BBC Radio 4

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BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 logo
Broadcast area United Kingdom
Frequency FM: 92.5–96.1 MHz, 103.5–104.9 MHz
LW: 198 kHz
MW: 603 kHz, 720 kHz, 774 kHz, 756 kHz, 1449 kHz, 1485 kHz
DAB: 12B
Freesat: 704 (FM), 710 (LW)
Freeview: 704 (FM)
Sky (UK only): 0104 (FM), 0143 (LW)
Virgin Media: 904 (FM), 911 (LW)
UPC Ireland: 910 (FM)
Various frequencies on analogue cable
First air date 30 September 1967 (1967-09-30)
Format News, talk, and drama
Language(s) English
Audience share 12.1% (June 2013, RAJARQuarterly Listening)
Former callsigns BBC Home Service
Owner BBC
Sister stations BBC Radio 4 Extra
Webcast Web Stream (FM, LW)
Stream URL (FM, LW)
Website www.bbc.co.uk/radio4

BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967.[1] The station controller is Gwyneth Williams; and the station is part of BBC Radio and the BBC Audio & Music department. The station is broadcast from the BBC's headquarters at Broadcasting House, London.

It is the second most popular domestic radio station in the UK, broadcast throughout the UK, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands on FM, LW and DAB; and can be received in the north of France and Northern Europe. It is also available through Freeview, Sky, Virgin Media and on the Internet. Its sister station, BBC Radio 4 Extra (formerly BBC 7), complements the main channel by broadcasting repeats from the Radio 4 archive, extended versions of Radio 4 programmes and supplements to series such as The Archers and Desert Island Discs.

It is notable for its news bulletins and programmes such as Today and The World at One, heralded on air by the Greenwich Time Signal "pips" or the chimes of Big Ben.

Outline[edit]

BBC Radio 4 is the second most popular British domestic radio station by total hours,[2] after Radio 2 – and the most popular in London and the South of England.[citation needed] It recorded its highest audience, of 11 million listeners, in May 2011[3] and was "UK Radio Station of the Year" at the 2003, 2004 and 2008 Sony Radio Academy Awards.[4][5] It also won a Peabody Award in 2002 for File On 4: Export Controls.[6] Costing £71.4 million (2005/6),[7] it is the BBC's most expensive national radio network and is considered by many to be its flagship. There is no comparable British commercial network: Channel 4 abandoned plans to launch its own speech-based digital radio station in October 2008 as part of a £100m cost cutting review.[8]

In 2010, Gwyneth Williams[9] replaced Mark Damazer as Radio 4 controller. Damazer became Master of St Peter's College, Oxford.[10]

Music and sport are the only fields that largely fall outside the station's remit. It broadcasts occasional concerts, and documentaries related to various forms of both popular and classical music, and the long-running music-based Desert Island Discs. Prior to the creation of BBC Radio 5 it broadcast sports-based features, notably Sport on Four, and since the creation of BBC Radio 5 Live has become the home of ball-by-ball commentaries of most test cricket matches played by England, broadcast on long wave. As a result, for around 70 days a year listeners have to rely on FM broadcasts or increasingly DAB for mainstream Radio 4 broadcasts - the number relying solely on long wave is now a small minority.

The cricket broadcasts take precedence over on-the-hour news bulletins, but not the Shipping Forecast, carried since its move to long wave in 1978 because that can be received clearly at sea.[11] The station is the UK's national broadcaster in times of national emergency such as war, due to the wide coverage of the Droitwich signal: if all other radio stations were forced to close, it would carry on broadcasting.[8] It has been claimed that the commanders of nuclear-armed submarines believing that Britain had suffered nuclear attack were required to check if they could still receive Radio 4 on 198 long wave, and if they could not they would open sealed orders that might authorise a retaliatory strike.[12][13]

As well as news and drama and despite a reputation for being middle class and London centric,[14] the station has a strong reputation for comedy, including experimental and alternative comedy, many successful comedians and comedy shows first appearing on the station.

The station is available on FM in most of Great Britain, parts of Ireland and the north of France; LW throughout the UK and in parts of Northern Europe, and the Atlantic north of the Azores to about 20 degrees west; MW in some areas; DAB; Digital TV including Freeview, Freesat, Sky and Virgin Media; and on the Internet.

