Patients are exposed to ionizing radiations when they undergo diagnostic examinations using x-rays or radiopharmaceuticals, therapy of cancer or benign lesions using radiations emitted by radioisotopes or those by radiation generators; and in interventional procedures using fluoroscopy. There has been a tremendous increase in the use of ionizing radiation in medicine during recent decades. Health professionals and patients are concerned about the harmful effects of radiation.International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a programme on radiological protection of patients in recognition of the increasing importance of this topic. The emphasis in the past had been on radiation protection of staff and this emphasis has helped to reduce radiation doses to staff to levels much below the dose limits prescribed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and accepted by most countries. The recent emphasis on radiation protection of patients is helping in developing strategies to reduce radiation doses to patient without compromising on diagnostic or therapeutic purpose.