Radyr

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Radyr
Welsh: Radur
Radyr sign.jpg
Radyr street sign
Radyr is located in Cardiff
Radyr
Radyr
 Radyr shown within Cardiff
OS grid reference ST1380
Principal area Cardiff
Ceremonial county Cardiff
Country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Cardiff
Postcode district CF15
Dialling code 029
Police South Wales
Fire South Wales
Ambulance Welsh
EU Parliament Wales
UK Parliament Cardiff West
Welsh Assembly Cardiff West
List of places
UK
Wales
Cardiff

Coordinates: 51°31′N 3°16′W / 51.51°N 3.26°W / 51.51; -3.26

Radyr (Welsh: Radur) is an outer suburb of Cardiff, about 4 miles (6.4 km) northwest of Cardiff city centre. Radyr is part of Radyr and Morganstown Community, for which the 2011 Census recorded a population of 6,417.[1]

Morganstown is north of Radyr, on the other side of the M4 Motorway. Neighbouring communities are Whitchurch to the east on the opposite bank of the River Taff, Pentyrch to the west with St Fagans and Llandaff to the south.

History[edit]

Stone Age until the Norman Conquest[edit]

Evidence of Stone Age occupation of the Lesser Garth Cave near Morganstown was discovered in 1912 and included worked flints.[2] In 1916 excavation of a mound of 30 metres (98 ft) in Radyr Woods revealed charcoal and Iron Age pottery.[3] Radyr developed after the Norman invasion of Wales at the start of the 12th century and formed part of the Welsh Lordship or cantref of Miskin under the Lordship of Glamorgan created by the Norman King, William Rufus, in 1093.[3]

Origin of the name[edit]

Hints about the derivation of the name Radyr can be found in Lifris's writings "Life of St Cadog" written between 1081 and 1104 but relating to the earlier period around AD 530, which mentions a croft or "tref" on the site called Aradur Hen. Lifris also tells the story of Tylyway, a religious hermit who was held to have lived on the banks of the Taff. Tylyway's cell is the most likely origin of the name Radyr; from the Welsh yr adur, meaning "the chantry", although Arudur Hen is also possible.[3]

Norman occupation & Middle Ages[edit]

Radyr motte and moat viewed from top

The Norman motte in the ‘mound field’ is a flat-topped mound 30 metres (98 ft) in diameter at the base and 3.8 metres (12 ft) high, surrounded by a ditch 7 metres (23 ft) wide. An adjoining bailey to east of the motte could indicate the boundary between Norman and Welsh land.[4] The motte was surrounded by a timber palisade around a wooden keep and formed part of a defensive line with similar mottes at Thornhill and Whitchurch.[3] The early settlement that became Radyr developed around the Norman church and manor house in what is now Danescourt. Surveys in 1307 describe an agricultural hamlet surrounded by arable fields.[3] The 14th century Welsh Lord of Radyr Cynwrig ap Hywel, followed by his descendants, farmed the area until it was devastated by the Black Death and battles between the Marcher Lords in 14th century and 15th century when the whole area was laid waste.[3]

Mathew family[edit]

Effigies of Sir William Mathew (died 1528) and his wife. The latest of three surviving Mathew family effigies at Llandaff Cathedral[5]

In 1469 Thomas Mathew (died before 1470), the third or fourth son of Sir David Mathew (died 1484) of Llandaf,[6] inherited the land through marriage to Catherine, heiress of Radyr, and built Radyr Court, a manor house on the site of what is now the Radyr Court Inn in Danescourt.[3] The house was used as a court and although it was destroyed by a fire in the 19th century, the three large dungeons survived and can still be seen at the Inn.[7] On Thomas' death shortly before 1470, his lands passed to his eldest son David and then to his younger son William Mathew (died 1528), who was knighted by King Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.[3] Sir William accompanied Henry VIII to the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520. His successor was his eldest son Sir George Mathew who became MP for Glamorgan constituency and in 1545 Sheriff of Glamorgan.[3][8]