History[edit]

Logo of Radio 4 until 2007

The BBC Home Service was the predecessor of Radio 4 and broadcast between 1939 and 1967. It had regional variations and was broadcast on medium wave with a network of VHF FM transmitters being added from 1955. Radio 4 replaced it on 30 September 1967, when the BBC renamed many of its domestic radio stations,[1] in response to the challenge of offshore radio. It moved to long wave in November 1978, taking over the 200 kHz frequency previously held by Radio 2, and later moved to 198 kHz as a result of international agreements aimed at avoiding interference.

For a time during the 1970s Radio 4 carried regional variations for parts of England not served by BBC Local Radio stations. These included Roundabout East Anglia, a VHF opt-out of the Today programme broadcast from BBC East's studios in Norwich each weekday morning from 6.45 am to 8.45 am.[15] Roundabout East Anglia came to an end in 1980, when local radio services were introduced to East Anglia with the launch of BBC Radio Norfolk.[15]

The launch of Radio 5 in September 1990 saw the removal of Open University, schools programming and the "Study on 4" adult education slot to the new station resulting in the full Radio 4 schedule being available on FM for the first time. Between 17 January 1991 and 2 March 1991 FM broadcasts were replaced by a continuous news service devoted to the Gulf War, Radio 4 News FM, with the main Radio 4 service being exclusively on long wave. In September 1991 it was decided that the main Radio 4 service would be on FM as coverage had extended to cover almost all of the UK. Opt-outs were transferred to long wave: currently Test Match Special, extra shipping forecasts, The Daily Service and Today in Parliament. Long wave very occasionally opts out at other times, such as to broadcast special services, the most recent being when the Pope visited Britain in 2010.

The longwave signal is part of the Royal Navy's system of Last Resort Letters. In the event of a suspected catastrophic attack on Britain, submarine commanders, in addition to other checks, check for a broadcast signal from Radio 4 on 198 longwave to verify the annihilation of organised society in Great Britain.[16]

Programmes and schedules[edit]

Daily schedule[edit]

The simulcast from the BBC World Service begins at 01:00 and ends at 05:20 with a brief introduction from the early shift continuity announcer. The five-minute Radio 4 UK Theme composed by Fritz Spiegl followed this for 28 years until April 2006. It was replaced by an extension to the early news bulletin,[17][18] despite public opposition[19] and a campaign to save it.[20] After a continuity link and programme trail there are a shipping forecast, weather reports from coastal stations for 04:00GMT and the inshore waters forecasts, followed at 05:30 by a news bulletin, a review of British and international newspapers, and a business report. On weekdays, Farming Today, which deals with news of relevance to the agricultural sector, Tweet of the Day, birds through their songs and calls, is followed by the Today programme from 06:00 to 09:00.

The schedule is then determined by the day of the week, with 'fixtures' on weekdays: Book of the Week at 09:45, Woman's Hour at 10:00, You and Yours at 12:00, The World at One and a repeat of the previous day's The Archers at 14:00, the Afternoon Drama at 14:15. At 17:00 another current affairs programme, PM, is broadcast. At 18:30 there is a regular comedy 'slot', The Archers at 19:00, Front Row at 19:15 and a repeat of 15 Minute Drama at 19:45. The World Tonight airs at 22:00, followed by Book at Bedtime at 22:45. At weekends the schedule is different, with 'fixtures' at various times.

On or after the hour, a news bulletin is broadcast, a two-minute summary, a longer piece as part of a current affairs programme, or a 30-minute broadcast on weekdays at 18:00 and midnight. At 12:00, FM has a four-minute bulletin while long wave has the headlines and then the Shipping Forecast; for the same reason, long wave leaves PM on weekdays at 17:54.

There is a news programme or bulletin (depending on the day) at 22:00. Today in Parliament airs at 22:30, repeated at 08:31 the next morning on LW only. The midnight news is followed on weekdays by a repeat of Book of the Week. The tune Sailing By is played until 00:48, when the late shipping forecast is broadcast. Timing is said to be difficult as the Sailing By theme must be started at a set time and faded in as the last programme ends. Radio 4 finishes with God Save the Queen, and the World Service takes over from 01:00 until 05:20.

