Raipur

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This article is about Raipur, the capital city of Chhattisgarh. For other places, see Raipur (disambiguation).
Raipur
रायपुर
Capital City
Raipur is located in Chhattisgarh
Raipur
Raipur
Coordinates: 21°08′N 81°23′E / 21.14°N 81.38°E / 21.14; 81.38Coordinates: 21°08′N 81°23′E / 21.14°N 81.38°E / 21.14; 81.38
Country India
State Chhattisgarh
District Raipur
Government
 • Type Local Government
 • Mayor Kiran Mayee Nayak
Area
 • Capital City 226 km2 (87 sq mi)
Elevation 298.15 m (978.18 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Capital City 1,010,087
 • Rank 47th
 • Density 4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 1,122,555
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Chhattisgarhi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 492001
Vehicle registration CG-04
Website www.raipur.gov.in
Swami Vivekanada's Statue at Vivekanand Sarovar

Raipur /ˈrpʊər/ (Hindi: रायपुर About this sound pronunciation ) is the capital city of the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The city is the administrative headquarters of Raipur District. It was formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh before the state of Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000. At the time of the 2011 census, the population within the Municipal Corporation area of Raipur was 1,010,087. Armenia, Colombia is now sister city of Raipur (see list of twin towns and sister cities).

History[edit]

Raipur district is important from a historical and archeological point of view. This district was once part of southern Kosal and considered part of the Maurya Empire. Raipur city had been the capital of the Haihaya Dynasty Kalchuri kings, controlling the traditional forts of Chhattisgarh for a considerable period. The town of Raipur has been in existence since the 9th century; the old site and ruins of the fort can be seen in the southern part of the city. Satawahana kings ruled this part until the 2nd–3rd century.

In the 4th century AD king Samudragupta conquered this region and established his domination until the fifth–sixth century when the area came under the rule of Sarabhpuri kings. For some time in the fifth and sixth centuries, Nala kings dominated this area. Later on Somavanshi kings took control and ruled with Sirpur ("City of Wealth") as their capital. Mahashivgupt Balarjun was the mightiest emperor of this dynasty. His mother, the widow queen of Harshgupta of the Somavansh, Rani Vasata built the brick temple of Lakshman. Kalachuri dynasty kings of Tumman ruled the area for a long period making Ratanpur the capital. The old inscriptions of Ratanpur, Rajim and Khallari refer to the reign of Kalchuri kings. It is believed that King Ramachandra of this dynasty established the city of Raipur and subsequently made it the capital of his kingdom.

Another story about Raipur is that King Ramachandra's son Brahmdeo Rai had established Raipur. His capital was Khalwatika (now Khallari). The newly constructed city was named after Brahmdeo Rai as 'Raipur'. It was during his reign in 1402 that Hajiraj Naik the temple of Hatkeshwar Mahadev was constructed on the banks of the Kharun River. The decline of this dynasty's rule came with the death of King Amarsingh Deo. This region had become the domain of Bhosle kings after Amarsingh Deo's death. With the death of Raghuji III, the territory was assumed by the British government from Bhonsla'a of Nagpur and Chhatisgarh was declared a separate division, the Chhattisgarh Division of the Central Provinces, with its headquarters at Raipur in 1854. At the time of the independence of India Raipur district was included in the Central Provinces and Berar.

Demographics[edit]

As of the 2011 census, Raipur Municipal Corporation had a population of 785,829[1] and the urban agglomeration had a population of 10,10,087.[3] The Municipal Corporation had a sex ratio of 946 females per 1,000 males and 12.3% of the population were under six years old.[1] Effective literacy was 86.90%; male literacy was 92.39% and female literacy was 81.10%.[1]

