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Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that focuses on the hypothesis of patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on the assertion that male supremacy oppresses women. Radical feminism aims to challenge and overthrow patriarchy by opposing standard gender roles and oppression of women and calls for a radical reordering of society. Early radical feminism, arising within second-wave feminism in the 1960s, typically viewed patriarchy as a "transhistorical phenomenon" prior to or deeper than other sources of oppression, "not only the oldest and most universal form of domination but the primary form" and the model for all others. Later politics derived from radical feminism ranged from cultural feminism to more syncretic politics that placed issues of class, economics, etc. on a par with patriarchy as sources of oppression. Radical feminists locate the root cause of women's oppression in patriarchal gender relations, as opposed to legal systems (as in liberal feminism) or class conflict (as in socialist feminism and Marxist feminism).
During the early years some radical feminists were criticized for emphasizing sex-based discrimination at the expense of race- and class-based discrimination, for being unwilling to work with men to effect change through political channels and for marginalizing lesbian sexuality.
- 1 Theory and ideology
- 2 Movement
- 3 Views on the sex industry
- 4 Radical lesbian feminism
- 5 Views on transgenderism
- 6 Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Theory and ideology
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Radical feminists assert that society is a patriarchy in which the class of men are the oppressors of the class of women. Radical feminists seek to abolish patriarchy. Radical feminism posits the theory that, due to patriarchy, women have come to be viewed as the "other" to the male norm and as such have been systematically oppressed and marginalized. They also believe that the way to deal with patriarchy and oppression of all kinds is to address the underlying causes of these problems through revolution. They assert that men as a class benefit from the oppression of women.
While some radical feminists propose that the oppression of women is the most fundamental form of oppression, one that cuts across boundaries of all other forms of oppression, others acknowledge the simultaneous and intersecting effect of other independent categories of oppression as well. These other categories of oppression may include, but are not limited to, oppression based on race, social class, perceived attractiveness, sexual orientation, and ability.
Patriarchal theory is not always defined as a belief that all men always benefit from the oppression of all women. Patriarchal theory maintains that the primary element of patriarchy is a relationship of dominance, where one party is dominant and exploits the other party for the benefit of the former. Radical feminists believe that men use social systems and other methods of control to keep non-dominant men and all women suppressed. Radical feminists also believe that eliminating patriarchy, and other systems which perpetuate the domination of one group over another, will liberate everyone from an unjust society.
Some radical feminists called for women to govern women and men, among them Andrea Dworkin, Phyllis Chesler, Monique Wittig (in fiction), Mary Daly, Jill Johnston, and Robin Morgan.
Redstockings co-founder Ellen Willis wrote in 1984 that radical feminists "got sexual politics recognized as a public issue," "created the vocabulary… with which the second wave of feminism entered popular culture," "sparked the drive to legalize abortion", "were the first to demand total equality in the so-called private sphere" ("housework and child care ... emotional and sexual needs"), and "created the atmosphere of urgency" that almost led to the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. The influence of radical feminism can be seen in the adoption of these issues by the National Organization for Women (NOW), a feminist group that had previously been focused almost entirely on economic issues.
The ideology of radical feminism in the United States developed as a component of the women's liberation movement. It grew largely due to the influence of the civil rights movement that had gained momentum in the 1960s and many of the women who took up the cause of radical feminism had previous experience with radical protest in the struggle against racism. Chronologically, it can be seen within the context of second wave feminism that started in the early 1960s. The primary players and the pioneers of this second wave of feminism included the likes of Shulamith Firestone, Kathie Sarachild, Ti-Grace Atkinson, Carol Hanisch, and Judith Brown. Many local women's groups in the late sixties, such as the UCLA Women's Liberation Front (WLF), offered diplomatic statements of radical feminism's ideologies. UCLA's WLF co-founder Devra Weber recalls, "'... the radical feminists were opposed to patriarchy, but not necessarily capitalism. In our group at least, they opposed so-called male dominated national liberation struggles'".
These women helped secure the bridge that translated radical protest for racial equality over to the struggle for women's rights; by witnessing the discrimination and oppression to which the black population was subjected, they were able to gain strength and motivation to do the same for their fellow women. They took up the cause and advocated for a variety of women's issues, including abortion, the Equal Rights Amendment, access to credit, and equal pay. They failed to stir up enough interest among most of the women's fringe groups of society. A majority of women of color did not participate a great deal in the formation of radical feminist movement because it did not address many issues that were relevant to those from a working-class background, of which they were a sizeable part. But for those who felt compelled enough to stand up for the cause, radical action was needed, and so they took to the streets and formed consciousness raising groups to rally support for the cause and recruit people who would be willing to fight for it. Later on however, Second Wave radical feminism saw greater numbers of black feminists and other women of color participating.
In the 1960s, radical feminism emerged simultaneously within liberal feminist and working class feminist discussions, first in the United States, then in the United Kingdom and Australia. Those involved had gradually come to believe that it was not only the middle-class nuclear family oppressed women, but that it was also social movements and organizations that claimed to stand for human liberation, notably the counterculture, the New Left, and Marxist political parties, all of which they considered to be male-dominated and male-oriented. Women in countercultural groups related that the gender relations present in such groups were very much those of mainstream culture.