Timing is sacrosanct on the channel. Running over the hour except in special circumstances or occasional scheduled instance is unheard of, and interrupting the Greenwich Time Signal[21] on the hour (known as 'crashing the pips') is frowned upon.

An online schedule page lists the running order of programmes.[22]

Production[edit]

Many programmes are pre-recorded. Programmes transmitted live include Today, magazine programme Woman's Hour, consumer affairs programme You and Yours, and (often) the music, film, books, arts and culture programme Front Row. Continuity is managed from Broadcasting House with news bulletins, including the hourly summaries and longer programmes such as the Six O'Clock News and Midnight News, and news programmes such as Today, The World at One and PM, which by early 2013 had returned to Broadcasting House after 15 years at BBC Television Centre in White City.[23] The news returning to Broadcasting House has also meant that newsreaders can provide cover for continuity, which regularly occurs at 23:00 each night and 16:00 on a Sunday. This has reduced the total number of continuity announcers required each day down from four to three.

The Time Signal, known as 'the pips', is broadcast every hour to herald the news bulletin, except at midnight and 18:00, where the chimes of Big Ben are played.

Programmes[edit]

Radio 4 programmes cover a wide variety of genre including news and current affairs, history, culture, science, religion, arts, drama and light entertainment. A number of the programmes on Radio 4 take the form of a "magazine" show, featuring numerous small contributions over the course of the programme—Woman's Hour, From Our Own Correspondent, You and Yours. The rise of these magazine shows is primarily due to the work of Tony Whitby, controller of Radio 4 from 1970 to 1975.[24]

The station hosts a number of long-running programmes, many of which have been broadcast for over 40 years.

Most programmes are available for a week after broadcast as streaming audio from Radio 4's listen again page[25] and via BBC iPlayer. A selection of programmes is also available as podcasts or downloadable audio files.[26] Many comedy and drama programmes from the Radio 4 archives are rebroadcast on BBC Radio 4 Extra (formerly BBC Radio 7).

Continuity announcers and newsreaders[edit]

Announcers link programmes and read trails for programmes and the Shipping Forecast. Newsreaders read hourly summaries and longer bulletins.[27][28]

Main newsreaders/continuity announcers[edit]

In 2012 the BBC announced that it would be reducing its main presentation team from 12 to ten.[29] The following ten are primarily newsreaders (including reading the bulletins on the Today programme) but also contribute to much of the continuity output:

Newsreaders (non-Today programme)/continuity announcers[edit]

Continuity announcers[edit]

  • Mairead Devlin
  • Arlene Fleming
  • Neil Nunes
  • Steve Urquhart

Former staff[edit]

Frequencies and other means of reception[edit]

Radio 4 is broadcast on:[30]

Criticisms[edit]

There have been criticisms voiced by newspapers in recent years over a perceived left-wing bias across a range of issues such as the EU and the Iraq War,[34][35][36][37] as well as sycophancy in interviews, particularly on the popular morning news magazine Today[38][39] as part of a reported perception of a general "malaise" at the BBC. Conversely, the journalist Mehdi Hasan, has criticised the station for an overtly "socially and culturally conservative" approach.[40]

There has been frequent criticism of Radio 4—and Today in particular—for a lack of female broadcasters.[41] In September 1972, Radio 4 employed the first female continuity announcers—Hylda Bamber and Barbara Edwards (an event which caused the Daily Mail to proclaim that Radio 4 had "fallen" to women's liberation). For quite some time, the introduction of female newsreaders led to complaints from listeners; women discussing topics of feminist interest led to similar complaints.[42]