Sir George created a deer park that partially caused the decline of the family fortune, as it ranged so far north of Radyr that it caused the previous income from tenant farmers to cease when they were evicted from their farms.[3] He also had 24 children, eight of whom were illegitimate. Many were daughters and Sir George needed large sums of money for their dowries.[3] On his death Sir George's lands passed to his eldest son William, who also became a Member of Parliament and invested in the Pentyrch ironworks.[3] This was an astute move as feudalism was giving way to early industrialisation. William's descendants inherited a diminishing fortune. Captain George Mathew, the last of the family to live in Radyr, married Elizabeth Poyntz and the couple departed from Radyr to live on her estates at Thurles in County Tipperary, Ireland during 1625.[9]

Stuart period[edit]

Radyr's new owner was a wealthy landowner, Sir Edward Lewis,[10] who was knighted by James I. Sir Edward owned St Fagans Castle and its surrounding lands,[11] scene of the Battle of St Fagans in the English Civil War. The Lewis fortune passed to Elizabeth Lewis, who married the Other Windsor, 3rd Earl of Plymouth, the principal landowner in Cardiff, Penarth and Barry.[3]

A survey in 1766 shows that the Plymouth family owned the freeholds of most of Radyr. It continues to do so today. Plymouth Estates sold 22 acres (8.9 ha) of residential land in Radyrin 2007.[12]

Development from the 18th century[edit]

Many residents of Radyr worked in the Melingriffith Tin Plate Works, on the other side of the River Taff in Whitchurch.[13] The works opened in 1749 and closed in 1957.[14]

Samuel Lewis' 1849 Topographical Dictionary of Wales says of Radyr:[15]

"A parish, in the poorlaw union of Cardiff, hundred of Kibbor, county of Glamorgan, in South Wales, 3½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Cardiff; containing 279 inhabitants. This parish probably derives its name, signifying "a cataract," from the rushing waters of the river Tâf, by which it is bounded on the north-east. It was formerly comprehended within the hundred of Miskin, but has been recently separated therefrom. It comprises about eleven hundred acres of arable and pasture land, inclosed and in a profitable state of cultivation: the surface is in some parts elevated, and in others flat, but no where subject to inundation; the soil is a strong brown earth, favourable to the production of good crops of grain of all kinds, potatoes, and hay. The substratum is partly a hard brown stone, and partly limestone of very good quality. Radyr Court, formerly the seat of the family of Matthew, ancestors of the late Lord Llandaf, has been partially taken down, and the remainder has been modernised, and converted into a farmhouse. The turnpike-road leading from Cardiff to Llantrissent passes a little to the south of the parish; and the Tâf-Vale railway runs through it, nearly parallel with the river, which is crossed by the line in this vicinity. Some of the inhabitants are employed at the iron-works in the parish of Pentyrch.

The living is a vicarage, endowed with £200 royal bounty; patron and impropriator, the representative of the late Earl of Plymouth, who is lord of the manor: the tithes have been commuted for £113. 9s. 0d, of which a sum of £38. 9s. 0d is payable to the impropriator, and a sum of £75 to the vicar. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is a neat plain edifice, with a curious turret at the west end. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists; a Sunday school for gratuitous instruction is held in it, and another at Radyr Court. In the parish is a spring of very cold water, called Y Pistyll Goleu, "the bright water-spout," issuing from the side of a hill, under a considerable depth of earth over a limestone rock: it has by some writers been termed mineral, but it is not known to possess any other properties than that of its extreme coldness, which renders it efficacious in curing sprains and weakness of the sinews."

Until the mid 19th century Radyr was a collection of small farms, crofts and cottages, but after Radyr railway station opened in 1863,[16] the population rose from 400 to more than 600 residents in 20 years .[17] The Taff Vale Railway and its successor the Great Western Railway brought significant employment to Radyr and when Junction Terrace (the first "street" in Radyr) was built to house the railway workers. It was the start of strong demand for housing in Radyr that transformed the hamlet and continues to do so today.[3] The 1901 construction of the Barry Railway's Walnut Tree Viaduct dominated the village for some 70 years.

Wartime Radyr[edit]

Radyr War memorial

In the First World War the community raised funds for a "Radyr bed" at the nearby Welsh Metropolitan Military Hospital in Whitchurch and set up a "Citizen Guard" from those too old or too young to enlist.[3] Losses suffered by the village are recorded on the War Memorial in Heol Isaf.

