A railgun is an electrically powered electromagnetic projectile launcher based on similar principles to the homopolar motor. A railgun comprises a pair of parallel conducting rails, along which a sliding armature is accelerated by the electromagnetic effects of a current that flows down one rail, into the armature and then back along the other rail.
Railguns are being researched as weapons with projectiles that would not contain explosives or propellants, but their extremely high velocities (potentially Mach 10+, more than triple an M16 rifle's) would make their kinetic energy, on impact, equal or even far superior to the energy yield of an explosive-filled shell of greater mass. Railguns have long existed as experimental technology but the mass, size and cost of the required power supplies have prevented railguns from becoming practical military weapons. However, in recent years, significant efforts have been made towards their development as feasible military technology. For example, in the late 2000s, the U.S. Navy tested a railgun that accelerates a 3.2 kg (7 pound) projectile to hypersonic velocities of approximately 2.4 kilometres per second (8,600 km/h), about Mach 7. They gave the project the Latin motto "Velocitas Eradico", Latin for "I, [who am] speed, eradicate".
In addition to military applications, railguns have been proposed as non-rocket spacelaunch technology for spacecraft; however, unless the launching track was particularly long, and the acceleration required spread over a much longer time, such launches would necessarily be restricted to unmanned spacecraft.
- 1 Basics
- 2 History
- 3 Design
- 4 Applications
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
In its simplest (and most commonly used) form, the railgun differs from a traditional homopolar motor  in that no use is made of additional field windings (or permanent magnets). This basic configuration is formed by a single loop of current and thus requires high currents (e.g. of order 106 ampere) to produce worthwhile accelerations (and muzzle velocities). A relatively common variant of this configuration is the augmented railgun in which the driving current is channelled through additional pairs of parallel conductors, arranged to increase ("augment") the magnetic field experienced by the moving armature. These arrangements reduce the current required for a given acceleration. In electric motor terminology, augmented railguns are usually series-wound configurations.
The armature may be an integral part of the projectile, but it may also be configured to accelerate a separate, electrically isolated or non-conducting projectile. Solid, metallic sliding conductors are often the preferred form of railgun armature but "plasma" or "hybrid" armatures can also be used. A plasma armature is formed by an arc of ionised gas that is used to push a solid, non-conducting payload in a similar manner to the propellant gas pressure in a conventional gun. A hybrid armature uses a pair of "plasma" contacts to interface a metallic armature to the gun rails. Solid armatures may also "transition" into hybrid armatures, typically after a particular velocity threshold is exceeded.
A railgun requires a pulsed, direct current power supply. For potential military applications, railguns are usually of interest because they can achieve much greater muzzle velocities than guns powered by conventional chemical propellants. Increased muzzle velocities can convey the benefits of increased firing ranges while, in terms of target effects, increased terminal velocities can allow the use of kinetic energy rounds as replacements for explosive shells. Therefore, typical military railgun designs aim for muzzle velocities in the range of 2000–3500 m/s with muzzle energies of 5–50 MJ. For comparison, 50MJ is equivalent to the kinetic energy of a school bus weighing 5 metric tons, travelling at 509 km/h (316 mph). For single loop railguns, these mission requirements require launch currents of a few million amperes, so a typical railgun power supply might be designed to deliver a launch current of 5 MA for a few milliseconds. As the magnetic field strengths required for such launches will typically be approximately 10 T, most contemporary railgun designs are effectively "air-cored", i.e. they do not use ferromagnetic materials such as iron to enhance the magnetic flux.
It may be noted that railgun velocities generally fall within the range of those achievable by two-stage light-gas guns; however, the latter are generally only considered to be suitable for laboratory use while railguns are judged to offer some potential prospects for development as military weapons. In some hypervelocity research projects, projectiles are "pre-injected" into railguns, to avoid the need for a standing start, and both two-stage light-gas guns and conventional powder guns have been used for this role. In principle, if railgun power supply technology can be developed to provide compact, reliable and lightweight units, then the total system volume and mass needed to accommodate such a power supply and its primary fuel can become less than the required total volume and mass for a mission equivalent quantity of conventional propellants and explosive ammunition. Such a development would then convey a further military advantage in that the elimination of explosives from any military weapons platform will decrease its vulnerability to enemy fire.
