Raiden (Metal Gear)

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Raiden
Metal Gear character
Raiden (Metal Gear).png
Raiden's original Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty design as illustrated by Yoji Shinkawa.
First game Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (2001)
Created by Hideo Kojima
Designed by Yoji Shinkawa
Voiced by (English) Quinton Flynn
Voiced by (Japanese) Kenyu Horiuchi
Motion capture Eiji Morisaki (Metal Gear Solid 2)
Takeshi Yoshioka (Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots)
Fictional profile
Real name Jack
Nationality Liberian[1]
Affiliations Pseudo-FOXHOUND operative unknowingly employed by The Patriots (MGS2)
Free agent (MGS4)
Cyborg private military contractor (MGRR)

Raiden is a fictional character from Konami's Metal Gear series. Created by Hideo Kojima and designed by Yoji Shinkawa, Raiden was introduced in the series as the main player character of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. In Metal Gear Solid 2, he appears to be a member of the U.S. special operations unit FOXHOUND, participating in his first mission. Despite coming across as rookie, he is a young soldier who is later revealed to have been a Liberian child soldier. Raiden reappears as a supporting character in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots and returns as the main character of Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance dealing both with his past and his present life as a combatant.

The idea of creating Raiden originated from Hideo Kojima's desire to view the Metal Gear series protagonist Solid Snake from a different point of view, inspired by the Sherlock Holmes stories. Raiden's inclusion remained a secret to gamers before his debut; despite some players' reactions, the staff liked his character. Raiden's debut role as the protagonist of Metal Gear Solid 2 became controversial for two reasons: the unexpected substitution of the established hero Solid Snake and Raiden's androgynous appearance. Some critics have defended the character, stating that fans were merely angered by the former's removal and that the latter was appealing. Despite this mixed reception, Raiden has been highly praised for his role and Metal Gear Solid 4 redesign and even more in his role and design in Revengeance.

Character design[edit]

Creation and appearance[edit]

According to series creator Hideo Kojima, the decision to make a new character replace Solid Snake for most of Metal Gear Solid 2 stemmed from the developer's desire to develop Snake from a third-person perspective instead. Kojima also stated that Raiden's character and its perception by the audience were important to the overall feel of the story. The idea of having a second main character was inspired by the Sherlock Holmes short stories and novels in which the narrator was not the title character, but his friend Dr. Watson. Kojima affirmed that Snake was the game's protagonist instead of Raiden. Yoshikazu Matsuhana, assistant director for the project, was uncertain about this decision; he considered Raiden a "weak-looking character", but decided to follow Kojima.[2] The codename "Raiden" was based on a historical combat aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, the Mitsubishi J2M Raiden.[3] It was initially planned to be written in katakana as "ライデン", but was changed to the kanji form "雷電" because of the original resemblance to Bin Laden's "Laden" in katakana, "ラーディン".[4] The relationship between Raiden and Rosemary was inspired by Kojima's own experiences; their names, Jack and Rose, are a reference to characters in the film Titanic.[5] Raiden in Metal Gear Solid 2 is considered to be a representation of the player through the experiences between the player and the character during the game.[6]

Kojima received much fan mail; one letter was from a girl who stated she did not want to play a game with an old man. He took this into consideration; he and his team designed a character more appealing to women, resulting in Raiden's appearance.[7] Designer Yoji Shinkawa noted that he and the other character designers took a great deal of inspiration for Raiden's appearance from the bishōnen archetype.[7] Because Raiden was a new character the staff designed him carefully, giving him white hair to symbolize his introduction. Shinkawa further noted that Raiden ended up with an overall feminine appearance.[5] His outfit (the Skull Suit) was difficult to design until the staff decided on a "bonelike" concept. Shinkawa wanted to make Raiden sexually appealing, emphasizing the tightness of his clothing.[8]

Konami kept Raiden's starring role in Metal Gear Solid 2 secret until the game's North American release, going so far as to replace Raiden with Snake in teaser trailers and other preview materials. Although Raiden appeared in several preview trailers in his scuba gear, his presence was not emphasized.[5] Raiden's appearance in the game was announced to the Japanese press on the day of the game's release in North America.[9]