In the Second World War thousands of children were evacuated from metropolitan areas such as London, Birmingham and Liverpool. One evacuee, Patricia Armstrong aged nine, was knocked down by a passenger train and killed on a Saturday afternoon in May 1943 while using the Gelynis foot crossing at Morganstown. She was an evacuee from Woolwich and was lodged with a family in Morganstown.[18] As air raids on Cardiff increased, even younger children from Radyr were evacuated to residential boarding schools at Rhoose and Bridgend.[19]

Post-War history[edit]

An extensive housing programme was started in the 1960s which saw Radyr undergo a rapid increase in population, particularly in the numbers of children. In 1964 Radyr Comprehensive School had 135 pupils on its roll. This number more than trebled in the next decade.[3] The new development, called the Danescourt estate, was built on land surrounding Radyr Court and St John the Baptist parish church, and the land was officially incorporated as a suburb of Cardiff in 1974.[20] Danybryn Woods, near the development, was retained as the entire forest is protected by a Tree preservation order and is home to many species of plants and wildlife.[21] Radyr railway station was renovated in 1998 and the tracks through the station were renewed, reducing journey times to Cardiff city centre.[20]

Governance[edit]

Radyr and Morganstown electoral ward in Cardiff

UK Parliament and Welsh Assembly[edit]

Radyr is in the Cardiff West parliamentary constituency and the Cardiff West Welsh Assembly constituency.

Cardiff Council[edit]

Radyr and Morganstown electoral ward has an electorate of 4,368 (1 May 2008) and has one seat on Cardiff Council. The ward elected a Conservative, Roderick McKerlich, in the election of May 2008. Cllr McKerlich is a member of the Council's Environmental Scrutiny Committee.[22]

Community Council[edit]

Radyr and Morganstown Community Council is funded by an addition to the Council Tax bill paid by local residents.[23] The Community Council is run by 11 elected councillors from three wards in the parish – Radyr North (4 seats), Radyr South (3 seats) and Morganstown (4 seats).[24] At the Community Council's annual meeting on 15 May 2008, David Silver was elected Chair of the Council for 2008 and 2009 and Rachel Granger was elected Vice Chair.[25]

Geography[edit]

Geological structure[edit]

The surrounding soils are mostly a strong, brown, dry earth, well adapted for arable farming and the growing of grains of all kinds that contributed to the area being a mostly farming community until the modern era. Soils were further enriched over the millennia by alluvial deposits from the River Taff. The substratum under the whole area is a deep brown sandstone, limestone and lime shale that was probably laid down under a warm ocean at some stage in the distant past[when?] and subsequently ground down by glaciers during the last ice age around 18,000 years ago.[3] Radyr Stone is a Triassic breccia used widely for decorative work in the Cardiff area, including Llandaff Cathedral, Cardiff Docks and in the bridges of the Taff Vale Railway.[26]

Radyr Weir[edit]

Radyr Weir

The River Taff at this point runs roughly south through Taff's Well, past Radyr and through Llandaff.

Radyr Weir was built in 1774 to divert water into a leat to the Melingriffith Tin Plate Works.[3] The weir is the third obstacle to migratory salmon and sea trout — the others being Llandaff Weir and Blackweir, both of which also have fish passes.[27] Since the early 1980s, the salmon and sea trout stocks in the Taff have been recovering from nearly 200 years of industrial pollution and exploitation.[28] In 1993 the National Rivers Authority monitored over 500 salmon and 700 sea trout returning to the river to spawn.[29]

From 1749, iron from Pentyrch was initially transported to the works using pack-horses, then tub boats were used on the Taff passing onto the feeder via a lock at Radyr Weir. Parts of this lock can still be seen beside the feeder sluice. In 1815 the tub boats were discontinued and a tramway built along the Taff.[29] There is a public picnic site by the Radyr weir.

The River Taff through Radyr is flanked on both sides by an undeveloped greenway that passes uninterrupted through northern Cardiff all the way to Cardiff Castle in the centre of the city, before the river enters Cardiff Bay.