In 1918, French inventor Louis Octave Fauchon-Villeplee invented an electric cannon which is an early form of railgun. He filed for a US patent on 1 April 1919, which was issued in July 1922 as patent no. 1,421,435 "Electric Apparatus for Propelling Projectiles". In his device, two parallel busbars are connected by the wings of a projectile, and the whole apparatus surrounded by a magnetic field. By passing current through busbars and projectile, a force is induced which propels the projectile along the bus-bars and into flight.
In 1944, during World War II, Joachim Hänsler of Germany's Ordnance Office built the first working railgun, and an electric anti-aircraft gun was proposed. By late 1944 enough theory had been worked out to allow the Luftwaffe's Flak Command to issue a specification, which demanded a muzzle velocity of 2,000 m/s (6,600 ft/s) and a projectile containing 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) of explosive. The guns were to be mounted in batteries of six firing twelve rounds per minute, and it was to fit existing 12.8 cm FlaK 40 mounts. It was never built. When details were discovered after the war it aroused much interest and a more detailed study was done, culminating with a 1947 report which concluded that it was theoretically feasible, but that each gun would need enough power to illuminate half of Chicago.
During 1950, Sir Mark Oliphant, an Australian physicist and first director of the Research School of Physical Sciences at the new Australian National University, initiated the design and construction of the world's largest (500 megajoule) homopolar generator. This machine was operational from 1962 and was later used to power a large-scale railgun that was used as a scientific experiment.
A railgun consists of two parallel metal rails (hence the name) connected to an electrical power supply. When a conductive projectile is inserted between the rails (at the end connected to the power supply), it completes the circuit. Electrons flow from the negative terminal of the power supply up the negative rail, across the projectile, and down the positive rail, back to the power supply.
This current makes the railgun behave as an electromagnet, creating a magnetic field inside the loop formed by the length of the rails up to the position of the armature. In accordance with the right-hand rule, the magnetic field circulates around each conductor. Since the current is in the opposite direction along each rail, the net magnetic field between the rails (B) is directed at right angles to the plane formed by the central axes of the rails and the armature. In combination with the current (I) in the armature, this produces a Lorentz force which accelerates the projectile along the rails, away from the power supply. There are also Lorentz forces acting on the rails and attempting to push them apart, but since the rails are mounted firmly, they cannot move.
By definition, if a current of one ampere flows in a pair of infinitely long parallel conductors that are separated by a distance of one metre, then the magnitude of the force on each metre of those conductors will be exactly 0.2 micro-newtons. Furthermore, in general, the force will be proportional to the square of the magnitude of the current and inversely proportional to the distance between the conductors. It also follows that, for railguns with projectile masses of a few kg and barrel lengths of a few m, very large currents will be required to accelerate projectiles to velocities of the order of 1000 m/s.
A very large power supply, providing on the order of one million amperes of current, will create a tremendous force on the projectile, accelerating it to a speed of many kilometres per second (km/s). 20 km/s has been achieved with small projectiles explosively injected into the railgun. Although these speeds are possible, the heat generated from the propulsion of the object is enough to erode the rails rapidly. Under high-use conditions, current railguns would require frequent replacement of the rails, or to use a heat-resistant material that would be conductive enough to produce the same effect. At this time it is generally acknowledged that it will take major breakthroughs in material science and related disciplines to produce high-powered railguns capable of firing more than a few shots from a single set of rails. The barrel must withstand these conditions for up to several rounds per minute for thousands of shots without failure or significant degradation. These parameters are well beyond the state of the art in materials science.
The magnitude of the force vector can be determined from a form of the Biot–Savart law and a result of the Lorentz force. It can be derived mathematically in terms of the permeability constant (), the radius of the rails (which are assumed to be circular in cross section) (), the distance between the centrepoints of the rails () and the current in amps through the system () as follows:
It can be shown from the Biot-Savart law that at one end of a semi-infinite current-carrying wire, the magnetic field at a given perpendicular distance () from the end of the wire is given by:
Note this is if the wire runs from the location of the armature e.g. from x = 0 back to .
