Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

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Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
‌اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی
HashemiRafsanjani.jpg
4th President of Iran
In office
3 August 1989 – 2 August 1997
Vice President Hassan Habibi
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei
Preceded by Ali Khamenei
Succeeded by Mohammad Khatami
Chairman of the Expediency Council
Incumbent
Assumed office
6 February 1989
Deputy Bijan Namdar Zanganeh
Mohsen Rezaee
Preceded by Ali Khamenei
Chairman of the Assembly of Experts
In office
25 July 2007 – 8 March 2011
Deputy Ahmad Khatami
Preceded by Ali Meshkini
Succeeded by Mahdavi Kani
Chairman of the Parliament
In office
28 July 1980 – 3 August 1989
Deputy Mehdi Karroubi
Preceded by Yadollah Sahabi
Succeeded by Mehdi Karroubi
Minister of Interior
In office
6 November 1979 – 12 August 1980
Preceded by Hashem Sabbaghian
Succeeded by Mahdavi Kani
Personal details
Born (1934-08-25) August 25, 1934 (age 80)
Bahreman, Persia
Nationality Iranian
Political party Combatant Clergy Association
Other political
affiliations
Islamic Republican Party (1979–1987)
Spouse(s) Effat Marashi (m. 1958)[1]
Children Mohsen (b. 1959)
Fatemeh (b. 1961)
Faezeh (b. 1962)
Mehdi (b. 1969)
Yasser (b. 1971)
Religion Twelver Shia Islam
Signature
Website Official Website
Military service
Allegiance Iran Iran
Commands Iran Chief of Staff of Armed Forces.svg Second-in-Command of Iran's Joint Chiefs of Staff
Battles/wars Iran-Iraq war
Awards Fath Medal.jpg 1st grade Fath Medal[2]

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: ‌اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی‎, Akbar Hāshemī RafsanjānīAbout this sound pronunction , Hashemi Bahramani هاشمی بهرمانی, born 25 August 1934) is an influential Iranian politician and writer, who was the fourth president of Iran. He was a member of the Assembly of Experts until his resignation in 2011.[3] He is chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran.

During the Iran–Iraq War Rafsanjani was the de facto commander-in-chief of the Iranian military. Rafsanjani was elected chairman of the Iranian parliament in 1980 and served until 1989. Rafsanjani also served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997. He played an important role in the choice of Ali Khamenei as Supreme Leader.[4] In 2005 he ran for a third term in office, placing first in the first round of elections but ultimately losing to rival Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the run-off round of the 2005 election.

Rafsanjani has been described as a centrist and a pragmatic conservative. He supports a free market position domestically, favoring privatization of state-owned industries, and a moderate position internationally, seeking to avoid conflict with the United States and the West.[5]

In 1997 during the Mykonos trial in Germany, it was declared that Hashemi Rafsanjani (the then president of Iran) alongside of Ayatollah Ali Khameni (supreme leader), Ali-Akbar Velayati (the then foreign minister) and Ali Fallahian (Intelligence Minister) has had role in assassination of Iran's opposition activists in Europe.[6] He is considered to be the richest person in Iran.[7]

On 11 May 2013, Rafsanjani entered the race for the June 2013 presidential election,[8] but on 21 May he was disqualified by the Guardian Council.

Early life and education[edit]

The young Rafsanjani in 1949

Rafsanjani was born in the village of Bahraman near the city of Rafsanjan in Kerman Province to a wealthy family of pistachio farmers.[9][10] He has eight siblings.[11] His mother, Hajie Khanom Mahbibi Hashemi, died at the age of 90 on 21 December 1995.[12]

He studied theology in the city of Qom with Ayatollah Khomeini, whose close follower he became.[13]

Speaker of the Parliament[edit]

Rafsanjani was the Speaker of Parliament of Iran for 9 years. He was elected as the speaker in 1980 in the first season of Parliament after the Iranian Revolution. He was also chairman in the second season. After the death of Ruhollah Khomeini, founder of the Islamic Republic, he joined the 1989 presidential race and became the President, leaving Parliament.