Radyr Woods Nature Area[edit]

Radyr Woods boardwalk

Radyr Woods is a Site of Nature Conservation Importance and the adjoining Hermit Woods is also a Local Nature Reserve.[30] The community nature reserve covers 14 acres (5.7 ha). It has a network of footpaths and boardwalks and includes evidence of Iron Age settlements and remains of an early cooking hearth. Originally part of the Tudor deer park owned by the Mathew family and later Radyr Quarry, the area is owned by Cardiff Council and Plymouth Estates, managed by the Radyr community council with the support of Cardiff Council's Parks Service.[31]

Radyr Woods provides habitats for a wide range of species. It also has a number of natural springs that feed a duck pond and a kingfisher pond. Recent housing developments between the reserve and the railway line have added complementary public open space with picnic areas and a children's play area. Since 1986 all maintenance and development of the reserve has been carried out by a volunteer group known as The Friends of Radyr Woods.[32]

Radyr Hawkweed[edit]

Radyr Hawkweed is the common name of Hieracium radyrense, a very rare endemic member of the aster, daisy, or sunflower family. It is a microspecies, so far only identified at Radyr. It was first identified in 1907 at the quarry, was described as a variety in 1948 and then as a separate species in 1955. It has rarely been seen and regular surveys between 1998 and 2004 indicate that today only a single population of about 25 plants survives in the wild.[33]

Radyr Hawkweed

In the first survey of 1998, only nine plants were then identified in one single Radyr garden, where it traditionally grew on grassy banks and lawns, often in shade. It was no longer found at the original locality of Radyr Quarry where examples were last seen in 1985. At Bridgend, six possible plants of the Radyr genus were found on an old garden wall, but confirmation of identification is still awaited.[34]

Neither the species nor the sites have any current legal protection, and it could be under significant threat of survival in the long term from inappropriate gardening or care.[33] Seed samples of the Radyr Hawkweed have been provided to the Millennium Seed Bank, the international conservation project coordinated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and plants are being carefully cultivated.[33] The plant normally flowers between May and early July and Radyr residents are urged by botanists to be on the look out for further examples of the endangered species while walking in the area.

Demography[edit]

Year Population of Radyr Change
1801 196
1811 106 -46%
1821 128 21%
1831 227 77%
1841 279 23%
1851 417 50%
1881 519 24%
1891 610 18%
1901 816 34%
1911 1,238 52%
1921 1,634 32%
1931 1,586 -3%
1951 1,568 -1%
1961 1,690 8%
2001 4,658 176%
2009 6,000 29% *
source: Vision of Britain except *, which is estimated by the Office for National Statistics. Historical populations are calculated with the modern boundaries

The 2001 census showed that the suburb had a total population of 4,658, of which 2,268 are male and 2,390 are female. The average age of the population is 39.7 years. 68.27% of residents are married, with 20.81% having never married. 73.97% declared their religion as Christianity. 23.97% stated no religion and 0.9% stated Muslim. 96.02% stated their ethnicity as white, 1.76% as Asian, 1.03% as mixed race, 1.01% as Chinese, and 0.2% as Black. 15.5% are Welsh language speakers.[35]

Landmark buildings and local attractions[edit]

Danybryn Cheshire Home was once a private house owned by Sir Lewis Lougher MP,[13] then had two wings added to accommodate the residents, who are physically disabled young people.[36] The Thatch is the only thatched cottage in Radyr and was built for the Mathias Family in 1936.[13] St John the Baptist parish church is nearly 800 years old, but underwent a Victorian restoration in the 19th century.[37]

The Taff Trail cycle path passes through Radyr via Radyr Weir.[38] Other nobable buildings include The Old Church Rooms and Radyr War Memorial.[39][40] In nearby districts are St Fagans National History Museum (formerly the Museum of Welsh Life) and Castell Coch.

Education[edit]

The Church Rooms in Park Road were also a primary school until 1896 when the Board School was opened next door. Older pupils had to travel to secondary schools in Penarth by train.[3] The part-time Radyr Library serves the area.