Kojima noted that fan response to Raiden's character was both positive and negative. While accepting considerable negative feedback, Kojima and his team liked the character. Therefore, they made him comic relief from the videos in which Raiden tries to become the main character from Metal Gear Solid 4. In response to positive response in Japan, the Raikov character was created for Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater as a parody of Raiden. While noting that Raiden would not be a playable character in Metal Gear Solid 4 Kojima confirmed his appearance in the game to website 1UP.com, stating that fans would like him by the end.[10] For this title, Raiden's new design was a response to the criticism that only his face remained in his cybernetic body. Shinkawa, himself, was surprised by the way he came to illustrate Raiden. The staff noted that Raiden's debut in the Metal Gear Solid 4 trailer received notably positive responses; several video-game magazines promoted the game with Raiden's screenshots.[11] Kojima echoed similar comments, indicating that he wanted to expand the character with another game.[12] Raiden's first fight against Vamp in the game caused difficulty to motion and voice actors because of carefully planned movements performed by the two fighters. The staff was nevertheless satisfied with the outcome, considering it one of the best battles in the game.[13]

Raiden—a sinister-looking young man in battle gear
Raiden's redesign sketches for Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots

When Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance was known as Metal Gear Solid: Rising, former producer Shigenobu Matsuyama hinted that Raiden's past as a child soldier would be elaborated and his weaknesses as a human would be explored. Matsuyama wanted Raiden to have as strong a role in the game as in Metal Gear Solid 2, leading him to become the game's main character.[14] Director Mineshi Kimura noted that he wanted Raiden to be able to move like he did in the Metal Gear Solid 4 trailers, wanting to show "the stealth of the sword, and the strength of not even losing to the gun, and the fear and power you have with this blade."[15] Matsuyama stated that they would focus on Raiden's strong will and physical strength, so he would be enjoyable to control.[16] Raiden's design was changed during the game's development, leading to different promotional images of him.[17] Following the game's reboot into a spin-off, Developers stated that while Raiden "has grown up" in comparison to previous Metal Gear games, he is still conflicted with his life as a child soldier in a past civil war, leading him to be a "dark hero".[18] Shinkawa designed Raiden's new body as a way to emphasize him being a dark hero contrasting his Metal Gear Solid 4 persona and later discussed with Platinum Games' Kenji Saito about including his quasi-human look. Raiden losing an eye also serves to represent his transformation across the story.[19] In response to complaints regarding how Rising appeared to contradict Raiden's ending in Guns of the Patriots, the Kojima Productions staff explained the game would explain what happened with Raiden's life.[20]

Raiden is first depicted as a white-haired adult who uses a protective black-and-blue suit for his missions known as a "Skull Suit" (スカルスーツ Sukaru Sūtsu?).[21] In Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots Raiden has had his entire body below the upper jaw replaced with a prototype cybernetic body ; he has also had his blood replaced with a military substitute called "White Blood" (白血 Shiro Chi?), which requires regular maintenance.[22] His original cybernetic body is replaced with a black one for Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance that also covers his left eye. Although proficient at all types of weaponry, Raiden specializes in wielding swords which resonate at high frequencies for the last fights in Sons of Liberty[23] and during Guns of the Patriots and Revengeance.

Personality and portrayal[edit]

In his first appearances Raiden is a rookie agent who, as a result of training only in virtual reality, is inexperienced. However, he later reveals that he was feared as a child soldier—known as "Jack the Ripper" (ジャック・ザ・リッパー Jakku Za Rippā?)—who killed several enemies in a civil war and is ashamed of his past.[24] This affects Raiden's personality; he begins to believe he is only useful in the battlefield and his relationship with his girlfriend, Rosemary, would not work.[25][26] Manipulation by the Patriots causes him to believe he does not have free will. Raiden is encouraged by Solid Snake not to be concerned with what people tell him, but to rely on himself to face his problems.[27]