Radio 4 has also been frequently criticised for being too middle class and being of little interest to non-white listeners.[43][44][45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b History of the BBC: 1960s
  2. ^ "Listening Figures – Quarterly Listening – All Individuals 15+ for period ending March 2012". RAJAR. April 2012. Archived from the original on 1 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Guardian 12 May 2011 Retrieved 16 May 2011]
  4. ^ The Sony Radio Academy Awards: Winners 2004[dead link]
  5. ^ "Sony Radio Academy Awards — Winners 2008". Radioawards.org. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  6. ^ 62nd Annual Peabody Awards, May 2003.
  7. ^ "BBC Annual Report and Accounts 2005/2006, page 106". Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  8. ^ a b John Plunkett (10 October 2008). "Channel 4 has abandoned its entire radio project, as it seeks to make £100m in savings". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  9. ^ "Gwyneth Williams appointed BBC Radio 4 controller" The Guardian 15 July 2010 Retrieved 15 July 2010
  10. ^ "BBC News — Radio 4 controller Mark Damazer leaves the BBC". 12 April 2010. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2010. 
  11. ^ "Met Office Shipping Forecast key". Metoffice.gov.uk. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  12. ^ "Radio silence puts subs on nuclear alert" 28 November 2003 Manchester Evening News Retrieved 27 July 2010
  13. ^ BBC Press Office. "The Today Programme". BBC. 
  14. ^ Neil Midgley (8 February 2011). "BBC Radio 4 'too middle class and London-centric'". The Daily Telegraph. 
  15. ^ a b "BBC Radio Norfolk's 25th anniversary". BBC. 9 September 2005. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  16. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron (9 January 2009). "Nuclear apocalypse and the Letter of Last Resort. – By Ron Rosenbaum — Slate Magazine". Slate.com. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  17. ^ "Press release: New early morning schedule for Radio 4". BBC. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  18. ^ "UK Theme to be dropped by Radio 4". London: BBC News. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  19. ^ "Today: The UK Theme". BBC. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  20. ^ "savetheradio4theme.co.uk". savetheradio4theme.co.uk. 28 March 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  21. ^ "Pip pip". London: BBC. 6 February 2004. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  22. ^ "Radio 4 Daily Schedule page". BBC. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  23. ^ "New era for Broadcasting House". London: BBC News. 31 October 2000. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  24. ^ Hendy, David (2007). Life on Air: A History of Radio Four. Oxford University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 9780199248810. 
  25. ^ "Radio 4: Listen Again". BBC. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  26. ^ "Radio 4 – Downloading and Podcasting". BBC. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  27. ^ "''Being a newsreader'' by Harriet Cass". BBC. 30 April 2008. Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  28. ^ "List of BBC Radio newsreaders". London: BBC News. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  29. ^ Charlotte Green and Harriet Cass to leave BBC Radio 4
  30. ^ "Ways of Listening to Radio 4". BBC. 15 April 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  31. ^ "BBC analogue broadcast frequencies". BBC. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  32. ^ BBC Radio 4 on Freeview
  33. ^ a b "Free Channels on the Sky Digital Satellite Platform". Wickonline.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  34. ^ Fisk, Tracy (6 February 2007). "Is Radio 4 alienating its core audience?". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  35. ^ BBC report damns its ‘culture of bias’ – Times Online[dead link]
  36. ^ "BBC is given EU ‘bias’ rap | The Sun |HomePage|News|EU Referendum". London: The Sun. 5 October 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2010. [dead link]
  37. ^ Leonard, Tom (27 October 2006). "The BBC's commitment to bias is no laughing matter". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  38. ^ "BBC Bias". Labour-watch.com. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  39. ^ "Stephen Pollard: I don't want bias with my cornflakes — Commentators, Opinion". The Independent (London). 20 October 2003. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  40. ^ Hasan, Mehdi (27 August 2009). "Bias and the Beeb". New Statesman. Retrieved 5 November 2009. 
  41. ^ Barnett, Emma (16 July 2013). "Another woman on Radio 4's Today programme? The BBC ain't joking". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  42. ^ Hendy, David (2007). Life on Air: A History of Radio Four. Oxford University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 9780199248810. 
  43. ^ Midgley, Neil (8 February 2011). "BBC Radio 4 'too middle class and London-centric'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  44. ^ Mair, John (22 February 2008). "Am I bovvered that Radio 4 is too middle class? No!". The Guardian Organ Grinder Blog. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  45. ^ "Radio 4's Woman's Hour is 'too middle class and there's too much cooking', says new presenter". London: Mail Online. 4 February 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]