So, if the armature connects the ends of two such semi-infinite wires separated by a distance, , the total field from both wires at any given point on the armature is:
To obtain an approximate expression for the average magnetic field on a railgun armature, we assume that the rail radius is small compared with the rail separation and, by assuming that the railgun rails can be modelled as a pair of semi-infinite conductors, we compute the following integral:
By the Lorentz force law, the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire is given by , so since the width of the conductive projectile is , we have
The formula is based on the assumption that the distance () between the point where the force () is measured and the beginning of the rails is greater than the separation of the rails () by a factor of about 3 or 4 (). Some other simplifying assumptions have also been made; to describe the force more accurately, the geometry of the rails and the projectile must be considered.
Since it is not easy to produce an electromagnetic expression for the railgun force that is both simple and reasonably accurate, most simple railgun analyses actually used a lumped circuit model to describe the relationship between the driving current and the railgun force. In these models the voltage across the railgun breech is given by:
Then the barrel resistance and inductance are assumed to vary linearly with the projectile position, so that
If the driving current is held constant, there is a power flow equal to which represents the electromagnetic work done. In this simple model, exactly half of this is assumed to be needed to establish the magnetic field along the barrel, i.e. as the length of the current loop increases. The other half represents the power flow into the kinetic energy of the projectile. Since power can be expressed as force times speed, this gives the standard result that the force on the railgun armature is given by:
This simple equation shows that high accelerations will require very high currents. For an ideal square bore railgun, the value of would be about 0.6 microHenries per metre (.H/m) but most practical railgun barrels exhibit lower values of than this.
Since the lumped circuit model describes the railgun force in terms of fairly normal circuit equations, it becomes possible to specify a simple time domain model of a railgun.
Ignoring friction and air drag, the projectile acceleration is given by:
where m is the projectile mass. The motion along the barrel is given by:
and the above voltage and current terms can be placed into appropriate circuit equations to determine the time variation of current and voltage.
The power supply must be able to deliver large currents, sustained and controlled over a useful amount of time. The most important gauge of power supply effectiveness is the energy it can deliver. As of December 2010, the greatest known energy used to propel a projectile from a railgun was 33 megajoules. The most common forms of power supplies used in railguns are capacitors and compulsators which are slowly charged from other continuous energy sources.
The rails need to withstand enormous repulsive forces during shooting, and these forces will tend to push them apart and away from the projectile. As rail/projectile clearances increase, arcing develops, which causes rapid vaporization and extensive damage to the rail surfaces and the insulator surfaces. This limited some early research railguns to one shot per service interval.
The inductance and resistance of the rails and power supply limit the efficiency of a railgun design. Currently different rail shapes and railgun configurations are being tested, most notably by the United States Navy, the Institute for Advanced Technology at the University of Texas at Austin, and BAE Systems.
The rails and projectiles must be built from strong conductive materials; the rails need to survive the violence of an accelerating projectile, and heating due to the large currents and friction involved. Some erroneous work has suggested that the recoil force in railguns can be redirected or eliminated; careful theoretical and experimental analysis reveals that the recoil force acts on the breech closure just as in a chemical firearm. The rails also repel themselves via a sideways force caused by the rails being pushed by the magnetic field, just as the projectile is. The rails need to survive this without bending and must be very securely mounted.
Massive amounts of heat are created by the electricity flowing through the rails, as well as by the friction of the projectile leaving the device. The heat created by this friction itself can cause thermal expansion of the rails and projectile, further increasing the frictional heat. This causes three main problems: melting of equipment, decreased safety of personnel, and detection by enemy forces. As briefly discussed above, the stresses involved in firing this sort of device require an extremely heat-resistant material. Otherwise the rails, barrel, and all equipment attached would melt or be irreparably damaged.
In practice the rails are, with most designs of railgun, subject to erosion due to each launch; in addition, projectiles can be subject to some degree of ablation, and this can limit railgun life, in some cases severely.
