Ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib

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A raga is a complex structure of musical melody used in the Indian classical music. It is a set of rules of how to build a melody which can ignite a certain mood[1] in the reciter and listeners. The Sikh holy book, Guru Granth Sahib, is composed in and divided by 31 ragas. Each raga is a chapter or section in the Guru Granth Sahib starting with Shree raag, and all the hymns produced in Shree raag are found in this section ordered chronologically by the Guru or other Bhagat that have written hymns in that raga.

List of ragas used in the Guru Granth Sahib[edit]

The following are the ragas that are used in the Guru Granth Sahib:

Ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib
No. Name of Raga Order in Guru Granth Sahib Page Range Page Count
1 Asa
ਆਸਾ
4 347 to 489 142
2 Bairari
ਬੈਰਾੜੀ
13 719 to 721 2
3 Basant
ਬਸੰਤੁ
25 1168 to 1197 29
4 Bhairon
ਭੈਰਉ
24 1125 to 1168 43
5 Bihagara
ਬਿਹਾਗੜਾ
7 537 to 557 20
6 Bilaval
ਬਿਲਾਵਲੁ
16 795 to 859 64
7 Devagandhari
ਦੇਵਗੰਧਾਰੀ
6 527 to 537 10
8 Dhanasari
ਧਨਾਸਰੀ
10 660 to 696 36
9 Gauri
ਗਉੜੀ
3 151 to 347 196
10 Gond
ਗੋਂਡ
17 859 to 876 17
11 Gujari
ਗੂਜਰੀ
5 489 to 527 38
12 Jaijaivanti
ਜੈਜਾਵੰਤੀ
31 1352 to 1353 1
13 Jaitshree
ਜੈਤਸਰੀ
11 696 to 711 15
14 Kalyan
ਕਲਿਆਨ
29 1319 to 1327 8
15 Kahnra
ਕਾਨੜਾ
28 1294 to 1319 25
16 Kedara
ਕੇਦਾਰਾ
23 1118 to 1125 7
17 Maajh
ਮਾਝ
2 94 to 151 57
18 Malhar
ਮਲਾਰ
27 1254 to 1294 40
19 Mali Gaura
ਮਾਲੀ ਗਉੜਾ
20 984 to 989 5
20 Maru
ਮਾਰੂ
21 989 to 1107 118
21 Nat Narayan
ਨਟ ਨਾਰਾਇਨ
19 975 to 984 9
22 Prabhati
ਪਰਭਾਤੀ
30 1327 to 1352 25
23 Ramkali
ਰਾਮਕਲੀ
18 876 to 975 99
24 Sarang
ਸਾਰਗ
26 1197 to 1254 57
25 Shree
ਸਿਰੀਰਾਗੁ
1 14 to 94 80
26 Sorath
ਸੋਰਠਿ
9 595 to 660 65
27 Suhi
ਸੂਹੀ
15 728 to 795 67
28 Tilang
ਤਿਲੰਗ
14 721 to 728 7
29 Todi
ਟੋਡੀ
12 711 to 719 8
30 Tukhari
ਤੁਖਾਰੀ
22 1107 to 1118 11
31 Vadahans
ਵਡਹੰਸੁ
8 557 to 595 38

Raga: melodic scales[edit]

Ragas have a direct relationship to human moods and the following are the connections between Ragas and feeling:[citation needed]

  1. Soohi – joy and separation
  2. Bilaaval – happiness
  3. Gaund – strangeness, surprise, beauty
  4. Sri – satisfaction and balance
  5. Maajh – loss, beautification
  6. Gauri – seriousness
  7. Aasa – making effort
  8. Gujri – satisfaction, softness of heart, sadness
  9. Devgandhari – no specific feeling but the Raag has a softness
  10. Bihaagra – beautification
  11. Sorath – motivation
  12. Dhanasari – inspiration, motivation
  13. Jaitsree – softness, satisfaction, sadness
  14. Todi – this being a flexible Raag it is apt for communicating many feelings
  15. Bhairaagi – sadness, (The Gurus have, however, used it for the message of *Bhakti)
  16. Tilang – this is a favourite Raag of Muslims. It denotes feeling of beautification and yearning.
  17. Raamkali – calmness
  18. Nat Narayan – happiness
  19. Maali Gaura – happiness
  20. Maaru – giving up of cowardice
  21. Tukhari – beautification
  22. Kedara – love and beautification
  23. Bhairav – seriousness, brings stability of mind
  24. Basant – happiness
  25. Sarang – sadness
  26. Malaar – separation
  27. Jaijawanti – viraag
  28. Kalyaan – Bhakti Ras
  29. Vadhans – vairaag, loss (that is why Alahniya is sung in this Raag when someone passes away)
  30. Parbhati – Bhakti and seriousness
  31. Kaanra – Bhakti and seriousness

In addition to raag names, there exists an indication in the titles of hymns called ghar. The precise meaning of ghar is not fully understood, although recent research proposes it refers to raag variants.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Concise Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 2. Routledge. 2013. p. 935. ISBN 9781136096020.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  2. ^ See Inderjit N Kaur http://www.sikhmusicheritage.org/ghar2.pdf

External links[edit]