Nursery and primary schools[edit]

Bryn Deri Primary School was opened in 1976 and has included a Nursery School since September 1999.[41] Radyr has also a private pre-school, Park Road Nursery,[42] and a Welsh Nursery called Cylch Meithrin, both of which are based in the Old Church Rooms.

Radyr Primary School in Park Road opened in 1896, and new classrooms were added in 1968 to accommodate the rising population. The school currently has 11 classes and over 300 pupils.[43]

Secondary education[edit]

Radyr Comprehensive School has more than 1,400 pupils from across west Cardiff.[44] It also has a large Sixth Form college with about 300 students,[45] and an active adult education centre.[46]

Churches[edit]

St John the Baptist parish church

The Church in Wales Parish of Radyr is in the Diocese of Llandaff. The parish church of St John the Baptist, beside Radyr Chain, is now surrounded by the Danescourt housing estate. It is nearly 800 years old but was altered in the 19th century.[37] It is a Grade II listed building.[47]

Christ Church, although a larger building than St John's, is the daughter church in Radyr. Designed by the Llandaff diocesan surveyor George Halliday, the nave was ready for use at Easter 1904 and the chancel and tower were completed in November 1910.[37] Also in 1910 John Taylor & Co of Loughborough cast a ring of eight bells for the tower.[48] Lieutenant Colonel Fisher paid for the ring, and each bell is inscribed with the names of members of his family.[13]

Radyr Methodist Church in Windsor Road replaced an earlier Methodist Church in Heol Isaf. Radyr is also served by Radyr Baptist Church, which worships in the Old Church Rooms in Park Road.[49]

Sport and leisure[edit]

Radyr Golf Club clubhouse

Llandaff North RFC is the closest rugby team to Radyr. Nearby Taffs Well RFC was formed in 1887, and has provided three former Welsh Rugby captains and six Welsh International players during its history.[50]

Radyr Golf Club was founded in 1902 after moving from its original nine-hole course at the Ty Mawr in Lisvane. It is a 6,053 yards (5,535 m), par 69 (SSS 70) course for men and 5,485 yards (5,015 m), par 72 (SSS 72) for women, and operates all year round.[51] Laid out by the course designer Harry Colt,[52] the Chairman of the 2010 Ryder Cup recently described Radyr's course as "One of Colt's Little Jewels".[51]

Radyr Lawn Tennis Club was founded in 1914 by 20 Radyr 'Gentlemen', helped by the Earl of Plymouth Estates. Its first location was near the railway station but the courts were badly laid. Again with the help of Plymouth Estates, the club lifted the turf from all three grass courts and re-laid it on its current site next to Christ Church on Heol Isaf.[53]

Radyr Cricket Club was founded in 1890 by the Earl of Plymouth who granted a hundred-year lease for the current riverside ground to the local residents for a nominal sum. The pavilion was destroyed by fire in 1973 while the team were away on tour. Under the leadership of the new Chairman Keith Terry, a huge fund raising effort was made and a new pavilion opened on the footprint of the old one in 1975. Radyr currently plays in the first division of the South Wales Premier Cricket League.[54]

Cardiff Corinthians Football Club (known locally as the "Corries") has played its home games at the Riverside Football Ground in Radyr since 1974 and competes in the first division of the Welsh Football League.[55]

The main shops in Radyr are in Station Road. One of the buildings on this road, Bryn Melyn, is now a dental surgery but was formerly the village Post Office.[13]

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

At the turn of the 20th century Radyr had a busy railway from where coal trains were either transferred onto the Taff Vale Railway to Cardiff Docks, or the Penarth district line, to the docks at Penarth, 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest of Cardiff city centre. Also, the Barry Railway Company freight route ran just to the north of Morganstown, over Walnut Tree Viaduct. To the south-east of Radyr was an extensive railway marshalling yard which included another railway bridge over the Taff to provide an alternative route towards Llandaff.[56] The sidings were lifted in preparation for a housing development in the 1970s.

Radyr railway station still handles significant traffic, with over 200 trains calling each weekday and more than 400,000 passenger journeys per year.[57][58] Radyr is the northern terminus of the Cardiff City Line.