In the United States, radical feminism developed as a response to some of the perceived failings of both New Left organizations such as the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and feminist organizations such as NOW. Initially concentrated mainly in big cities like New York, Chicago, Boston, Washington, DC, and on the West Coast, radical feminist groups spread across the country rapidly from 1968 to 1972.
In the United Kingdom, feminism developed out of discussions within community based radical women's organizations and discussions by women within the Trotskyist left. Radical feminism was imported into the UK by American radical feminists and seized on by British radical women as offering an exciting new theory to replace Trotskyism. As the 1970s progressed, British feminists split into two major schools of thought: socialist and radical. In 1977, another split occurred, with a third grouping calling itself "revolutionary feminism" breaking away from the other two.
Australian radical feminism developed slightly later, during an extended period of social radicalization, largely as an expression of that radicalization.
Radical feminists introduced the use of consciousness raising (CR) groups. These groups brought together intellectuals, workers, and middle class women in developed Western countries to discuss their experiences. During these discussions, women noted a shared and repressive system regardless of their political affiliation or social class. Based on these discussions, the women drew the conclusion that ending patriarchy was the most necessary step towards a truly free society. These consciousness-raising sessions allowed early radical feminists to develop a political ideology based on common experiences women faced with male supremacy. Consciousness raising was extensively used in chapter sub-units of the National Organization for Women (NOW) during the 1970s. The feminism that emerged from these discussions stood first and foremost for the liberation of women, as women, from the oppression of men in their own lives, as well as men in power. Radical feminism claimed that a totalizing ideology and social formation—patriarchy (government or rule by fathers)—dominated women in the interests of men.
Within groups such as New York Radical Women (1967–1969), (no relation to Radical Women, a present-day socialist feminist organization), which Ellen Willis characterized as "the first women's liberation group in New York City", a radical feminist ideology began to emerge that declared that "the personal is political" and "sisterhood is powerful", formulations that arose from these consciousness-raising sessions. New York Radical Women fell apart in early 1969 in what came to be known as the "politico-feminist split" with the "politicos" seeing capitalism as the source of women's oppression, while the "feminists" saw male supremacy as "a set of material, institutionalized relations, not just bad attitudes." The feminist side of the split, which soon began referring to itself as "radical feminists", soon constituted the basis of a new organization, Redstockings. At the same time, Ti-Grace Atkinson led "a radical split-off from NOW", which became known as The Feminists. A third major stance would be articulated by the New York Radical Feminists, founded later in 1969 by Shulamith Firestone (who broke from the Redstockings) and Anne Koedt.
During this period, the movement produced "a prodigious output of leaflets, pamphlets, journals, magazine articles, newspaper and radio and TV interviews." Many important feminist works, such as Koedt's essay The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm (1970) and Kate Millet's book Sexual Politics (1970), emerged during this time and in this milieu.
Ideology emerges and diverges
At the beginning of this period, "heterosexuality was more or less an unchallenged assumption." Among radical feminists, the view became widely held that, thus far, the sexual freedoms gained in the sexual revolution of the 1960s, in particular, the decreasing emphasis on monogamy, had been largely gained by men at women's expense. This assumption of heterosexuality would soon be challenged by the rise of political lesbianism, closely associated with Atkinson and The Feminists. The belief that the sexual revolution was a victory of men over women would eventually lead to the women's anti-pornography movement of the late 1970s.
Redstockings and The Feminists were both radical feminist organizations, but held rather distinct views. Most members of Redstockings held to a materialist and anti-psychologistic view. They viewed men's oppression of women as ongoing and deliberate, holding individual men responsible for this oppression, viewing institutions and systems (including the family) as mere vehicles of conscious male intent, and rejecting psychologistic explanations of female submissiveness as blaming women for collaboration in their own oppression. They held to a view—which Willis would later describe as "neo-Maoist"—that it would be possible to unite all or virtually all women, as a class, to confront this oppression by personally confronting men.
The Feminists held a more idealistic, psychologistic, and utopian philosophy, with a greater emphasis on "sex roles", seeing sexism as rooted in "complementary patterns of male and female behavior". They placed more emphasis on institutions, seeing marriage, family, prostitution, and heterosexuality as all existing to perpetuate the "sex-role system". They saw all of these as institutions to be destroyed. Within the group, there were further disagreements, such as Koedt's viewing the institution of "normal" sexual intercourse as being focused mainly on male sexual or erotic pleasure, while Atkinson viewed it mainly in terms of reproduction. In contrast to the Redstockings, The Feminists generally considered genitally focused sexuality to be inherently male. Ellen Willis would later write that insofar as the Redstockings considered abandoning heterosexual activity, they saw it as a "bitter price" they "might have to pay for [their] militance", whereas The Feminists embraced separatist feminism as a strategy.
The New York Radical Feminists (NYRF) took a more psychologistic (and even biologically determinist) line. They argued that men dominated women not so much for material benefits as for the ego satisfaction intrinsic in domination. Similarly, they rejected the Redstockings view that women submitted only out of necessity or The Feminists' implicit view that they submitted out of cowardice, but instead argued that social conditioning simply led most women to accept a submissive role as "right and natural".