Railguns have a number of potential practical applications, primarily for the military. However, there are other theoretical applications currently being researched.
Launch or launch assist of spacecraft
Electrodynamic assistance to launch rockets has been studied. Space applications of this technology would likely involve specially formed electromagnetic coils and superconducting magnets. Composite materials would likely be used for this application.
For space launches from Earth, relatively short acceleration distances (less than a few km) would require very strong acceleration forces, higher than humans can tolerate. Other designs include a longer helical (spiral) track, or a large ring design whereby a space vehicle would circle the ring numerous times, gradually gaining speed, before being released into a launch corridor leading skyward.
In 2003, Ian McNab outlined a plan to turn this idea into a realized technology. The accelerations involved are significantly stronger than human beings can handle. This system would be used only to launch sturdy materials, such as food, water, and fuel. Note that escape velocity under ideal circumstances (equator, mountain, heading east) is 10.735 km/s. The system would cost $528/kg, compared with $20,000/kg on the space shuttle (see non-rocket spacelaunch). The railgun system McNab suggested would launch 500 tons per year, spread over approximately 2000 launches per year. Because the launch track would be 1.6 km long, power will be supplied by a distributed network of 100 rotating machines (compulsator) spread along the track. Each machine would have a 3.3-ton carbon fibre rotor spinning at high speeds. A machine can recharge in a matter of hours using 10 MW. This machine could be supplied by a dedicated generator. The total launch package would weigh almost 1.4 tons. Payload per launch in these conditions is over 400 kg. There would be a peak operating magnetic field of 5 T—Half of this coming from the rails, and the other half from augmenting magnets. This halves the required current through the rails, which reduces the power fourfold.
Railguns are being researched as weapons with projectiles that do not contain explosives or propellants, but are given extremely high velocities: 3,500 m/s (11,500 ft/s) (approximately Mach 10 at sea level) or more (for comparison, the M16 rifle has a muzzle speed of 930 m/s (3,050 ft/s), and the 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun that armed World War II American battleships has a muzzle speed of 760 m/s (2,490 ft/s)), which would make their kinetic energy, on impact, equal or even far superior to the energy yield of an explosive-filled shell of greater mass. This would decrease ammunition size and weight, allowing more ammunition to be carried and eliminating the hazards of carrying explosives or propellants in a tank or naval weapons platform. Also, by firing at greater velocities, railguns have greater range, less time to target, and less wind drift, bypassing the physical limitations of conventional firearms: "the limits of gas expansion prohibit launching an unassisted projectile to velocities greater than about 1.5 km/s and ranges of more than 50 miles [80 km] from a practical conventional gun system."
The increased launch velocities of railguns would also allow greater capability for both offensive and defensive applications as compared to traditional weapons. The greater kinetic energy and decreased time to target, when coupled with non-traditional rounds, would allow a single railgun to effectively engage both airborne and surface based targets.
If it were possible to apply the technology as a rapid-fire automatic weapon, a railgun would have further advantages of increased rate of fire. The feed mechanisms of a conventional firearm must move to accommodate the propellant charge as well as the ammunition round, while a railgun would only need to accommodate the projectile. Furthermore, a railgun would not have to extract/eject a spent cartridge case from the breech, meaning that a fresh round could be chambered almost immediately after the previous round has been shot. However, any residual magnetic energy left in the rails and their power supply may need to be removed after each shot, so the time needed for this might also significantly affect the attainable cyclic rate. If the residual energy is simply dissipated via resistive losses, a high rate of fire will be associated with a high heat loading that may need to be removed by some kind of cooling system.
Many critics of weaponized railgun systems claim operating them with a suitable exit velocity and rate of fire would consume too much power, though this would likely not be a problem for nuclear-powered systems such as on large warships or submarines.
The first weaponized railgun planned for production, the General Atomics Blitzer system, began full system testing in September 2010. The weapon launches a streamlined discarding sabot round designed by Boeing's Phantom Works at 1,600 m/s (5,200 ft/s) (approximately Mach 5) with accelerations exceeding 60,000 gn. During one of the tests, the projectile was able to travel an additional 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) downrange after penetrating a 1⁄8 inch (3.2 mm) thick steel plate. The company hopes to have an integrated demo of the system by 2016 followed by production by 2019, pending funding. Thus far, the project is self-funded.