Presidency[edit]

Rafsanjani adopted an "economy-first" policy, supporting a privatization policy against leftist economic tendencies in the Islamic Republic.[14] Another source describes his administration as "economically liberal, politically authoritarian, and philosophically traditional" which put him in confrontation with more radical deputies in the majority in the Majles of Iran.[15]

As president, Rafsanjani was credited with spurring Iran's reconstruction following the 1980-88 war with Iraq.[16] Rafsanjani is known to be popular with the upper and middle classes, partially due to his economic reforms during his tenure and support for human rights (in comparison to the Khomeini years), which have been widely perceived as successful for the most part.[citation needed] However, his reconstruction efforts failed to reach the rural or war zones where they needed them the most, leaving him unpopular with the majority of the rural, veteran, and working class population.[citation needed] His reforms, despite attempting to curb the powers of the ultra-conservatives, failed to do so and the Iranian Revolutionary Guards would get increasing powers from Khamenei during his presidency. He was also accused of corruption by both conservatives[17] and reformists,[18] and known for tough crackdowns on dissent.

Domestic policy[edit]

Rafsanjani as the chairman of the parliament and Mohammad Khatami

Rafsanjani advocated a free market economy. With the state's coffers full, Rafsanjani pursued an economic liberalisation policy.[19] Rafsanjani's support for a deal with the United States over Iran's nuclear program and his free-market economic policies contrasted with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his allies, who advocate maintaining a hard line against Western intervention in the Middle East while pursuing a policy of economic redistribution to Iran's poor.[20] By espousing World Bank inspired structural adjustment policies, Rafsanjani desired a modern industrial-based economy integrated into the global economy.[21]

Rafsanjani urged universities to cooperate with industries. Turning to the quick pace of developments in today's world, he said that with "the world constantly changing, we should adjust ourselves to the conditions of our lifetime and make decisions according to present circumstances".[22] Among the projects he initiated are Islamic Azad University.[23][24]

During his presidency, a period in which Rafsanjani is described by western media sources as having been the most powerful figure in Iran, people ordered executed by the judicial system of Iran included political dissidents, drug offenders, Communists, Kurds, Bahais, and even Islamic clerics.[25]

The Iranian Mojahedin were recognized as a terrorist organization by both the Iranian government as well as the United States CIA. Regarding the Mojahedin, Rafsanjani said (Ettela'at, 31 October 1981):

Foreign policy[edit]

Following years of deterioration in foreign relations under Khomeini during the Iran-Iraq war, Rafsanjani sought to rebuild ties with Arab states[26] as well as with countries in Central Asia and the Caucasus, including Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.[27] However, relations with European countries and the United States remained poor, even though Rafsanjani had a track record of handling difficult situations and defusing crises.[28]

He condemned both the United States and Iraq during the Persian Gulf War in 1991. After the war he strove to renew close ties with the West, although he refused to lift Khomeini's fatwa against the British author Salman Rushdie.[29]

Rafsanjani has said that Iran is ready to assist Iraq, "expecting nothing in return". On the other hand, he has said that "peace and stability" is a function of the "evacuation of the occupiers."[30]

Iran gave humanitarian help to the victims of the conflict. Iran sent truckloads of food and medicine to Iraq, and thousands of Kuwaiti refugees were given shelter in Iran.[31]

Rafsanjani voiced support to Prince Abdullah's peace initiative and to "everything the Palestinians agree to". He also stated that what he called "Iran's international interests" must take precedence over those of Iranian allies in Syria and Lebanon.[28]

Rafsanjani is a supporter of Iran's nuclear program. In 2007 Rafsanjani reiterated that the use of weapons of mass destruction was not part of the Islamic Republic culture. Rafsanjani said: "You [US and allies] are saying that you cannot trust Iran would not use its nuclear achievements in the military industries, but we are ready to give you full assurances in this respect."[32] According to The Economist, he is regarded by many Iranians "as the only person with the guile and clout to strike a deal with the West to end economic sanctions" imposed upon the country due to its nuclear program.[33]

