Van Allen Probes
|Major contractors||Applied Physics Laboratory|
|Mission type||Two Earth orbiters operating within Earth's radiation belts|
|Launch date||2012-08-30, 08:05 UTC|
|Launch vehicle||Atlas V|
|Mission duration||2 years|
|Homepage||RBSP at APL|
|Mass||~1500 kg for both|
|Apoapsis||~5.8 Earth Radii|
|Orbital period||~9 hours|
The Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)) are two robotic spacecraft being used to study the Van Allen radiation belts that surround Earth. NASA is conducting the Van Allen Probes mission as part of the Living With a Star program. Understanding the radiation belt environment and its variability has important practical applications in the areas of spacecraft operations, spacecraft system design, mission planning and astronaut safety. The probes were launched on August 30, 2012.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the overall Living With a Star program of which RBSP is a project, along with Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The Applied Physics Laboratory is responsible for the overall implementation and instrument management for RBSP. The primary mission is scheduled to last 2 years, with expendables expected to last for 4 years. The spacecraft will also work in close collaboration with the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), which can measure particles that break out of the belts and make it all the way to Earth's atmosphere.
The Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission is part of NASA’s Living With a Star program, which is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) manages the mission and is building and will operate the Van Allen Probes for NASA.
- Mission concept review completed, January 30–31, 2007
- Preliminary design review, October, 2008
- Confirmation review, January, 2009
- Probes transported from Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, April 30, 2012
- Probes launched from Space Launch Complex-41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on Aug. 30, 2012. Liftoff occurred at 4:05 a.m. EDT.
Launch vehicle 
On March 16, 2009 United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced that NASA had awarded ULA a contract to launch RSBP using an Atlas V 401 rocket. NASA delayed the launch as it counted down to the four-minute mark early morning on August 23. After bad weather prevented a launch on August 24, and a further precautionary delay to protect the rocket and satellites from Hurricane Isaac, liftoff occurred on August 30, 2012 at 4:05 AM EDT.
The Van Allen radiation belts swell and shrink over time as part of a much larger space weather system driven by energy and material that erupt off the Sun's surface and fill the entire Solar System. Space weather is the source of aurora that shimmer in the night sky, but it also can disrupt satellites, cause power grid failures and disrupt GPS communications. The Van Allen Probes will help scientists to understand this region and to better design spacecraft that can survive the rigors of outer space. The mission is to gain scientific understanding of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.
The mission's general scientific objectives are to:
- Discover which processes - singly or in combination - accelerate and transport the particles in the radiation belt, and under what conditions.
- Understand and quantify the loss of electrons from the radiation belts.
- Determine the balance between the processes that cause electron acceleration and those that cause losses.
- Understand how the radiation belts change in the context of geomagnetic storms.
The Van Allen Probes consists of two spin-stabilized spacecraft that were launched with a single Atlas V rocket. The two probes must operate in the harsh conditions they are studying; while other satellites have the luxury of turning off or protecting themselves in the middle of intense space weather, the Van Allen Probes must continue to collect data. The probes have, therefore, been built to withstand the constant bombardment of particles and radiation they will experience in this intense area of space.
Because it is vital that the two craft make identical measurements to observe changes in the radiation belts through both space and time, each probe will carry the following:
- Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Instrument Suite ; The Principal Investigator is Harlan Spence  from University of New Hampshire. Key partners in this investigation are LANL, Southwest Research Institute, Aerospace Corporation and LASP
- Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS); The Principal Investigator is Craig Kletzing from the University of Iowa.
- Electric Field and Waves Instrument (EFW); The Principal Investigator is John Wygant from the University of Minnesota. Key partners in this investigation include the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Colorado at Boulder.
- Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE); The Principal Investigator is Lou Lanzerotti  from the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Key partners include the Applied Physics Laboratory and Fundamental Technologies, LLC .
- Relativistic Particle Spectrometer (RPS) from the National Reconnaissance Office
Scientific results 
In February 2013, a third temporary Van Allen Radiation Belt was discovered by using data gathered by Van Allen Probes. The said third belt lasted a few weeks.
See also 
- Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL)
- Cluster (spacecraft)
- Solar Dynamics Observatory
- Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
- STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory), launched 2006, still operational.
- WIND (spacecraft), launched 1994, still operational.
- TIMED, spacecraft launched 2001, still operational
- "Van Allen Probes: NASA Renames Radiation Belt Mission to Honor Pioneering Scientist". Reuters (Science Daily). 11 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
- "RBSP - Mission Overview". NASA. March 28, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)
- "Launching Balloons in Antarctica". NASA. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
- Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses
- "Construction Begins!". The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. January 2010.
- "Probes launched".
- "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Awarded Four NASA Rocket Launch Missions". ULA. Mar. 16, 2009.
- "Tropical Storm Isaac Delays NASA Launch". The Brevard Times. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Ephemeral third ring of radiation makes appearance around Earth" Nature.com. Retrieved: 2 March 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Radiation Belt Storm Probe|
- NASA Van Allen Probes mission page
- Johns Hopkins APL Van Allen Probes mission page
- The Van Allen Probes on Twitter
- Hi-res spherical panoramas in the clean room before encapsulation for launch