In October 2013, General Atomics unveiled a land based version of the Blitzer railgun. A company official claimed the gun could be ready for production in "two to three years".
Railguns are being examined for use as anti-aircraft weapons to intercept air threats, particularly anti-ship cruise missiles, in addition to land bombardment. A supersonic sea-skimming anti-ship missile can appear over the horizon 20 miles from a warship, leaving a very short reaction time for a ship to intercept it. Even if conventional defense systems react fast enough, they are expensive and only a limited number of large interceptors can be carried. A railgun projectile can reach several times the speed of sound faster than a missile, so it can reach out to the horizon and hit a cruise missile much faster and further away from the ship. Projectiles are also cheaper and smaller, allowing for many more to be carried. The speed, cost, and numerical advantages of railgun systems may allow them to replace several different systems in the current layered defense approach. A railgun projectile without the ability to change course can hit fast-moving missiles at a maximum range of 30 nmi (35 mi; 56 km). The Navy plans for railguns to be able to intercept endo-atmospheric ballistic missiles, stealthy air threats, supersonic missiles, and swarming surface threats; a prototype system for supporting interception tasks is to be ready by 2018, and operational by 2025. This timeframe suggests the weapons are planned to be installed on the Navy's next-generation surface combatants, expected to start construction by 2028.
Full-scale models have been built and fired, including a 90 mm (3.5 in) bore, 9 MJ kinetic energy gun developed by the US DARPA. Rail and insulator wear problems still need to be solved before railguns can start to replace conventional weapons. Probably the oldest consistently successful system was built by the UK's Defence Research Agency at Dundrennan Range in Kirkcudbright, Scotland. This system has now been operational for over 10 years at an associated flight range for internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics, and achieved several mass and velocity records.
The Yugoslavian Military Technology Institute developed, within a project named EDO-0, a railgun with 7 kJ kinetic energy, in 1985. In 1987 a successor was created, project EDO-1, that used projectile with a mass of 0.7 kg (1.5 lb) and achieved speeds of 3,000 m/s (9,800 ft/s), and with a mass of 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) reached speeds of 2,400 m/s (7,900 ft/s). It used a track length of 0.7 m (2.3 ft). According to those working on it, with other modifications it was able to achieve a speed of 4,500 m/s (14,800 ft/s). The aim was to achieve projectile speed of 7,000 m/s (23,000 ft/s). At the time, it was considered a military secret.
U.S. military tests
The United States military is funding railgun experiments. At the University of Texas at Austin Centre for Electromechanics, military railguns capable of delivering tungsten armor piercing bullets with kinetic energies of nine megajoules have been developed. 9 MJ is enough energy to deliver 2 kg (4.4 lb) of projectile at 3 km/s (1.9 mi/s)—at that velocity a rod of tungsten or another dense metal could easily penetrate a tank, and potentially pass through it.
The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division demonstrated an 8 MJ railgun firing 3.2 kg (7.1 lb) projectiles in October 2006 as a prototype of a 64 MJ weapon to be deployed aboard Navy warships. The main problem the U.S. Navy has had with implementing a railgun cannon system is that the guns wear out due to the immense pressures, stresses and heat that are generated by the millions of amperers of current necessary to fire projectiles with megajoules of energy. Such weapons, while not nearly as powerful as a cruise missile like a BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile that will deliver 3000 MJ of destructive energy to a target, will theoretically allow the Navy to deliver more granular firepower at a cost less than a missile. For context another relevant comparison is the Rheinmetall 120mm gun used on main battle tanks will generate 9 MJ of muzzle energy. An MK 8 round fired from the 16" guns of an Iowa Class battleship at 2500 feet per second has 360 MJ of kinetic energy at the muzzle.
Since then, BAE Systems has delivered a 32 MJ prototype (muzzle energy) to the U.S. Navy. This amount of energy is equivalent to that of a school bus weighing 5 metric tons, travelling at 407 km/hour (253 mph).