Radical feminism was not and is not only a movement of ideology and theory. Radical feminists also take direct action. In 1968, they protested against the Miss America pageant by throwing high heels and other feminine accoutrements into a garbage bin, to represent freedom. In 1970, they also staged a sit-in at the Ladies' Home Journal. In addition, they held speakouts about topics such as rape.
Because of their commitment to radical egalitarianism, most early radical feminist groups operated initially without any formal internal structure. When informal leadership developed, it was often resented. Many groups ended up expending more effort debating their own internal operations than dealing with external matters, seeking to "perfect a perfect society in microcosm" rather than focus on the larger world. Resentment of leadership was compounded by the view that all "class striving" was "male-identified". In the extreme, exemplified by The Feminists, the upshot, according to Ellen Willis, was "unworkable, mechanistic demands for an absolutely random division of labor, taking no account of differences in skill, experience, or even inclination". "The result," writes Willis, "was not democracy but paralysis." When The Feminists began to select randomly who could talk to the press, Ti-Grace Atkinson quit the organization she had founded.
Social organization and aims in the U.S. and Australia
Radical feminists have generally formed small activist or community associations around either consciousness raising or concrete aims. Many radical feminists in Australia participated in a series of squats to establish various women's centres, and this form of action was common in the late 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s many of the original consciousness raising groups had dissolved, and radical feminism was more and more associated with loosely organized university collectives. Radical feminism can still be seen, particularly within student activism and among working class women.
In Australia, many feminist social organizations accepted government funding during the 1980s, and the election of a conservative government in 1996 crippled these organizations.
While radical feminists aim to dismantle patriarchal society in a historical sense, their immediate aims are generally concrete. Some common demands include:
- Expanding reproductive rights.
Defined by feminists in the 1970s as a basic human right, it includes the right to abortion and birth control, but implies much more. To be realised, reproductive freedom must include not only woman's right to choose childbirth, abortion, sterilisation or birth control, but also her right to make those choices freely, without pressure from individual men, doctors, governmental or religious authorities. It is a key issue for women, since without it the other freedoms we appear to have, such as the right to education, jobs and equal pay, may prove illusory. Provisions of childcare, medical treatment, and society's attitude towards children are also involved.
- Changing the organizational sexual culture, e.g., breaking down traditional gender roles and reevaluating societal concepts of femininity and masculinity (a common demand in U.S. universities during the 1980s). In this, they often form tactical alliances with other currents of feminism.
Views on the sex industry
Radical feminists have written about a wide range of issues regarding the sex industry - which they tend to oppose - including but not limited to: harm to women during the production of pornography, the social harm from consumption of pornography, the coercion and poverty that leads women to become prostitutes, the long term effects of prostitution, the raced and classed nature of prostitution, and the often inherent male dominance over women in prostitution as well as pornography.
Views on prostitution
Radical feminists argue that, in most cases, prostitution is not a conscious and calculated choice. They say that most women who become prostitutes do so because they were forced or coerced by a pimp or by human trafficking, or, when it is an independent decision, it is generally the result of extreme poverty and lack of opportunity, or of serious underlying problems, such as drug addiction, past trauma (such as child sexual abuse) and other unfortunate circumstances.
Radical feminists point out that women from the lowest socioeconomic classes—impoverished women, women with a low level of education, women from the most disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities—are overrepresented in prostitution all over the world. "If prostitution is a free choice, why are the women with the fewest choices the ones most often found doing it?" (MacKinnon, 1993). A large percentage of prostitutes polled in one study of 475 people involved in prostitution reported that they were in a difficult period of their lives and most wanted to leave the occupation. Catharine MacKinnon argues that "In prostitution, women have sex with men they would never otherwise have sex with. The money thus acts as a form of force, not as a measure of consent. It acts like physical force does in rape."
They believe no person can be said to truly consent to their own oppression and no people should have the right to consent to the oppression of others. In the words of Kathleen Barry, consent is not a “good divining rod as to the existence of oppression, and consent to violation is a fact of oppression. Oppression cannot effectively be gauged according to the degree of “consent,” since even in slavery there was some consent, if consent is defined as inability to see, or feel any alternative.”
Andrea Dworkin stated her opinions as: "Prostitution in and of itself is an abuse of a woman's body. Those of us who say this are accused of being simple-minded. But prostitution is very simple. (…) In prostitution, no woman stays whole. It is impossible to use a human body in the way women's bodies are used in prostitution and to have a whole human being at the end of it, or in the middle of it, or close to the beginning of it. It's impossible. And no woman gets whole again later, after.”
Radical feminist thinking has analyzed prostitution as a cornerstone of patriarchal domination and sexual subjugation of women that impacts negatively not only on the women and girls in prostitution but on all women as a group because prostitution continually affirms and reinforces patriarchal definitions of women as having a primary function to serve men sexually. They claim it is crucial that society does not replace one patriarchal view on female sexuality - e.g., that women should not have sex outside marriage/a relationship and that casual sex is shameful for a woman, etc. - with another similarly oppressive and patriarchal view - acceptance of prostitution, a sexual practice which is based on a highly patriarchal construct of sexuality: that the sexual pleasure of a woman is irrelevant, that her only role during sex is to submit to the man’s sexual demands and to do what he tells her, that sex should be controlled by the man and that the woman’s response and satisfaction are irrelevant. These feminists argue that sexual liberation for women cannot be achieved as long as we normalize unequal sexual practices where a man dominates a woman.
