Rafael (Old Nubian: Ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, Raphael; c. 1002) was a ruler of the Nubian kingdom of Makuria. Contemporary writers, such as Abu Salih the Armenian, record that he constructed a palace with several domes built of red brick in the capital city, Old Dongola, around 1002, which excavations have yet to identify.
- ^ P.L. Shinnie, Ancient Nubia (London: Kegan Paul, 1996), pp. 129; B.T.A. Evetts (translator), The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt and Some Neighboring Countries attributed to Abu Salih, the Armenian, with added notes by Alfred J. Butler (Oxford, 1895), p. 265.