After presidency[edit]

Rafsanjani with General Ali Sayad Shirazi

Post-presidency, Rafsanjani delivered a sermon at Tehran University in the summer of 1999 praising government use of force to suppress student demonstrations.[25]

In 2000, in the first election after the end of his presidency, Rafsanjani ran again for Parliament. In the Tehran contest, Rafsanjani came in 30th, or last, place. At first he was not among the 30 representatives of Tehran elected, as announced by the Iranian Ministry of the Interior, but the Council of Guardians then ruled numerous ballots void, leading to accusations of ballot fraud in Rafsanjani's favor.[25] Rafsanjani thus became a Majlis representative, but resigned before being sworn in. He explained that he felt he was "able to serve the people better in other posts".[citation needed]

Rafsanjani is the current Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council, that resolves legislative issues between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians.[citation needed]

In December 2006, Rafsanjani was elected to the Assembly of Experts representing Tehran with more than 1.5 million votes, which was more than any other candidate. Ahmadinejad opponents won majority of local election seats. On September 4, 2007 he was elected Chairman of the Assembly of Experts, the body that selects Iran's supreme leader, in what was considered a blow to the supporters of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. He won the chairmanship with 41 votes of the 76 cast. His ultraconservative opponent, Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati, received 31 votes.[34] He was running against Ahmad Jannati. Rafsanjani was re-elected to the position on March 10, 2009, running against Mohammad Yazdi. He received 51 votes compared to Yazdi's 26.[35][36] On 8 March 2011 he withdrew from the election. Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani is the new Chairman.[37]

In more recent years, Rafsanjani has advocated freedom of expression, tolerance and civil society. In a speech on July 17, 2009, Rafsanjani criticized restriction of media and suppression of activists, and put emphasis on the role and vote of people in the Islamic Republic constitution.[38][39][40] The event has been considered by analysts as the most important and most turbulent Friday prayer in the history of contemporary Iran.[41] Nearly 1.5-2.5 million people attended the speech in Tehran.[42]

Crisis following 2009 election[edit]

2009 election protests[edit]

During the 2009 Presidential election, Rafsanjani's former rival and incumbent president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, won a (disputed) landslide victory over challenger Mir-Hossein Mousavi. His daughter was arrested on June 21 by plain clothes Basij during the subsequent protest[43] and later sentenced to six months in jail on charges of spreading propaganda against the Islamic Republic.[44]

Rafsanjani was chairman of the Assembly of Experts, which is responsible for appointing or removing the Supreme Leader, who has been rumored to not be in the best of health.[45] After the disputed results of the election were certified by the Supreme Leader, Rafsanjani was reported to have called a meeting of the Assembly of Experts, but it is unknown what the outcome or disposition of this meeting actually was.[46] During this time Rafsanjani relocated from Tehran to Qom, where the country's religious leaders sit. However, for the most part, Rafsanjani was silent about the controversial June 12 election and its aftermath.[47]

On 17 July 2009, Rafsanjani publicly addressed the election crisis, mass arrests and the issue of freedom of expression during Friday prayers. The prayers witnessed an extremely large crowd that resembled the Friday prayers early after the revolution. Supporters of both reformist and conservative parties took part in the event. During prayers, Rafsanjani argued the following:[48]

All of us the establishment, the security forces, police, parliament and even protestors should move within the framework of law... We should open the doors to debates. We should not keep so many people in prison. We should free them to take care of their families. ... It is impossible to restore public confidence overnight, but we have to let everyone speak out. ... We should have logical and brotherly discussions and our people will make their judgments. ... We should let our media write within the framework of the law and we should not impose restrictions on them. ... We should let our media even criticize us. Our security forces, our police and other organs have to guarantee such a climate for criticism.[49]

Assembly of Experts election[edit]

On 8 March 2011 Rafsanjani lost his post as chairman of the powerful Assembly of Experts, replaced by Ayatollah Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani. Rafsanjani stated that he withdrew from the election for head to "avoid division." The loss was said to be the result of intensive lobbying "in recent weeks" by "hardliners and supporters" of president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and part of Rafsanjani's gradual loss of power over the years.[50] It was said that Rafsanjani will be dismissed as head of Expediency Discernment Council but he was re-appointed for another five years term on 14 March 2012 by Ali Khamenei.