In the Japanese versions of the games Raiden has been voiced by Kenyu Horiuchi,[28] who felt he could understand the character's pain; despite becoming a cyborg, Raiden still acted like a human.[13] Quinton Flynn was selected to voice Raiden in the series' English adaptation by casting director Kris Zimmerman, who had previously worked with him. Flynn remembers having a long time to develop the character, being instructed by Zimmerman to use an older voice from a character he previously voiced. Flynn stated that Raiden was one of his favorite video-game voice characters, and explained a notable difference between his roles in Metal Gear Solid 2 and Metal Gear Solid 4.[29]

Kojima Productions have compared Raiden and Solid Snake as to their experiences and ways of thinking. During the game's climax, Raiden stays handcuffed until his final fight against Solidus Snake; Snake escapes from his handcuffs to follow Revolver Ocelot, emphasizing Raiden's lack of freedom. Hideo Kojima compared Raiden and Snake with movie monsters King Kong and Godzilla, respectively; the former was taken from his home and his nature changed upon meeting Rosemary, whereas the latter will continue fighting against mankind's menaces. Defeating Solidus, Raiden is encouraged by Snake to trust himself and believe in his own choices. This is further addressed by the staff's motivation to make a new sequel to Metal Gear without Kojima.[5] Kojima has also likened him with John Rambo from the Rambo series as both characters always find themselves taking part in battles despite their desire for a peaceful resolution.[30]

Appearances[edit]

Main games[edit]

Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty introduces the player to Raiden (Japanese: 雷電?), real name Jack (ジャック Jakku?), in the Plant chapter; he is introduced as a newly recruited, virtual reality-trained member of FOXHOUND with no live combat experience before his current mission.[31] Assisted via Codec by the Colonel (his commanding officer) and Rosemary (his girlfriend), Raiden's initial objective is to rescue several hostages from a terrorist group known as the Sons of Liberty.[32][33] Raiden is helped by mercenary Solid Snake and spy Olga Gurlukovich across his mission.[34][35] As the story progresses, Jack is revealed as a former child soldier for the Sons of Liberty leader Solidus Snake during the Liberian Civil War.[25][36] After the war's end, Raiden was given a normal life and tried to forget his past.[37] A clandestine organization known as The Patriots is revealed to be controlling his actions, however, with his commanding officer revealed as their computer-generated AI,[38][39] and one of their spies becomes Raiden's girlfriend, and the two fall in love.[40] Raiden defeats Solidus after being told by the Patriots' AIs that his death would also trigger the deaths of Olga's child and Rosemary, the latter of whom was revealed to have been pregnant with Raiden's child during the mission.[41] He later reunites with Rosemary, and both decide to stay together to raise their unborn child.[42]

Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots (set five years after Metal Gear Solid 2) features Raiden as the newest Cyborg Ninja. Disappearing after rescuing Sunny (the late Olga's daughter) from the Patriots,[43] and searched for Big Boss's corpse for Big Mama.[44] The trauma of his breakup with Rosemary, coupled with the apparent miscarriage of his child, have made Raiden believe his only place is on the battlefield.[25][26] Outfitted with a cybernetic exoskeleton as a result of the Patriots' machinations,[45] Raiden assists Old Snake (Solid Snake) in the fight against Liquid Ocelot wanting to obtain the Patriots' powers. After several encounters with Liquid's men, Raiden stays in the ship Outer Haven to protect Snake as he shuts down the Patriots' AIs.[46] In an epilogue, Rosemary reveals to Raiden that their child was not miscarried; her marriage to Roy Campbell was a hoax to protect her and their son from the Patriots. Upon hearing this news, Raiden reconciles with Rosemary.[47]

Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance (set four years after Metal Gear Solid 4) shows Raiden's return as the main character.[15] Raiden joins the private military company (PMC) Maverick Security in multiple tasks while raising money for his family. However, they are attacked by a group of terrorists called Desperado Enforcement LLC that kill his protectee and leave Raiden near dead. Saved by Doktor, Raiden starts working with them to fight Desperado.[48] His already vengeful obsession with Desperado becomes even more personal when he discovered, during a mission into Mexico, that Desperado and World Marshal Inc had been kidnapping several children, surgically removing their brains to place them into cybernetic bodies, and were planning to subject them to VR training modelled after his own training under Solidus during the Liberian Civil War. This results in Raiden abruptly resigning from Maverick to pursue and retrieving the children's brain casings from World Marshal, having to battle his "Jack the Ripper" persona in the process. Although Raiden is successful in defeating Desperado he learns that Steven Armstrong was using such PMCs to distract Raiden as he attempts to create a new "War on Terror". Raiden manages to stop Armstrong's actions and decides not to return to Maverick, having his "own war to fight."

Other appearances[edit]

Although Raiden does not appear in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, his character is the subject of parody throughout the game by debuting character Raikov.[10] Raiden also appears in an early promotional trailer for Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, fighting for control of the franchise with Solid Snake in a series of comic scenes. A sequel to the trailer was produced entitled "Metal Gear Raiden: Snake Eraser" in which Raiden travels to the past to assassinate Big Boss but fails comically.[49] In the trailer's English version, Raiden was voiced by Charlie Schlatter (the voice actor for Raikov) instead of Quinton Flynn. Raiden's Metal Gear Solid 2 version appears in the Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops Plus expansion pack, where he is an unlockable character.[50] His Metal Gear Solid 4 incarnation appears as a playable character in Metal Gear Online.[51]

In the Xbox 360 and Xbox One versions of Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Raiden stars in a non-canon mission titled "Jamais Vu". Having time-travelled to the past,[52] he infiltrates Camp Omega under orders from MSF. His mission objective is to incapacitate a group of soldiers known as the "body snatchers" (a reference to the android replicators in Kojima's other work Snatcher). His appearance in this game is modeled after his Metal Gear Rising design.

The Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty 2007 comic book adaptation by Alex Garner retells Raiden's role in the series, with few changes made to the story. His relationship with Solidus is explored when he remembers his past; when about to be killed by Solidus, Raiden is saved by Snake.[53] The game's novelization by Raymond Benson provides minor modifications to Raiden's history, except for the moment he receives Olga's sword, resulting in a change to his battle psyche. When Raiden kills Solidus he cuts the rope on Federal Hall's flagpole, causing an American flag to fall over his enemy's body. This scene was deleted from the original game due to the September 11 attacks.[54]

Outside the Metal Gear series, Raiden appears in the game LittleBigPlanet as a sticker and a playable sack-boy character. He may be accessed by buying the Metal Gear Solid 4 downloadable content.[55] In Evolution Skateboarding, Raiden is one of the unlockable characters.[56] He also appears in Super Smash Bros. Brawl as a collectible sticker and in Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood as an alternate skin for Ezio Auditore da Firenze.[57] Raiden is playable in the video game PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale using his Metal Gear Rising design.[58]

Reception[edit]

Critical reaction[edit]

Raiden's artwork used as a promotional piece in the UK. Raiden's appearance in Rising: Revengeance has led to a common praise, in contrast to initial mixed opinions of his introduction

Raiden's replacement of fan favorite Solid Snake in Metal Gear Solid 2 proved controversial, and GamesRadar considered the event a reason to dislike the series overall.[59][60] The same site criticized his role in Metal Gear Solid 2 several times, and called his inclusion one of the worst aspects of the game.[61][62] In 2004, GameAxis Unwired published a fake interview in which Hideo Kojima expressed regret for creating the character.[63] While calling Metal Gear Solid 2 one of the biggest disappointments in video-game history, UGO Networks' Marissa Meli cited Raiden's debut as a key problem with the game.[64] Meli also commented on Raiden's design, placing him 12th in a list of the most androgynous video game characters.[65] The book Playing with Videogames states that Raiden's inclusion was to surprise Metal Gear fans who, instead of playing as Snake, played as his opposite. Writer James Newman commented that fans' reactions were highly negative, as though their expectations had been "betray[ed]" by Kojima. He compared Raiden to the controversial Star Wars character Jar Jar Binks. Trailers for Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (in which Raiden is mocked) were considered by Newman to be Konami's comic response to fans' disapproval.[66] Raiden proved to be more popular in Japan, with Yoji Shinkawa commenting it was because he matched the stereotype of manga hero.[67] In 2012, manga artist Hiro Mashima drew an illustration of Raiden in anticipation of the series' following games. He mentioned having had difficulties illustrating the character.[68]