They see prostitution as a form of male dominance over women, as the client has sex with a woman who does not enjoy it and who may be making a tremendous psychological effort to mentally dissociate herself from the client. They say that the act of prostitution is not a mutual and equal sex act as it puts the woman in a subordinate position, reducing her to a mere instrument of sexual pleasure for the client. These feminists believe that many clients use the services of prostitutes because they enjoy the "power trip" they derive from the act and the control they have over the woman during the sexual activity. Catharine MacKinnon argues that prostitution "isn't sex only, it’s you do what I say, sex."
Radical feminists strongly object to the patriarchal ideology which has been one of the justifications for the existence of prostitution throughout history (and which they say continues to justify it in many cultures), that is, that prostitution is a "necessary evil", as men cannot control themselves, and thus it is "necessary" that a small number of women be "sacrificed" to be used and abused by men, in order to protect "chaste" women from rape and harassment. These feminists see prostitution as a form of slavery, and say that, far from decreasing rape rates, prostitution leads to a sharp increase in sexual violence against women, by sending the message that it is acceptable for a man to treat a woman as a sexual instrument over which he has total control. Melissa Farley argues that Nevada's high rape rate is connected to legal prostitution because Nevada is the only US state which allows legal brothels and is ranked 4th out of the 50 U.S. states for sexual assault crimes, saying, "Nevada's rape rate is higher than the U.S. average and way higher than the rape rate in California, New York and New Jersey. Why is this? Legal prostitution creates an atmosphere in this state in which women are not humans equal to them, are disrespected by men, and which then sets the stage of increased violence against women."
Indigenous women the world over are particularly targeted for prostitution. In Canada, New Zealand, Mexico, and Taiwan, studies have shown that indigenous women are at the bottom of the race and class hierarchy of prostitution, often subjected to the worst conditions, most violent demands and sold at the lowest price. It is common for indigenous women to be over-represented in prostitution when compared with their total population. This is as a result of the combined forces of colonialism, physical displacement from ancestral lands, destruction of indigenous social and cultural order, misogyny, globalization/neoliberalism, race discrimination and extremely high levels of violence perpetrated against them.
Views on pornography
Radical feminists, notably Catherine MacKinnon, charge that the production of pornography entails physical, psychological, and/or economic coercion of the women who perform and model in it. This is said to be true even when the women are being presented as enjoying themselves. It is also argued that much of what is shown in pornography is abusive by its very nature. Gail Dines holds that pornography, exemplified by gonzo pornography, is becoming increasingly violent and that women who perform in pornography are brutalized in the process of its production.
Radical feminists point to the testimony of well known participants in pornography, such as Traci Lords and Linda Boreman, and argue that most female performers are coerced into pornography, either by somebody else, or by an unfortunate set of circumstances. The feminist anti-pornography movement was galvanized by the publication of Ordeal, in which Linda Boreman (who under the name of "Linda Lovelace" had starred in Deep Throat) stated that she had been beaten, raped, and pimped by her husband Chuck Traynor, and that Traynor had forced her at gunpoint to make scenes in Deep Throat, as well as forcing her, by use of both physical violence against Boreman as well as emotional abuse and outright threats of violence, to make other pornographic films. Dworkin, MacKinnon, and Women Against Pornography issued public statements of support for Boreman, and worked with her in public appearances and speeches.
Radical feminists hold the view that pornography contributes to sexism, arguing that in pornographic performances the actresses are reduced to mere receptacles—objects—for sexual use and abuse by men. They argue that the narrative is usually formed around men's pleasure as the only goal of sexual activity, and that the women are shown in a subordinate role. Some opponents believe pornographic films tend to show women as being extremely passive, or that the acts which are performed on the women are typically abusive and solely for the pleasure of their sex partner. On-face ejaculation and anal sex are increasingly popular among men, following trends in porn. MacKinnon and Dworkin defined pornography as "the graphic sexually explicit subordination of women through pictures or words".
Radical feminists say that consumption of pornography is a cause of rape and other forms of violence against women. Robin Morgan summarizes this idea with her often-quoted statement, "Pornography is the theory, and rape is the practice."
Radical feminists charge that pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, and reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment. MacKinnon argued that pornography leads to an increase in sexual violence against women through fostering rape myths. Such rape myths include the belief that women really want to be raped and that they mean yes when they say no. Additionally, according to MacKinnon, pornography desensitizes viewers to violence against women, and this leads to a progressive need to see more violence in order to become sexually aroused, an effect she claims is well documented.
German radical feminist Alice Schwarzer is one proponent of the point of view according to which pornography gives a distorted view of men and women's bodies, as well as the actual sexual act, often showing the performers with synthetic implants or exaggerated expressions of pleasure, as well as fetishes that are not the norm, such as watersports, being presented as popular and normal.
Radical lesbian feminism
Radical lesbians is a movement within radical feminism, distinguished from other radical feminists through their ideological roots in political lesbianism.