2013 Presidential elections[edit]

On 11 May 2013 Rafsanjani registered for the June 14 presidential election with just minutes to spare.[51] Former reformist president Mohammad Khatami endorsed him.[52] However, on 21 May 2013, Iran's electoral watchdog disqualified him from standing in the presidential election.[53] On 11 June 2013, Rafsanjani endorsed moderate Hassan Rouhani in the elections for Iran's presidency saying the candidate was "more suitable" than others for presidency. [54]

Controversies[edit]

Accusations[edit]

The names of the victims appear in the commemorative plaque in front of Mykonos restaurant in Berlin

Rafsanjani is currently sought by the Argentinian government for ordering the 1994 AMIA bombing in Buenos Aires.[55] ıt is based on the allegation that senior Iranian officials planned the attack in an August 1993 meeting, including Khamanei, the Supreme Leader, Mohammad Hejazi, Khamanei's intelligence and security advisor, Rafsanjani, then president, Ali Fallahian, then intelligence minister, and Ali Akbar Velayati, then foreign minister.[56]

In 1997 during the Mykonos trial in Germany, it was declared that Rafsanjani, the then president of Iran, alongside of Ayatollah Khamenei, Velayati and Fallahian had role in assassination of Iran's opposition activists in Europe.

Tension with Ahmadinejad[edit]

After his loss at the presidential elections in 2005, a growing tension between him and President Ahmadinejad arose. Rafsanjani has criticized Ahmadinejad's administration several times for conducting a purge of government officials,[57] slow move towards privatization[58] and recently hostile foreign policy in particular the atomic energy policy.[59] In return Ahmadinejad fought back that Rafsanjani failed to differentiate privatization with the corrupt takeover of government-owned companies and of foreign policies which led to sanctions against Iran in 1995 and 1996.[60][61] He also implicitly denounced Rafsanjani and his followers by calling those who criticize his nuclear program as "traitors".[62]

During a debate with Mirhossein Moussavi in 2009 presidential election, Ahmadinejad accused Hashemi of corruption. Hashemi released an open letter in which he complained about what he called the president’s "insults, lies and false allegations" and asked the country’s supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, to intervene.[63]

Political parties[edit]

Although Rafsanjani has been a member of the pragmatic-conservative Combatant Clergy Association, he has a close bond to the reformist Kargozaran party. He has been seen as flip-flopping between conservative and reformist camps since the election of Mohammad Khatami, supporting reformers in that election, but going back to the conservative camp in the 2000 parliamentary elections as a result of the reformist party severely criticizing and refusing to accept him as their candidate. Reformists, including Akbar Ganji, accused him of involvement in murdering dissidents and writers during his presidency. In the end, the major differences between the Kargozaran and the reformists party weakened both and eventually resulted in their loss at the presidential elections in 2005. However, Rafsanjani has regained close ties with the reformers since he lost the 2005 presidential elections to Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[19]

Personal life[edit]

From his marriage to Effat Mar'ashi in 1962, Rafsanjani has three sons: Mohsen, Mehdi, and Yasser, as well as two daughters, Fatemeh and Faezeh. Only Faezeh Hashemi chose a political life, which led to her becoming a Majlis representative and then the publisher of the newspaper Zan (woman), which was closed in February 1999.[64]

Books[edit]

In addition, the full text of his Friday Prayer sermons and his congress keynote speeches are also published separately.[68] Based on his diary, viewpoints, speeches and interviews, several independent books have been published so far.