Nevertheless, Eurogamer's Tom Bramwell enjoyed Raiden's role, commenting that his interactions with the other characters also helped expand Solid Snake's character.[69] His introduction was given an award for "Biggest Surprise" by GameSpot in 2001,[70] while Dave Meikleham from GamesRadar listed his appearance as one of the biggest plot twists in a video game since the trailers did not show him. Meikleham also called Raiden a "surprisingly likeable character" and found his dynamic with Solid Snake appealing.[71] Before joining Kojima Productions Ryan Payton stated that he was not disappointed by Raiden's introduction, and liked the fact that the Metal Gear Solid 2 team kept his identity a secret.[72] Raiden's English voice actor Quinton Flynn was surprised by fans' response to the character, but commented that it also attracted new fans to the series. Regarding response about Raiden replacing Snake as the main character, Flynn thought that fans were angry at the idea that Raiden would replace Snake for all subsequent games.[29] Raiden's relationship with Rosemary was also listed as the most awkward part of the Metal Gear series by 1UP.com, with writer Scott Sharkey speculating about Hideo Kojima's life since the director claimed the relationship was autobiographical.[73] PLAY editor Nick Jones listed the scene in which Raiden is nude as his fourth most favorite moment of the franchise, calling it the "one of the funniest moments in gaming history."[74]

Raiden demonstrates that cybernetic upgrades don’t just make you a better ninja--they make you more likable too. Raiden was one of the most hated characters in gaming, mostly because he abruptly replaced Snake as the lead in Metal Gear Solid 2, though it didn’t help that he was prone to fits of whining. Even though he showed flashes of swordsmanship akin to the beloved Cyborg Ninja, fans rejected him with a passion. Perhaps that’s why MGS creator Hideo Kojima decided to try and reform Raiden in the fans’ eyes, by going all the way with his Cyborg Ninja tribute.

—Henry Gilbert, GamesRadar, 2013[75]

Response to the character was mainly positive in subsequent games. His new design for Metal Gear Solid 4 was analyzed by GamePro's Pattrick Shaw, who commented that Raiden "was in one hell of a fight".[76] Raiden's redesign has been praised for reducing his androgynous appearance, thus making him more appealing.[77] UGO placed Raiden's design in that game at 18th spot on its 2011 list of "the most stylin' alternate costumes",[78] but Gavin Mackenzie from PLAY listed it seventh on his top list of inappropriate outfits, stating that the costume was "cool" but had unnecessary accessories.[79] It has also been compared with Gray Fox's cybernetic-ninja design in Metal Gear Solid.[80][81] Similarly, the GameSpot staff stated that Raiden "is definitely the inheritor of the quasi-unkillable Cyborg Ninja inheritance" when he made his first appearance in a Metal Gear Solid 4 trailer. GameSpot applaueded his actions in the trailer, calling it "wordlessly awesome" and comparing his stunts with those in the film Casshan: Robot Hunter.[82] Writers from Cheat Code Central referred to his fight against Vamp in nother trailer as the "undeniable highlight" that would make player wish to use Raiden in the game.[83] Game Informer placed him on "The Snubbed List" of the best characters of the 2000s in response to his new design since it made fans like the idea of a new Metal Gear game solely focused on his character.[84] Raiden's encounter with Vamp in this game was also labelled one of the "most memorable cinematics" of the series by GamePro because of Raiden's change of fighting style from his debut as he "redeems his girlish image",[76] while IGN listed it as the 80th best moment in video-game history for similar reasons.[85]

We all used to know Raiden as the whiny man-child who replaced Snake in Metal Gear Solid 2, but to be fair to the guy, he’s become quite the badass since. Between MGS4 and the new (and awesome) Revengeance, Raiden is a force to be reckoned with on the battlefield. Still a bit emo, though.

