Rafael Hernández Marín
|Born||October 24, 1892
Aguadilla, Puerto Rico
|Died||December 11, 1965
San Juan, Puerto Rico
|Genres||Puerto Rican popular music|
Hernández (birth name: Rafael Hernández Marín[note 1]) was born in the town of Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, into a poor family, on October 24, 1892. As a child, he learned the craft of cigar making, from which he made a modest living. He also grew to love music and asked his parents to permit him to become a full-time music student. When he was 12 years old, Hernández studied music in San Juan, under the guidance of music professors Jose Ruellan Lequenica and Jesús Figueroa. He learned to play many musical instruments, among them the clarinet, tuba, violin, piano and guitar. However, according to many Puerto Rican music historians, it was when he learned how to write music that his life and the history of Puerto Rican music would change forever. At the age of 14, he played for the Cocolia Orquestra. Hernández moved to San Juan where he played for the municipal orchestra under the director Manuel Tizol.
World War I and the Orchestra Europe
In 1917, Hernández was working as a musician in North Carolina, when the United States entered World War I. The jazz bandleader James Reese Europe recruited brothers Rafael and Jesús Hernández, and 16 more Puerto Ricans to join the United States Army's Harlem Hell fighters musical band, the Orchestra Europe. He enlisted and was assigned to the U.S. 369th Infantry Regiment (formerly known as the 15th Infantry Regiment, New York National Guard, created in New York City June 2, 1913). The regiment, nicknamed "The Harlem Hell Fighters" by the Germans, served in France. Hernández toured Europe with the Orchestra Europe. The 369th was awarded the French Croix de guerre for battlefield gallantry by the President of France.
Hernandez and Pedro Flores
After the war, Hernández moved to New York City. In the 1920s, he started writing songs and organized a trio called "Trio Borincano". In 1926, fellow Puerto Rican Pedro Flores joined the Trio. Even though Hernández and Flores became and always remained good friends, they soon went their separate ways and artistically competed against each other. After the trio broke up, he formed a quartet called "Cuarteto Victoria" which included singer Myrta Silva, also known as La Guarachera and La Gorda de Oro. With both groups, Hernández traveled and played his music all over the United States and Latin America. On September 2, 1927, Hernández' sister Victoria opens what is probably the first Puerto Rican-owned music store, which also acts as a booking agency and base of operations for her brother. In 1929, Trío Borinquen recorded Linda Quisqueya (originally titled Linda Borinquen) and that same year he founded the "Cuarteto Victoria" (also known as "El Cuarteto Rico") named after his sister.
In 1932, Hernández moved to Mexico, where the Mexicans treated him as one of their own. There, he directed an orchestra and enrolled in Mexico's National Music Conservatory to further enrich his musical knowledge. Hernández also became an actor and organized many of the musical scores in Mexico's "golden age" of movies. The Mexicans of the state of Puebla consider his composition "Qué Chula es Puebla" to be their unofficial anthem. His wife (and eventual widow) is Mexican.
"Lamento borincano" and "Preciosa"
|You may listen to Luciano Quiñones piano interpretation of Hernandez' "Lamento Borincano" here|
|and to his interpretation of "Preciosa" here|
In 1937, Hernández wrote one of his greatest works, "Lamento borincano". That same year, he also wrote what is considered by many to be his masterpiece, "Preciosa". In 1947, Hernández returned to Puerto Rico and became the director of the orchestra at the government-owned WIPR Radio.
Hernandez's talent went beyond composing only patriotic music. He also composed Christmas music, Danzas, Zarzuelas, Guarachas, Lullabies, Boleros, Waltzes and more. Many people in the Dominican Republic consider his composition "Linda Quisqueya" their second national anthem.
Hernández's works' include "Ahora seremos felices" (Now We Will Be Happy), "Campanitas de cristal" (Crystal Bells), "Capullito de Alhelí", "Culpable" (Guilty),"El Cumbanchero" (also known as "Rockfort Rock" or "Comanchero" (sic) to reggae aficionados), "Ese soy yo" (That's Me), "Perfume de Gardenias" (Gardenia's Perfume), "Silencio" (Silence), and "Tú no comprendes" (You Don't Understand), among 3,000 others. Many of his compositions were strongly based on Cuban musical idioms, such as the guaracha "Cachita" and the pachanga "Buchipluma na' ma'", which were often mistaken as songs by Cuban authors. His music became an important part of Puerto Rican culture.
Later years and death
Hernández was Honorary President of the Authors and Composers Association. He was also the founder of little league baseball in Puerto Rico. President John F. Kennedy christened him "Mr. Cumbanchero".
Hernández died in San Juan on December 11, 1965, shortly after Banco Popular de Puerto Rico produced a TV special in his honor in which he addressed the people for the last time. The special was simulcast on all TV and most island radio stations. The TV special was rebroadcast on May 13, 2007. Rafael Hernández's remains are buried in the Santa María Magdalena de Pazzis Cemetery of Old San Juan.
Puerto Rico has honored his memory by naming public buildings, avenues and schools after him. The airport in Aguadilla is named Rafael Hernández Airport. There are schools in The Bronx, Boston, and in Newark, New Jersey named after Rafael Hernández. Renowned Puerto Rican sculptor Tomás Batista created a statue of Hernández which is in the municipality of Bayamón, Puerto Rico. The Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, the repository of his works, operates a small museum in his honor at its Metropolitan Campus in San Juan which is directed by his son, Alejandro (Chalí) Hernández.
The impact of Hernandez's songs among Puerto Ricans was felt when Puerto Rican singer Marc Anthony recorded Hernández's "Preciosa" and sang said song in a 2005 concert in New York City's Madison Square Garden. According to an article in the New York Times:
"Mr. Anthony did his version of Preciosa. It may have been the night's most popular love song, precisely because it's not about a woman: it's about a whole island, instead."
Military decorations and awards
Among Hernández's military decorations are the following:
- African immigration to Puerto Rico
- List of Puerto Ricans
- Puerto Ricans in World War I
- Puerto Rican songwriters
- Music of Puerto Rico
- Rafael Hernandez Puerto Rico's Soul
- - The Great Slsa Timeline
- Hernandez Marin, Rafael
- History of Puerto Rico
- Berenguer González, Ramón T. "El Cumbanchero" Salsa Mp3· ISWC T-0425394622 Published with the permission of the owner of the version
- González, Reynaldo (2000). "Yo soy del son a la salsa". Cinémas d'Amérique Latine (in Spanish and French) (8): 79.
- Klefa Sanneh Latin Singers who Offer 3 Varieties of Heartthrob New York Times, September 12, 2005
- El Jibarito Rafael at the Internet Movie Database
- Popular Culture
- DVD La Musica de Rafael Hernandez (BPPR 1965)
- Legran Orchestra "El Cumbanchero" Salsa Mp3· ISWC T-0425394622