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (19 April 1992). "Rafsanjani Sketches Vision of a Moderate, Modern Iran". New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009. 
  2. ^ Poursafa, Mahdi (January 20, 2014). "گزارش فارس از تاریخچه نشان‌های نظامی ایران، از «اقدس» تا «فتح»؛ مدال‌هایی که بر سینه سرداران ایرانی نشسته است" [From "Aghdas" to "Fath": Medals resting on the chest of Iranian Serdars]. Fars News (in Persian). Retrieved October 21, 2014. 
  3. ^ In Rafsanjani’s election to key post, Iran moderates see victory Indian Express, 6 September 2007
  4. ^ Iran election: Rafsanjani defends decision to stand as his 'national duty' | The Guardian, 16 May 2013
  5. ^ RK Ramazani 'Revolutionary Iran: Challenge and Response in the Middle East,' The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.
  6. ^ Murder at Mykonos: Anatomy of a Political Assassination Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, 2009
  7. ^ BBC News Profile: Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, 19 June 2009
  8. ^ "Iran's Rafsanjani Registers for presidential race". AP. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani from Radio Free Europe
  10. ^ Iran Report: 9 May 2005
  11. ^ Rafsanjani's possible return creates a buzz in Tehran by Gareth Smyth, Financial Times
  12. ^ "Profile - Hoj. Ali Akbar Rafsanjani". APS Review Gas Market Trends. 19 April 1999. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  13. ^ BBC News - Profile: Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
  14. ^ Pasri, Trita, Treacherous Alliance : the secret dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States, Yale University Press, 2007, p.132
  15. ^ Brumberg, Daniel, Reinventing Khomeini : The Struggle for Reform in Iran, University of Chicago Press, 2001, p.153
  16. ^ John Pike. "Hojjatoleslam Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  17. ^ Could Khameini's Ominous Sermon Be a Turning Point?
  18. ^ "It is a quirk of history that Mr. Rafsanjani, the ultimate insider, finds himself aligned with a reform movement that once vilified him as deeply corrupt." Slackman, Michael (June 21, 2009). "Former President at Center of Fight Within Political Elite". New York Times. 
  19. ^ a b Rafsanjani's political life reviewed — in Persian.
  20. ^ "Voice of ambition". The Guardian (London). 23 June 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  21. ^ Book: Factional politics in post-Khomeini Iran By Mehdi Moslem
  22. ^ Rafsanjani urges universities to cooperate with industries - Irna IRNA
  23. ^ Rafsanjani to Ahmadinejad: We Will Not Back Down, ROOZ)
  24. ^ يادگارهاي مديريت 16 ساله :: RajaNews
  25. ^ a b c Sciolino, Elaine (July 19, 2009). "Iranian Critic Quotes Khomeini Principles". New York Times. 
  26. ^ Mafinezam, Alidad and Aria Mehrabi, Iran and its Place Among Nations, Greenwood, 2008, p.37
  27. ^ Mohaddessin, Mohammad, Islamic Fundamentalism, Anmol, 2003, pp.70-72
  28. ^ a b Al-Ahram Weekly|Region|Showdown in Tehran
  29. ^ Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Biography - Biography.com
  30. ^ Iran ready for comprehensive assistance to Iraqi nation - Rafsanjani - Irna
  31. ^ Book: Iran's Persian Gulf policy: from Khomeini to Khatami. By Christin Marschall
  32. ^ Rafsanjani reassures West Iran not after A-bomb
  33. ^ http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21578110-two-last-ditch-presidential-contenders-may-rattle-ruling-clerics-candidacy Iran’s election: A candidacy conundrum
  34. ^ Slackman, Michael (5 September 2007). "Ex-President Back in Spotlight in Iran, as He Wins Leadership of Council". The New York Times. 
  35. ^ "انتخاب مجدد هاشمی به ریاست خبرگان" (in Persian). 20 Esfand 1387 AP.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  36. ^ "انتخاب مجدد هاشمی رفسنجانی به ریاست مجلس خبرگان" (in Persian). BBC Persian. 10 March 2009. 
