Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutiérrez
|Rafael Izquierdo y Gutiérrez|
|Other names||Rafael Izquierdo|
|Known for||Governor-General of the Philippines from April 4, 1871 - January 8, 1873|
Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutiérrez (1820–1882) was a Spanish Military Officer, Political Leader and Statesman who became Governor-General of the Philippines from April 4, 1871 to January 8, 1873. He was famous for his use of "Iron Fist" type of government, contradicting the liberal government of his predecessor, Cárlos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada. He was the Governor-General during the 1872 Cavite mutiny which led to execution of 41 of the mutineers, including the Gomburza martyrs. Prior to being Governor-General of the Philippines, Izquierdo also acted as Governor-General of Puerto Rico from March 1862 to April 1862.
Entering as a cadet in the regiment of infantry of Gerona, Rafael de Izquierdo reached the military rank of captain by the age of 17 when he participated in the First Carlist War in Navarre. At the start of the Second Carlist War which took place in Africa, Izquierdo was already a lieutenant colonel and at the end of the war brigadier general. He was then assigned to Lugo, Spain as military governor in 1861. The following year he was assigned as lieutenant-general to Puerto Rico before becoming an interim Governor-General when Rafael Echagüe y Bermingham vacated the position. Izquierdo then went back to Spain until in 1868 when he supported the revolution in Andalusia and was tasked as deputy for Malaga and Alicante in 1869 until 1871.
Replacing General Carlos Maria de la Torre on April 4, 1871, Rafael de Izquierdo was instilled as Governor-General of the Philippines. He is responsible for opening of steamship and telegraph lines in the country. He is was also known to have promptly rescinds the liberal measures thus implementing harsher laws which ignited an uprising. The reformations suggested that soldiers of the Engineering and Artillery Corps should pay taxes which they were previously exempted. Another drastic change was the requirement to perform manual labor. These changes eventually lead to the 1872 Cavite mutiny where around 200 Filipinos who were part of the Engineering and Artillery Corps revolted and killed their Spanish officers, in retaliation a lot of liberals were implicated to have been involved in conspiracy. The most famous of which was the military court condemning the martyr priests Fathers José Burgos, Mariano Gómez and Jacinto Zamora (Gomburza) to capital punishment by means of garrote on January 27, 1872. This uprising later lead to the delays of the rebuilding of Malacañan Palace and in turn almost transferred it within the walls of Intramuros for safety reasons. The plan to transfer to Intramuros was cut though when Izquierdo fell ill and eventually vacate his position on January 8, 1873. He later spent the last few years of his life in Madrid, Spain and eventually died in 1882.
- Philippine revolts against Spain
- 1872 Cavite mutiny
- History of the Philippines (1521–1898)
- Freedom of religion in the Philippines
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Carlos María de la Torre
|Governor-General of the Philippines
April 4, 1871 – January 8, 1873
|Acting Governor of Puerto Rico
March 1862 – April 1862
Félix María de Messina e Iglesias