Views on transgenderism
A dispute began in 1973, when the West Coast Lesbian Conference split over a scheduled performance by the transgender folksinger Beth Elliott. In 1979 Janice Raymond released the book The Transsexual Empire, which she framed as a critique of a patriarchal medical and psychiatric establishment. Sheila Jeffreys argues that transgenderism is not immutable and thus does not warrant radical medical intervention, considers detransitioners to be evidence of this, and describes genital reassignment surgery as "mutilation". Jeffreys also argues that "the vast majority of transsexuals still subscribe to the traditional stereotype of women" and that by transitioning medically and socially, trans women are "constructing a conservative fantasy of what women should be. They are inventing an essence of womanhood which is deeply insulting and restrictive". Throughout Gender Hurts: A Feminist Analysis of the Politics of Transgenderism cowritten with Lorene Gottschalk, Jeffreys insists on using male pronouns to refer to trans women claiming that "use by men of feminine pronouns conceals the masculine privilege bestowed upon them by virtue of having been placed in and brought up in the male sex caste". Julie Bindel said "I don't have a problem with men disposing of their genitals, but it does not make them women, in the same way that shoving a bit of vacuum hose down your 501s [jeans] does not make you a man." As of 2009 Bindel maintained that "people should question the basis of the diagnosis of male psychiatrists, at a time when gender polarisation and homophobia work hand-in-hand." She argues that "Iran carries out the highest number of sex change surgeries in the world" because "surgery is an attempt to keep gender stereotypes intact" and that "the idea that certain distinct behaviours are appropriate for males and females underlies feminist criticism of the phenomenon of 'transgenderism'."
According to the Guardian editor, her article 'Gender benders, beware' was criticized by international LGBT lobbies among local readers, receiving many letters condemning it and the Guardian for publishing it from transsexual people as well as doctors, therapists and academics. He explained that Bindel understood that there were problems with the way the article was written and agreed with one therapist claiming that the column abused an already abused minority.
Some radical feminists have advocated for the exclusion of trans women from feminist events, a source of much controversy. Lisa Vogel, the Michfest event organizer claimed that protesters from Camp Trans responded to this controversy with vandalism. They argue that trans women cannot be counted as women because they were not born biologically female. Such radical feminists hold that trans women have enjoyed male privilege by virtue of being assigned male at birth and their insistence on acceptance is a type of male entitlement. Some radical feminists reject the notion of a female brain. They believe that the differences in behaviour between men and women are a result of different socialization and believe that - in the words of Lierre Keith - femininity is "ritualized submission". In this view, gender is less an identity than a caste position and transgenderism is an obstacle to gender abolition. These views are not widely held by feminists, are rejected by many trans women and are often labeled transphobic.
The term TERF (trans-exclusionary radical feminist) has been used by transgender people and allies to refer to radical feminists who hold such views. The term is considered a slur by those at whom it is directed, such as Elizabeth Hungerford.
Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism
Ellen Willis' 1984 essay Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism reflects the radical feminism which she helped define in the late 60s. Within the New Left, Willis writes, radical feminists were accused of being "bourgeois", "antileft", or even "apolitical", whereas they saw themselves as further "radicalizing the left by expanding the definition of radical". Radical feminists have tended to be white and middle class. Willis hypothesized that this was, at least in part, because "most black and working-class women could not accept the abstraction of feminist issues from race and class issues"; the resulting narrow demographic base, in turn, limited the validity of generalizations based on radical feminists' personal experiences of gender relations. Many early radical feminists broke political ties with "male-dominated left groups", or would work with them only in ad hoc coalitions.
Some feminists, most notably Alice Echols and Ellen Willis, held that after about 1975 most of what continued to be called "radical feminism" represents a narrow subset of what was originally a more ideologically diverse movement. Willis saw this as an example of a "conservative retrenchment" that occurred when the "expansive prosperity and utopian optimism of the '60s succumbed to an era of economic limits and political backlash." They label this dominant tendency "cultural feminism" and view it as a "neo-Victorian" ideology coming out of radical feminism but ultimately antithetical to it. Willis drew the contrast that early radical feminism saw itself as part of a broad left politics, whereas much of what succeeded it in the 1970s and early 1980s (both cultural feminism and liberal feminism) took the attitude that "left politics were 'male' and could be safely ignored." She further wrote that whereas the original radical feminism "challenge[d] the polarization of the sexes", cultural feminism simply embraces the "traditional feminine virtues". Critics of cultural feminism hold that cultural feminist ideas on sexuality severely polarized feminism, leading to the feminist sex wars of the 1980s. Critics of Echols and Willis hold that they conflate several tendencies within radical feminism, not all of which are properly called "cultural feminism" and that cultural feminism is not radical feminism, and emphasize a greater continuity between early and contemporary radical feminism.
Also, Willis, although very much a part of early radical feminism and continuing to hold that it played a necessary role in placing feminism on the political agenda, later criticised its inability "to integrate a feminist perspective with an overall radical politics," while viewing this limitation as inevitable in the historical context of the times. In part this limitation arose from the fact that consciousness raising, as "the primary method of understanding women's condition" in the movement at this time and its "most successful organizing tool", led to an emphasis on personal experience that concealed "prior political and philosophical assumptions".