On January 31, 2008 the US Navy tested a railgun that fired a projectile at 10.64 MJ with a muzzle velocity of 2,520 m/s (8,270 ft/s). Its expected performance is a muzzle velocity over 5,800 m/s (19,000 ft/s), accurate enough to hit a 5-metre (16 ft) target over 200 nmi (370 km) away while firing at 10 shots per minute. The power was provided by a new 9-megajoule prototype capacitor bank using solid-state switches and high-energy-density capacitors delivered in 2007 and an older 32-MJ pulse power system from the US Army’s Green Farm Electric Gun Research and Development Facility developed in the late 1980s that was previously refurbished by General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems (EMS) Division. It is expected to be ready between 2020 to 2025.
A test of a railgun took place on December 10, 2010, by the US Navy at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division. During the test, the Office of Naval Research set a world record by conducting a 33 MJ shot from the railgun, which was built by BAE Systems.
A more recent test took place in February, 2012, at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division. While similar in energy to the aforementioned test, the railgun used is considerably more compact, with a more conventional looking barrel. A General Atomics-built prototype was delivered for testing in October 2012.
|Official 33MJ video|
|February 2012 test|
The U.S. Navy plans to integrate a railgun that has a range of over 160 km (100 mi) onto a ship by 2016. By that time the Navy expects to have a weapon that can fire multiple projectiles per minute. The hyper-velocity rounds weigh 10 kg (23 lb) and cost about $25,000 each. They have command guidance but are planned to be self-guided in the future. The 18 in (460 mm) shells are fired at Mach 7. Currently the only US Navy ships that can produce enough electrical power to get desired performance are the Zumwalt-class destroyers; they can generate 78 megawatts of power, more than is necessary to power a railgun. Engineers are working to derive technologies developed for the DDG-1000 series ships into a battery system so other warships can operate a railgun. Most current destroyers can spare only nine megawatts of additional electricity, while it requires 25 megawatts to propel a projectile to the desired maximum range. Even if current ships, such as the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, can be upgraded with enough electrical power to operate a railgun, the space taken up on the ships by the integration of an additional weapon system may force the removal of existing weapon systems to make room available. The first shipboard tests will be from a railgun installed on a Joint High Speed Vessel. Though ships of that class are non-combatants, they were chosen for their available cargo and topside space and schedule flexibility. They will not be permanently installed on the JHSV, and the Navy has yet to decide which ship classes will receive a fully operational railgun. Single shot tests will be held in 2016, followed by an autoloader in 2018. Though the 23 lb projectiles have no explosives, their Mach 7 velocity gives them 32 megajoules of energy. The Navy is looking into other uses for railguns other than land bombardment like air defense. With the right targeting systems, projectiles could intercept aircraft, cruise missiles, and even ballistic missiles; the Navy is also developing directed energy weapons for that use, but it may be years before they could be effective and its effective range is further due to following a ballistic trajectory. The railgun will be part of a Navy fleet that envisions future offensive and defensive capabilities being provided in layers; lasers provide close range defense, railguns provide medium range attack and defense, and cruise missiles are retained for long-range attacks, though railguns will cover targets up to 100 miles away that previously needed a missile.
The Navy may eventually enhance railgun technology to enable it to fire at a range of 200 nmi (230 mi; 370 km) and impact with 64 megajoules of energy. One shot would require 6 million amps of power, so it will take a long time to develop capacitors that can generate enough energy and strong enough gun materials.
Trigger for inertial confinement fusion
Railguns may also be miniaturized for inertial confinement nuclear fusion.
- Fusion is triggered by very high temperature and pressure at the core.
- Current technology calls for multiple lasers, usually over 100, to concurrently strike a fuel pellet, creating a symmetrical compressive pressure.
- Railguns may be able to trigger fusion by firing energetic plasma from multiple directions. The process developed involves four key steps.
- Plasma is pumped into a chamber.
- When the pressure is great enough, a diaphragm will rupture, sending gas down the rail.