Bus[edit]

Cardiff Bus services 63 and Stagecoach's 122 operate from Morganstown and Radyr to Cardiff central bus station via Danescourt,Llandaf and Pontcanna.[59]

Road[edit]

The B4262 road (Heol Isaf) runs through the centre of Radyr and Morganstown leading northbound to Taff's Well and the A470 road towards Pontypridd, and southbound to the A4119 road (Llantrisant Road), which links Llantrisant with Danescourt, Llandaff and Cardiff city centre.

The M4 corridor around Cardiff was announced in 1971 as a replacement for a northern link road that had been planned since 1947 but never built.[60] The northern "Lisvane and Radyr route" for the M4 was eventually chosen after a number of noisy public enquiries and active objections by residents from both communities.[61] The new motorway was completed and opened on 10 July 1980,[61] and passes east–west between Radyr and Morganstown. Later this section was widened to three lanes in each direction at a cost of over £71 million, being completed in December 2009.[62] Radyr has no direct access to or from the motorway.

Twin towns[edit]

Radyr Twinning Fellowship monument

Radyr is twinned with Saint-Philbert-de-Grand-Lieu, a town south-west of Nantes (Cardiff's twin city) on the southern shores of the Lac de Grand Lieu in Brittany, France.[63] The first exchange visit took place in May 1986 and Twinning Charters were signed by Chairmen of both community councils. On the 10th anniversary of the twinning fellowship, Radyr presented the people of St Philbert with a red telephone box.[64]

The next year the French presented the Radyr community with a wine press, now sited in the gardens of the Old Church Rooms. The 20th anniversary was celebrated with a reception at the Old Church Rooms in 2006.[64] The twinning committee is one of the more active in the area and cultural exchanges between the two communities take place annually. In 2008, 45 visitors from St Philbert visited Radyr, and a visit by villagers to St Philbert also took place.[65] The twinning committee also arranges Boule tournaments and social events throughout the summer.

Notable people[edit]

Roald Dahl with Patricia Neal

Several notable people are associated with Radyr. The children's literature author Roald Dahl (1916–90) lived at a house called Ty Mynydd in Radyr (which was demolished in 1967)[13] as a boy in the 1920s.[66] He called it an "imposing country mansion, surrounded by acres of farm and woodland" in his book Boy: Tales of Childhood.[67] Jimi Mistry (born 1973), who is an Asian-British actor and appeared in EastEnders, The Guru and East Is East, attended Radyr Comprehensive School.[68] Actor Harry Ferrier also went to Radyr Comprehensive as he grew up in Radyr.[69]

Local sportsmen include Harry Corner (1874–1938), an English cricketer who played in the Great Britain team that won a gold medal at the 1900 Summer Olympics, who lived, died and was buried in Radyr.[70] Hugh Johns (1922–2007), who was best known as a football commentator for ITV, retired and died in Radyr.[71] Frank Meggitt (1901–45), a Welsh cricketer, a right-handed batsman and wicket-keeper who played for Glamorgan, also lived in the town after retiring from the sport.[72] The athlete and runner Timothy Benjamin (born 1982) was born and raised in Radyr.[73]

Another notable resident is Sir Martin Evans (born 1941), the Professor of mammalian genetics at Cardiff University who received the American equivalent of the Nobel Prize for medicine in 2001, was knighted in 2003 and awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize for medicine for his work on stem cells. He is also a fellow of the Royal Society and fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences.[74][75]

Radyr in the media[edit]

The outdoor scenes in an episode of the TV science fiction series Torchwood, called Small Worlds, were filmed mostly around Radyr Primary School.[76]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s New Horizons History Group (1991). Twixt Chain and Gorge (PDF). Shadowfax Publishing, Radyr. ISBN 0-9514887-4-0. [dead link]
  4. ^ "Morganstown Motte". Retrieved 19 June 2008. 
  5. ^ Earliest effigy is of Sir David Mathew (died 1484), the second of Sir Christopher Mathew (died 1527), eldest son of Reyborne Mathew, second son of Sir David
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  45. ^ "Radyr 6th Form Booklet". Retrieved 29 June 2008. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Radyr Adult Education Centre". Retrieved 29 June 2008. [dead link]
  47. ^ "Church of St. John the Baptist, Llandaff". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
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