Willis, writing in 1984, was critical of the notion that all hierarchies are "more specialized forms of male supremacy" as preventing adequate consideration of the possibility that "the impulse to dominate… could be a universal human characteristic that women share, even if they have mostly lacked the opportunity to exercise it." Further, the view of oppression of women as a "transhistorical phenomenon" allowed middle-class white women to minimize the benefits of their own race and class privilege and tended to exclude women from history. Further, Willis wrote that the movement never developed "a coherent analysis of either male or female psychology" and that it ultimately raised hopes that its narrow "commitment to the sex-class paradigm" could not fulfill; when those hopes were dashed, according to Willis the resulting despair was the foundation of withdrawal into counterculturalism and cultural feminism.
- Willis, p. 117.
- Willis, p. 118.
- Willis, p. 122.
- Willis, p. 123.
- Willis, p. 141.
- Hillyard Little, Margaret. "Women’s Sexuality: On the Socialist Feminist Road to Discovery".
Rich’s definition of lesbianism is extremely problematic for several reasons. First, this asexual reductionist definition does not allow women to speak about what is unique in a lesbian experience and thus limits the erotic. Second, in romanticizing the notion of resistance to heterosexual violence Rich makes it impossible to deﬁne what are the conditions that allow for successful resistance. Third, Rich’s concept of lesbian continuum is essentialist; she reinforces the belief that men and women have fundamentally opposing sexual natures and that the latter tends to be passive or asexual. Fourth, this transhistorical and transcultural version of lesbianism undervalues the important historical developments and changes in material conditions which allow some women to establish a distinct lesbian identity while others do not have such a privilege. Finally, Rich believes that compulsory heterosexuality is the key to women’s subordination and assumes that all heterosexual relations are coercive or compulsory relations. Targeting heterosexuality as the key mechanism of male dominance romanticizes lesbianism and ignores the actual quality of individual lesbian or heterosexual women’s lives. In short, Rich’s work has a disturbing lesbian separatist tone, implying that as soon as women stop sleeping with men they will destroy the institution of compulsory heterosexuality and hence gain their liberation.
- Echols, p. 139.
- Zerilli, Linda M. G., Feminism and the Abyss of Freedom (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2005 (ISBN 0-226-98133-9)), p. 101.
• Eller, Cynthia, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8070-6792-X)), p. 3.
- Dworkin, Andrea, Scapegoat: The Jews, Israel, and Women's Liberation (N.Y.: Free Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-684-83612-2)), p. 246 and see pp. 248 & 336.
• Take No Prisoners, in The Guardian, May 13, 2000, as accessed Sep. 6, 2010.
• Ouma, Veronica A., Dworkin's Scapegoating, in Palestine Solidarity Review (PSR), Fall 2005, as accessed Oct. 21, 2010.
- Chesler, Phyllis, Women and Madness (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, rev'd & updated ed., 1st ed. 2005 (ISBN 1-4039-6897-7)), pp. 335–336, 337–338, 340, 341, 345, 346, 347, & 348–349 (original ed. prob. published 1972, per id., p. [ix] ("1972 Acknowledgments") (sales 2.5 million copies, per id. (pbk.), cover I, & Douglas, Carol Anne, Women and Madness, in off our backs, op. cit.).
• Douglas, Carol Anne, Women and Madness, in off our backs, vol. 36, no. 2, Jul. 1, 2006, p. 71, col. 1 (Review) (ISSN 0030-0071).
• Spender, Dale, For the Record: The Making and Meaning of Feminist Knowledge (London: The Women's Press, 1985 (ISBN 0-7043-2862-3)), p. 151 and see reply from Phyllis Chesler to author at p. 214.
- Wittig, Monique, trans. David Le Vay, Les Guérillères (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, reprint 1985 (ISBN 0-8070-6301-0), 1969 Les Editions de Minuit), passim and see pp. 112, 114–115, 127, 131, & 134–135 (novel).
• Moi, Toril, Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory (London: Routledge, 2d ed., 2002 (ISBN 0-415-28012-5)), p. 78.
• Auerbach, Nina, Communities of Women: An Idea in Fiction (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1978 (ISBN 0-674-15168-2)), p. 186.
• Porter, Laurence M., Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, in Morse, Donald E., Marshall B. Tymn, & Csilla Bertha, eds., The Celebration of the Fantastic: Selected Papers from the Tenth Anniversary International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992 (ISBN 0-313-27814-8)), p. 267.
• Zerilli, Linda M. G., Feminism and the Abyss of Freedom, op. cit., p. 80 n. 51, quoting Porter, Laurence M., Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, op. cit., p. .
- Daly, Mary, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, pbk. 1978 & 1990 (prob. all content except New Intergalactic Introduction 1978 & prob. New Intergalactic Introduction 1990) (ISBN 0-8070-1413-3)), p. 15 and see pp. xxvi & xxxiii (both in New Intergalactic Introduction) & pp. 29, 375 & fnn., & 384 (New Intergalactic Introduction separate from Introduction: The Metapatriarchal Journey of Exorcism and Ecstasy).
- Johnston, Jill, Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution (N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1973 (SBN (not ISBN) 671-21433-0)), p. 248 and see pp. 248–249.
• Franklin, Kris, & Sara E. Chinn, Lesbians, Legal Theory and Other Superheroes, in Review of Law & Social Change, vol. XXV, 1999, pp. 310–311, as accessed Oct. 21, 2010 (citing in n. 45 Lesbian Nation, p. 15)).