- Shortly afterwards, a sufficient voltage is applied to the rails, creating a conduction path of ionized gas.
- This plasma accelerated down the rail, eventually being ejected at a large velocity.
- The rails and dimensions are on the order of centimetres.
- Fletcher, Seth (2013-06-05). "Navy Tests 32-Megajoule Railgun |". Popular Science. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- Rashleigh, C. S. & Marshall, R. A. (April 1978). "Electromagnetic Acceleration of Macroparticles to High Velocities". J. Appl. Phys. 49 (4): 2540. doi:10.1063/1.325107.
- Borrell, Brendan (2008-02-06). "Electromagnetic Railgun Blasts Off". MIT Technology Review.
- Atkinson, Nancy (2010-09-14). "NASA Considering Rail Gun Launch System to the Stars". Universe Today.
- Hindmarsh, John (1977). Electrical Machines and their Applications. Oxford: Pergamon Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-08-021165-8.
- Fiske, D.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Riemersma, H.; Docherty, E.F. & Pipich, C.W. (January 1991). "The HART 1 Augmented Electric Gun Facility". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 27 (1): 176–180. doi:10.1109/20.101019. ISSN 0018-9464.
- Batteh, Jad. H. (January 1991). "Review of Armature Research". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (IEEE Magnetics Society) 27 (1): 224–227. doi:10.1109/20.101030.
- Gully, John (January 1991). "Power Supply Technology for Electric Guns". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (IEEE Magnetics Society) 27 (1): 329–334. doi:10.1109/20.101051.
- "50 megajoules kinetic energy". Wolfram Alpha. 2014-04-28.
- Fauchon-Villeplee, André Louis Octave (1922). "US Patent 1,421,435 "Electric Apparatus for Propelling Projectiles"".
- Hogg, Ian V. (1969). The Guns: 1939/45. London: Macdonald. ISBN 9780019067102. OCLC 778837078.
- Ophel, Trevor & Jenkin, John (1996). "Chapter 2:The Big Machine". Fire in the Belly: The first fifty years of the pioneer School at the ANU. Australian National University. ISBN 9780858000483. OCLC 38406540. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- Barber, J. P. (March 1972). The Acceleration of Macroparticles and a Hypervelocity Electromagnetic Accelerator (Ph.D thesis). Australian National University. OCLC 220999609.
- Harris, William (11 October 2005). "How Rail Guns Work". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- "Electromagnetic Rail Gun (EMRG)". globalsecurity.org.
- Ackerman, Spencer (2010-12-10). "Video: Navy’s Mach 8 Railgun Obliterates Record". Wired.
- Weldon, Wm. F.; Driga, M. D. & Woodson, H. H. (November 1986). "Recoil in electromagnetic railguns". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 22 (6): 1808–1811. doi:10.1109/TMAG.1986.1064733. ISSN 0018-9464.
- Cavalleri, G.; Tonni, E. & Spavieri, G. (May 2001). "Reply to "Electrodynamic force law controversy"". Physical Review E 63 (5): 058602. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.63.058602.
- Kathe, Eric L. (November 2000). Recoil Considerations for Railguns: Technical Report ARCCB-TR-00016 (pdf). U.S. Army ARDEC Benet Laboratories.
- Putnam, Michael J. (December 2009). An Experimental Study of Electromagnetic Lorentz Force and Rail Recoil (M.Sc. thesis). Naval Postgraduate School.
- Barros, Sam (2010-11-11). "PowerLabs Rail Gun!". Powerlabs.org (Blog). Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- Uranga, Alejandra; Kirk, Daniel R.; Gutierrez, Hector; Meinke, Rainer B. & Barker, Karen D. (2005). "Rocket Performance Analysis Using Electrodynamic Launch Assist". Proceedings of the 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (10–13 January 2005). Reno, Nevada.
- Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc. (2008) "Space and Defense" magnetlab.com[dead link]
- Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc. (2008) "Direct Double-Helix" magnetlab.com[dead link]
- McNab, I.R. (January 2003). "Launch to space with an electromagnetic railgun". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 35 (1): 295–304. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2002.805923. ISSN 0018-9464.
