of Belarusians in Great Britain
- Siarhiej Piatkievič, Association of Belarusians in Great Britain
- Hanna Surmač, historian
gen. Kipryjan Kandratovič
- Fr. Alexander Nadson
- as spelled on the Official website
- Heart of darkness: A ray of hope from Belarusian exiles
- Government in exile#Current governments in exile
- Жыве Беларусь Бібліятэка гістарычных артыкулаў. "А. Сідарэвіч. Абвяшчэнне Беларускай Народнай Рэспублікі". Jivebelarus.net. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
- "Імёны Свабоды: Васіль Захарка". Svaboda.org. 14 March 1943. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
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- Максімюк, Я. Аднаўленьне Рады БНР пасьля Другой Сусьветнай вайны // Запісы = Zapisy. — 2001. — № 25. — С. 41 — 48.
- Навошта нам Рада БНР: інтэрвію з членам Рады (пачатак)
- "The March 20, 2006 Memorandum of the BNR Rada". Radabnr.org. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
- Шварцэнбэрг — Сурвіле: Візы тармозіць не ЭЗ, а Менск
- Эстонія падтрымлівае беларускую апазыцыю