Raf kinase

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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Raf1 is between Ras and Mek just above the centre of the diagram.

Raf kinases are a family of three serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that are related to retroviral oncogenes.[11] The mouse sarcoma virus 3611 contains a Raf kinase-related oncogene that enhances fibrosarcoma induction. RAF is an acronym for Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma.[12]

Raf kinases participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade, also referred to as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade.[11] Activation of RAF kinases requires interaction with RAS-GTPases.

The three RAF kinase family members are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rossomando AJ, Payne DM, Weber MJ, Sturgill TW (1989). "Evidence that pp42, a major tyrosine kinase target protein, is a mitogen-activated serine/threonine protein kinase". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86 (18): 6940–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.18.6940. PMC 297966. PMID 2550926. 
  2. ^ Bonni A, Brunet A, West AE, Datta SR, Takasu MA, Greenberg ME (1999). "Cell survival promoted by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway by transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms". Science 286 (5443): 1358–62. doi:10.1126/science.286.5443.1358. PMID 10558990. 
  3. ^ Chadee DN, Yuasa T, Kyriakis JM (2002). "Direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1 by the Ste20p homologue GCK and the adapter protein TRAF2". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (3): 737–49. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.3.737-749.2002. PMC 133545. PMID 11784851. 
  4. ^ Chang L, Karin M (2001). "Mammalian MAP kinase signaling cascades". Nature 410 (6824): 37–40. doi:10.1038/35065000. PMID 11242034. 
  5. ^ Chen YR, Tan TH (2000). "The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and apoptotic signaling (review)". Int. J. Oncol. 16 (4): 651–62. PMID 10717232. 
  6. ^ Hazzalin CA, Mahadevan LC (2002). "MAPK-regulated transcription: a continuously variable gene switch?". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3 (1): 30–40. doi:10.1038/nrm715. PMID 11823796. 
  7. ^ Kato Y, Kravchenko VV, Tapping RI, Han J, Ulevitch RJ, Lee JD (1997). "BMK1/ERK5 regulates serum-induced early gene expression through transcription factor MEF2C". EMBO J. 16 (23): 7054–66. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.23.7054. PMC 1170308. PMID 9384584. 
  8. ^ Kiefer F, Tibbles LA, Anafi M, Janssen A, Zanke BW, Lassam N, Pawson T, Woodgett JR, Iscove NN (1996). "HPK1, a hematopoietic protein kinase activating the SAPK/JNK pathway". EMBO J. 15 (24): 7013–25. PMC 452527. PMID 9003777. 
  9. ^ Pearson G, English JM, White MA, Cobb MH (2001). "ERK5 and ERK2 cooperate to regulate NF-kappaB and cell transformation". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (11): 7927–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009764200. PMID 11118448. 
  10. ^ Weston CR, Lambright DG, Davis RJ (2002). "Signal transduction. MAP kinase signaling specificity". Science 296 (5577): 2345–7. doi:10.1126/science.1073344. PMID 12089430. 
  11. ^ a b Roskoski R (August 2010). "RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: structure and regulation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 399 (3): 313–7. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.07.092. PMID 20674547. 
  12. ^ Zebisch A, Troppmair J (June 2006). "Back to the roots: the remarkable RAF oncogene story". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 63 (11): 1314–30. doi:10.1007/s00018-006-6005-y. PMID 16649144.