- Adams, David Allan (February 2003). "Naval Rail Guns Are Revolutionary". U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129 (2): 34. Archived from the original on 2007-07-08.
- Fallon, Jonathon (2012-04-25). "General Atomics’ Railgun Travels 4 Miles, Even After Blasting Through a Steel Plate [Video]". CubicleBot. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
- "Blitzer Railgun". General Atomics. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-04-25.[dead link]
- Fisher Jr, Richard D. (2013-10-22). "AUSA 2013: General Atomics unveils Blitzer land-based railgun". Jane's. Archived from the original on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Page, Lewis (2010-12-25). "'Blitzer' railgun already 'tactically relevant', boasts maker". The Register.
- Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (2014-11-21). "47 Seconds From Hell: A Challenge To Navy Doctrine". Breaking Defense.
- LaGrone, Sam (2015-01-05). "Navy Wants Rail Guns to Fight Ballistic and Supersonic Missiles Says RFI". USNI News.
- Five Futuristic Weapons That Could Change Warfare - Nationalinterest.org, 1 November 2014
- "EM Systems". University of Texas. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10.
- Sofge, Erik (2007-11-14). "World's Most Powerful Rail Gun Delivered to Navy". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
- "32 megajoules kinetic energy". Wolfram Alpha. 2014-04-28.
- "U.S. Navy Demonstrates World's Most Powerful EMRG at 10 MJ". United States Navy. 2008-02-01.
- "General Atomics Team Powers Navy Rail Gun to New World Record, accessed 14 Oct 2009"[dead link]
- "The Navy shows off its insane magnetic railgun of the future". Dvice.com. 2008-02-02. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- Fein, Geoff S. (2010-12-08). "Navy's Record-Setting Test to Showcase Railgun's Military Relevance Friday at Dahlgren". Somd.com. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- LaGrone, Sam (2010-12-15). "Electromagnetic railgun sets new world record". Jane's. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Electromagnetic railgun fires its first shots". Drives & Control. March 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- "Navy Evaluating Second Electromagnetic Railgun Innovative Naval Prototype". Office of Naval Research. 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- Osborn, Kris (2014-01-10). "Future Destroyers Likely to Fire Lasers, Rail Guns". Military.com.
- Osborn, Kris (2014-01-16). "Navy Rail Gun Showing Promise". Defensetech.org.
- McDuffee, Allen (2014-04-09). "Navy’s New Railgun Can Hurl a Shell Over 5,000 MPH". Wired.
- Sharp, David (2014-02-18). "US Navy Ready to Deploy Laser for 1st Time". Military.com.
- Atherton, Kelsey D. (2014-04-08). "The Navy Wants To Fire Its Ridiculously Strong Railgun From The Ocean". Popular Science.
- LaGrone, Sam (2013-06-07). "NAVSEA on Flight III Arleigh Burkes". USNI News.
- "Navy to deploy electromagnetic railgun". Military1.com. 2014-04-07.
- Bacon, Lance M. (2014-04-12). "Railgun tests from ship set for '16". Military Times (Gannett Government Media). Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (2014-04-07). "Navy’s Magnetic Super Gun To Make Mach 7 Shots At Sea In 2016: Adm. Greenert". Breakingdefense.com.
- Witherspoon, F.D.; Bomgardner, R.; Case, A.; Messer, S.; Brockington, S.; Wu, L. & Elton, R. (2009). "MiniRailgun accelerator for plasma linear driven HEDP and magneto-inertial fusion experiments". 36th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science. San Diego, CA,.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Railgun.|
|Look up railgun in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- NRL Railgun Demonstration Video US Naval Research Laboratory, July 2010
- USN sets five-year target to develop electromagnetic gun at the Wayback Machine (archived November 22, 2009) Jane's Defence Weekly, 20 July 2006
- Electromagnetic Railgun Popular Science Article
- Video of Navy railgun test firing, Navy Electromagnetic Launch Facility, Test Shot #1, 2 October 2006. Source: Fredericksburg.com, accessed 30 January 2007
- World’s Most Powerful Rail Gun Delivered to Navy, 14 November 2007