PLAY Staff, 2013[86]

IGN's Jesse Schedeen listed Raiden as one of the "gaming icons" and most valuable players of 2009, in response to his role in an upcoming Metal Gear title.[87][88] Dave Meikleham of GamesRadar wrote an article entitled "Why Metal Gear Solid: Rising [Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance] will make you love Raiden", explaining why fans who disliked the character would find his character and role appealing in the game.[89] In a 2010 Famitsu readers' poll, Raiden was voted the 42nd most popular video game character.[90] In 2013, Complex ranked Raiden as the 12th greatest soldier in video games, "even as he's not as cool as Solid Snake,"[91] while GamesRadar called Revengeance "perhaps the greatest cyborg ninja game of all time"[75] and PLAY ranked Raiden as the second top ninja in games.[86]

Analysis[edit]

Raiden's role in Metal Gear Solid 2 has been analyzed by several writers, who emphasized how he is intended to represent the actual player.[92] Early in the game, when Raiden's virtual reality training is mentioned, the game shows scenes from the prequel Metal Gear Solid where the players took control of Solid Snake.[93] Raiden's interaction with veteran Solid Snake identify the former as "a Metal Gear fan". As the game progresses it is stated that Raiden "has become Snake", having developed skills similar to his from taking part in the Big Shell's fights which resembled the Metal Gear Solid's Shadow Moses Island.[94] Later in the game, Raiden is told by a character to "Turn off the console" which confuses both the player and him. While this was first interpreted as a fourth wall-breaking joke, the game's climax goes deeper into Raiden's connection with the player.[95] When being forced by his superiors to kill the game's antagonist, Solidus Snake, the player is told by the designers to finish the game.[96] Both player and Raiden take different paths at the game's end. The former is told not to waste time playing games;[95] the latter's character is expanded with his decision to move on with his life, rejecting his previous identity by discarding the dog tags the player wore in the beginning.[97]