  37. ^ Rafsanjani ousted from Iranian post, Al Jazeera English, 8 March 2011
  38. ^ بهروز کارونی (2009-07-17). "اکبرین: هاشمی به صراحت وجود اختناق را تایید کرد - © 2011تمام حقوق این وب‌سایت بر اساس قانون کپی‌رایت برای رادیو فردا محفوظ است". Radiofarda.com. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  39. ^ Daragahi, Borzou; Mostaghim, Ramin (July 18, 2009). "Iranian protesters galvanized by sermon". Los Angeles Times. 
  40. ^ "Clashes as key Iranian cleric warns leaders". CNN. July 18, 2009. 
  41. ^ "اعتراضی‌ترین نمازجمعه‌ی تاریخ معاصر ایران". Deutsche Welle. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  42. ^ "پايگاه خبری تحليلی فرارو - جمعيت حاضر در نماز جمعه تهران چقدر بودند؟". Fararu. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  43. ^ Amir Farshad Ebrahimi's video taped confession transcript
  44. ^ PressTV - EC chairman Hashemi Rafsanjani’s daughter, Faezeh, arrested
  45. ^ Iran Sources Dismiss Buzz Over Khamenei Health RFEFL, 15 October 2009
  46. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/14/iran-ahmadinejad-mousavi-elections-result World leaders urged by Iran's opposition party to reject Ahmadinejad's alleged victory] Julian Borger and Ian Black, The Guardian, 14 June 2009
  47. ^ "Rafsanjani's future at stake in Iran turmoil". Reuters. 26 June 2009. 
  48. ^ Rafsanjani backs tolerance, dialogue Los Angeles Times, 2009
  49. ^ Daragahi, Borzou; Mostaghim, Ramin (17 July 2009). "In Iran, tensions build ahead of Rafsanjani's Friday sermon". The Los Angeles Times. 
  50. ^ Iran: Ex-Leader Rafsanjani Loses Role, By AP / ALI AKBAR DAREINI, 8 March 2011
  51. ^ Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani to stand in Iran presidential election| The Guardian
  52. ^ Rafsanjani's last-minute entry transforms Iranian race - Yahoo! News
  53. ^ Bahmani, Arash (22 May 2013). "The Arbiter of State Expediency is Disqualified". Rooz. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  54. ^ ايران - BBC فارسی - اعلام حمایت هاشمی رفسنجانی از روحانی
  55. ^ Iranian terror network in S. America
  56. ^ Barsky, Yehudit (May 2003). "Hizballah" (Terrorism Briefing). The American Jewish Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  57. ^ "Rafsanjani slams Iran president". BBC News. 17 November 2005. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  58. ^ Harrison, Frances (23 January 2007). "Criticism of Ahmadinejad mounts". BBC News. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  59. ^ Rafsanjani, Ahmadinejad Engage in New War of Words (ROOZ: English)
  60. ^ حمله به دولت در اولين كنفرانس خبري پس از 9 سال Raja News
  61. ^ نمی‌پذیریم عده ای حرف خود را به نام سند چشم انداز مطرح کنند Raja News
  62. ^ "Iran president attacks 'traitors'". BBC News. 12 November 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  63. ^ Worth, Robert F. (11 June 2009). "In Iran Race, Ex-Leader Works to Oust President". The New York Times. 
  64. ^ Buchta, Wilfried (2000). Who rules Iran?: The structure of power in the Islamic Republic. Washington, DC: The Washington Inst. for Near East Policy [u.a.] ISBN 0-944029-39-6. 
  65. ^ Moslem, Mehdi. Factional politics in post-Khomeini Iran. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2002. 371. ISBN ISBN 0-8156-2978-8.
  66. ^ کتابخانه مرکزی دانشگاه صنعتی شریف: اميركبير يا قهرمان مبارزه با استعمار, هاشمي رفسنجاني، اكبر
  67. ^ تفسیر راهنما از آغاز تا کنون ,مجله پژوهش و حوزه , بهار 1380 - شماره 5 , صفحه 98 , تصویر | پایگاه مجلات تخصصی نور
  68. ^ BBC فارسی - ايران - نگاهی دیگر: خاطرات اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی و حذف روایت کشتار ۶۷

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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