• Ross, Becki L., The House That Jill Built: A Lesbian Nation in Formation (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, pbk. 1995 (ISBN 0-8020-7479-0)), passim, esp. pp. 8 & 15–16 & also pp. 19, 71, 111, 204, 205, 212, 219, & 231.
• Ross, Becki L., The House That Jill Built, op. cit., p. 204 & n. 18, citing McCoy, Sherry, & Maureen Hicks, A Psychological Retrospective on Power in the Contemporary Lesbian-Feminist Community, in Frontiers, vol. 4, no. 3 (1979), p. 67.
- Morgan, Robin, Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist (N.Y.: Random House, 1st ed. 1977 (ISBN 0-394-48227-1)), p. 187.
- Willis, p. 138.
- Sarah Gamble, ed. The Routledge companion to feminism and postfeminism (2001) p. 25
- Linden-Ward & Green, p. 418.
- Evans, Sara M. (Summer 2002). "Re-Viewing the Second Wave". Feminist Studies 28 (2): 258–267. doi:10.2307/3178740.
- Linden-Ward & Green, p. 434.
- Willis, p. 118. Willis doesn't mention Chicago, but as early as 1967 Chicago was a major site for consciousness-raising and home of the Voice of Women's Liberation Movement; see Kate Bedford and Ara Wilson Lesbian Feminist Chronology: 1963-1970, accessed online 8 July 2007.
- Willis, p. 119.
- Willis, p. 124.
- Willis, p. 133.
- Willis, p. 121.
- Willis, p. 131.
- Willis, pp. 124–126.
- Willis, p. 128.
- Willis, pp. 130–132.
- Willis, p. 132.
- Willis, pp. 133–134.
- Echols, pp. 92–101.
- Echols, pp. 195–197.
- Willis, pp. 138–140.
- From The Encyclopedia of Feminism (1986) Lisa Tuttle
- Misra, Kalpana, & Melanie S. Rich, Jewish Feminism in Israel: Some Contemporary Perspectives (Hanover, N.H.: Univ. Press of New England (Brandeis Univ. Press), 1st ed. 2003 (ISBN 1-58465-325-6)) (author sr. fellow, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Univ. of Minn., dir., Intntl. Women's Rights Action Watch, law degree, Univ. of Minn., & doctoral degree in Eng. & Am. lit., Univ. of Penna., editor Kalpana Misra assoc. prof. pol. sci., Univ. of Tulsa), & editor Melanie S. Rich psychologist & chair, Partnership 2000 Women's Forum).
- Melissa Farley, Isin Baral, Merab Kiremire and Ufuk Sezgin (1998). "Prostitution in Five Countries". Feminism & Psychology. pp. 405–426. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- Farley, Melissa. (April/2/2000) Prostitution: Factsheet on Human Rights Violations. Prostitution Research & Education. Retrieved on 2009-09-03.
- "It's Wrong to Pay for Sex". Connecticut Public Radio. 05/08/2009. Retrieved 8 May 2010. Check date values in:
- Barry, K "The Prostitution of Sexuality: The Global Exploitation of Women" New York: NYU Press 1995
- Andrea Dworkin (1992-10-31). "Prostitution and Male Supremacy (1 of 2)". Nostatusquo.com. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- Cecilia Hofmann (August 1997). "SEX: From human intimacy to "sexual labor" or Is prostitution a human right?". CATW-Asia Pacific. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- "It's wrong to pay for sex". 4/22/09. Retrieved 4 May 2010. Check date values in:
- "Sexual Assault Prevention Program at ISPAN". Inner-star.org. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- MARK WAITE (2007-09-07). "Panel: Brothels aid sex trafficking". Pahrump Valley Times. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- Farley, M.; Lynne, J.; Cotton, A. (2005). "Prostitution in Vancouver: Violence and the Colonization of First Nations Women". Transcultural Psychiatry 42 (2): 242–271. doi:10.1177/1363461505052667.
- Shrage, Laurie. (2007-07-13). "Feminist Perspectives on Sex Markets: Pornography". In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Mackinnon, Catherine A. (1984) "Not a moral issue." Yale Law and Policy Review 2:321-345. Reprinted in: Mackinnon (1989). Toward a Feminist Theory of the State Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-89645-9 (1st ed), ISBN 0-674-89646-7 (2nd ed). "Sex forced on real women so that it can be sold at a profit to be forced on other real women; women's bodies trussed and maimed and raped and made into things to be hurt and obtained and accessed, and this presented as the nature of women; the coercion that is visible and the coercion that has become invisible—this and more grounds the feminist concern with pornography"
- "A Conversation With Catherine MacKinnon (transcript)". Think Tank. 1995. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/thinktank/transcript215.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- Dines, Gail. (2007-03-24). "Pornography & Pop Culture: Putting the Text in Context" Presentation at: Pornography & Pop Culture - Rethinking Theory, Reframing Activism. Wheelock College, Boston, March 24, 2007. Archived at Google Video.
- Dines, Gail. (2008-06-23). "Penn, Porn and Me". CounterPunch. Retrieved 2009-09-06. "The porn that makes most of the money for the industry is actually the gonzo, body-punishing variety that shows women’s bodies being physically stretched to the limit, humiliated and degraded. Even porn industry people commented in a recent article in Adult Video News, that gonzo porn is taking its toll on the women, and the turnover is high because they can’t stand the brutal acts on the body for very long."