Upon the revelation of the character's new design as a cyborg ninja, writers noted how Raiden distanced himself from his previous appearance that imitated Solid Snake.[66] They also emphasized how Raiden becomes a different type of game hero with a new, direct fighting style.[76] Since Raiden has become more powerful than Solid Snake in physical strength and weaponry to the point of exaggeration,[98] writers have compared him favorably to other popular game heroes and find his actions still in-character considering the fight scenes throughout the series.[99]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hurley, Leon (November 22, 2012). "Metal Gear Rising main cyborgs explained – alliances, weapons and abilities". PlayStation Official Magazine. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  2. ^ "The Final Hours of Metal Gear Solid 2". GameSpot. Archived from the original on January 3, 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
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  4. ^ "How Japan's Earthquake Changed its Developers". 1UP.com. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
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  7. ^ a b Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence. Konami. Level/area: Metal Gear Saga Vol. 1. 
  8. ^ "Yoji Shinkawa Interview: Segment 3". Konami. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  9. ^ Kojima Productions. The Document of Metal Gear Solid 2. Konami. 
  10. ^ a b "Saving Private Raiden". 1UP.com. Retrieved June 4, 2011. 
  11. ^ Payton, Ryan. "The KP Report Session 027". Kojima Productions Report. mp.i.revo. Retrieved February 17, 2012. 
  12. ^ Schirado, Tyler (January 5, 2012). "Hideo Kojima Talks Killing Snake, Project Ogre, Metal Gear Rising & More!". GameRant. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  13. ^ a b Making of Metal Gear Solid 4 (Blu-ray). Konami Digital Entertainment GmbH. 2008. 
  14. ^ Wesley Yin-Poole (September 13, 2010). "Metal Gear Solid: Rising Interview". Eurogamer. Retrieved September 14, 2010. 
  15. ^ a b Stephen Totilo (June 16, 2010). "Konami E3 Liveblog Is Right Here, Hopefully With Lightning And Whips". Kotaku. Retrieved June 16, 2010. 
  16. ^ Gatson, Martin (August 28, 2010). "Metal Gear Solid: Rising Preview". VideoGamer.com. Retrieved August 29, 2011. 
  17. ^ McWhertor, Michael (January 29, 2010). "Metal Gear Solid: Rising's Raiden Has Changed". Kotaku. Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
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  21. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Colonel: Your new Sneaking suit uses electrofiber technology, a by-product of fiber-optics research. The texture isn't far removed from rubber but the material protects against a wide range of toxic substances. The suit itself has a wide array of built-in sensors. It is referred to as "Smart Skin" in military R&D. Data about damage to different regions of the body, including blood loss, is exchanged between the suit and the intravenous nanomachines to create a bio-feedback system. [...] They call this the "Skull Suit" in FOXHOUND." 
  22. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. "Naomi Hunter: That's right. Raiden's blood is an older type of artificial blood that was used by the military... Called white blood. After it's been in use for a while, the blood needs to be dialyzed... Filtered. Right now, he's slipping into autotoxemia." 
  23. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Solid Snake: Olga asked me to give it to you. Besides, I'm not a big fan of blades." 
  24. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Raiden: No, it was field training, when I was a kid. I lied, Snake. I have more field experience than I can remember. It's not VR that's doing this to me. / Solid Snake: Raiden, we don't carry guns to take people down. We're not here to help some politician either. / Raiden: You can say that because you're a legend, a hero. I'm Jack the Ripper, a dirty reminder -- of a terrible mistake." 
  25. ^ a b c Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. "Rosemary: After the Big Shell Incident, he became unstable. Memories began to resurface from his childhood, when he fought for Solidus in the Liberian Civil War. And in the midst of all that... The baby we had together... It hadn't even been born yet. Jack slowly stopped coming home. And when he did, he'd be dead drunk, sometimes covered in cuts and bruises." 
  26. ^ a b Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. Konami. "Raiden: I've got nothing to lose. / Snake: Don't be an idiot. You know you've got someone to protect. / Raiden: It was never going to work out for me. It even "rained" the day I was born." 
  27. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Solid Snake: Listen, don't obsess over words so much. Find the meaning behind the words, then decide. You can find your own name. And your own future... [...] I know you didn't have much in terms of choices this time. But everything you felt, thought about during this mission is yours. And what you decide to do with them is your choice... / Raiden: You mean start over? / Solid Snake: Yeah, a clean slate. A new name, new memories. Choose your own legacy. It's for you to decide. It's up to you" 
  28. ^ "堀内 賢雄" (in Japanese). Kenyu Office. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  29. ^ a b "Raiden Speaks! An interview with Quinton Flynn". The Gaming Liberty. May 21, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  30. ^ "CVG News". Computer and Video Games. Twitter. February 22, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  31. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Colonel: Just a precaution. You are now designated "Raiden." All right, Raiden. You've already covered infiltration in VR Training. / Raiden: I've completed three hundred missions in VR. I feel like some kind of legendary mercenary..." 
  32. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Rosemary: Jack, I'm a part of this mission. / Raiden: Colonel, what the hell is going on? / Colonel: Raiden, meet the mission analyst. She'll be overseeing the data saving and support." 
  33. ^ Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Colonel: You have two missions objectives. One: infiltrate the offshore decontamination facility "Big Shell" and safeguard the President and other hostages. And two: disarm the terrorists by any means necessary." 
  34. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Olga: I was sent to provide you support. / Raiden: Support? Who sent you? The Colonel? / Olga: No... the Patriots. [...]My child is... being held hostage by the Patriots." 
  35. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Raiden: Are you two really an NGO? / Otacon: Insofar as we're a nonprofit organization of civilians advocating a cause, yes. The cause happens to be the eradication of Metal Gear. / Solid Snake: We work on our own. But it's a cause worth fighting for." 
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