- Brownmiller, In Our Time, p. 337.
- Bindel, Julie, The Truth About the Porn Industry: Gail Dines, the Author of an Explosive New Book About the Sex Industry, on Why Pornography Has Never Been a Greater Threat to Our Relationships, in The (U.K.) Guardian, Jul. 2, 2010, section Life & Style, subsection Women, as accessed Jul. 17, 2010 (Wikipedia has an article about Julie Bindel).
- MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1984). "Francis Biddle's sister: pornography, civil rights, and speech". Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law. Harvard University Press. (1987). pp. 163–197. ISBN 0-674-29874-8. p 176.
- Morgan, Robin. (1974). "Theory and Practice: Pornography and Rape". In: Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist. (1977). Random House. 333 p. ISBN 0-394-48227-1. (1978 ed, ISBN 0-394-72612-X.)
- Jeffries, Stuart. (2006-04-12). "Are women human? (interview with Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- Goldberg, Michelle (4 August 2014). "What Is a Woman? The dispute between radical feminism and transgenderism". New Yorker Magazine. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1997). "Transgender Activism: A Lesbian Feminist Perspective". The Journal of Lesbian Studies.
- Bindel, Julie (31 January 2004), Gender Benders, beware, The Guardian
- Grew, Tony (7 November 2008), Celebs split over trans protest at Stonewall Awards Bindel attended.
- Mayes, Ian (14 February 2004), A change, of course, The Guardian
- Reilly, Peter J (June 15, 2013). "Cathy Brennan On Radfem 2013". Forbes. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- Keith, Lierre (21–23 June 2013). "The Emperor’s New Penis". CounterPunch. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
Female socialization is a process of psychologically constraining and breaking girls—otherwise known as “grooming”—to create a class of compliant victims. Femininity is a set of behaviors that are, in essence, ritualized submission.
- Vasquez, Tina (February 17, 2014). "It's Time to End the Long History of Feminism Failing Transgender Women". Bitch Media. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- Allen, Samantha (July 11, 2013). "The hate group masquerading as feminists". Salon/Jacobin. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
A small but vocal band of activists known as 'Radfems' see transgender women like myself as a blight on the feminist movement, but — because their views are not representative of the feminist movement as a whole — many trans*-inclusive feminists refer to them as TERFs, or Trans*-Exclusionary Radical Feminists.
- Hungerford, Elizabeth (2–4 August 2013). "Sex is Not Gender". CounterPunch. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
Make no mistake, this is a slur. TERF is not meant to be explanatory, but insulting. These characterizations are hyperbolic, misleading, and ultimately defamatory. They do nothing but escalate the vitriol and fail to advance the conversation in any way.
- Willis, p. 120.
- Willis, p. 143.
- Willis, p. 117. "[Cultural feminists] see the primary goal of feminism as freeing women from the imposition of so-called 'male values,' and creating an alternative culture based on 'female values.'"
- Willis, p. 137.
- Willis, p. 134 et seq.
- Bell, Diane and Renate Klein. Radically Speaking. Spinifex Press ISBN 1-875559-38-8.
- Coote, Anna and Beatrix Campbell. (1987) Sweet Freedom: The Movement for Women's Liberation. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-14957-0 (hardback) ISBN 0-631-14958-9 (paperback).
- Daly, Mary. (1978) Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Beacon Pr. ISBN 0-8070-1413-3
- Echols, Alice (1989). Daring To Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America 1967-1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-1787-6.
- Firestone, Shulamith. (1970). The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-06454-X (Reprinted editions: Bantam, 1979, ISBN 0-553-12814-0; Farrar Straus Giroux, 2003, ISBN 0-374-52787-3.)
- Koedt, Anne, Ellen Levine, and Anita Rapone, eds. (1973). Radical Feminism. Times Books. ISBN 0-8129-6220-6
- Blanche, Linden-Ward; Green, Carol Hurd (1993). American Women in the 1960s: Changing the Future. New York: Twayne. ISBN 978-0-8057-9905-7.
- Love, Barbara J. and Nancy F. Cott. (2006). Feminists Who Changed America, 1963–1975. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-03189-X for biographies of participants in radical feminist groups
- MacKinnon, Catharine. (1989) Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. ISBN 0-674-89646-7
- Willis, Ellen, "Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism", 1984, collected in No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays, Wesleyan University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8195-5250-X, pp. 117–150.
- Marxism, Liberalism, And Feminism (Leftist Legal Thought) New Delhi, Serials (2010) by Dr.Jur. Eric Engle LL.M.
- Notes from the First Year – an early second-wave publication in which the development of a radical line can be traced.
- Redstockings – original source material available through radical feminists from Redstockings of the women's liberation movement.
- Strands of Feminist Theory by Penny Welch, Women's Studies, University of Wolverhampton, February 2001.
- "Those Martian Women!" by Kathleen Trigiani, Out of the Cave, November 1999.
- "Radical Women in Gainesville, Florida" by Leila Adams, 2008. A digital collection and online exhibit that documents the history of the radical women in Gainesville.
- Shapiro, Lynne (2010). "Radical Feminism: New York Radical Feminists revised history overview" – a listing of the 1969–1977 activities and resources of the group New York Radical Feminists.