As an important regional centre and a city with a history stretching back more than a thousand years, Raipur has attracted people from different parts of Madhya Pradesh and neighbouring states. The population includes local ethnic Chhattisgarhis, North Indians, South Indians, and a few people from the North East. Local ethnic Chhattisgarhi comprises Kalar, Kurmi, Swarnkar, Teli, Koshta and Satnami communities. The city is also inhabited by the trading communities like Jayaswals, Baniyas, Agarwals, Jains, Gujaratis, and Marwaris. Due to close proximity with Odisha there are large numbers of Oriya speaking population found in the city as well as in the state. The city is also home to an immigrant population that includes Sindhis and the Sikhs. It also has a sizable Bengali, Telugu, Malayalee and Maharashtrian population. Majority of the population in Raipur is Hindu. Muslims and Christians are minorities. Muslims primarily reside in such areas as Moudhapara (occupied by the immigrants from UP and Bihar), Baijnathpara, Chota Para,Raza Talab,Sanjay Nagar, Momin Para (Shia Islam community) and Byron Bazaar (which is named after a Briton who is supposed to have formed the place; Byron Bazar was once mostly inhabited by the Muslims from the "Madras Paltan" i.e. those serving in the British Army (Madras Regiment), and had occupied Byron Bazaar as a result of their regiment getting disbanded). The Christian population is scattered around the city. This city is also populated by the people of Kanwar and Gond community who are primarily tribals.

Geography and climate[edit]

Raipur
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
6.7
 
28
13
 
 
12
 
31
17
 
 
25
 
36
21
 
 
16
 
40
25
 
 
19
 
42
28
 
 
190
 
37
27
 
 
381
 
31
24
 
 
345
 
30
24
 
 
230
 
31
24
 
 
54
 
32
22
 
 
7.4
 
30
17
 
 
3.7
 
27
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD

Geography[edit]

Raipur is located near the centre of a large plain, sometimes referred as the "rice bowl of India", where hundreds of varieties of rice are grown.[4] The Mahanadi River flows to the east of the city of Raipur, and the southern side has dense forests. The Maikal Hills rise on the north-west of Raipur; on the north, the land rises and merges with the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which extends north-east across Jharkhand state. On the south of Raipur lies the Deccan Plateau.

Climate[edit]

Raipur has a tropical wet and dry climate, temperatures remain moderate throughout the year, except from March to June, which can be extremely hot. The temperature in April–May sometimes rises above 48 °C (118 °F).These summer months also have dry and hot winds. In summers, the temperature can also go up to 50 °C. The city receives about 1,300 millimetres (51 in) of rain, mostly in the monsoon season from late June to early October. Winters last from November to January and are mild, although lows can fall to 5 °C (41 °F).

Climate data for Raipur City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27
(81)
30
(86)
35
(95)
39
(102)
45
(113)
36
(97)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
28
(82)
26
(79)
32
(90)
Average low °C (°F) 13
(55)
15
(59)
20
(68)
24
(75)
27
(81)
26
(79)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
16
(61)
14
(57)
20
(68)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.39)
17
(0.67)
14
(0.55)
13
(0.51)
18
(0.71)
239
(9.41)
383
(15.08)
364
(14.33)
197
(7.76)
50
(1.97)
11
(0.43)
16
(0.63)
1,330
(52.36)
Source: [5]

Transport[edit]

Raipur Railway Station Entrance

Railways[edit]

Raipur is situated on the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line of the Indian Railways (via Bhusawal, Nagpur, Gondia, Bilaspur, Kharagpur) and is connected with some major cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Saugor, Katni, Itarsi,Gondia, Kolkata, Jamshedpur, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Kota, Ahmedabad, Jaipur e.t.c. Raipur still lacks direct rail connectivity with Indore Junction, Ujjain, Ratlam Junction, Kolhapur, Jodhpur etc. A branch line from Raipur to Vizianagaram via Mahasamund - Titlagarh originates from here and maximum export of Chattisgrah viaVishakhapatnam by this Rly Line. Also there is a narrow gauge line connecting Raipur to Rajim and Dhamtari via Abhanpur. This narrow gauge line is being converted into broad gauge line and realigned to serve the city of Naya Raipur as well.

Suburbs Rly Station Of Raipur

Roads[edit]

National Highways connecting Raipur to various cities are as under:[6]

National Highways number Connecting cities
NH 6 Hajira-Dhule-Nagpur-Raipur- Mahasamund - Sambalpur - Baharagora-Calcutta
NH 43 Raipur-Vizianagaram Junction with National Highway No. 5 near

Natavalasa

NH 200 Raipur-Bilaspur-Raigarh-Kanaktora-Jharsuguda-Kochinda-Deogarh-Talcher-Chandhikhol
NH 217 Raipur- Mahasamund - Gopalpur
NH 12A Raipur-Jhansi

Asian Highway Number 46 - AH46 is passes thru Raipur

Airport[edit]

Swami Vivekananda Airport,Raipur

Swami Vivekananda Airport or (Mana Airport) is the city's airport located 15 km away from the center. A Four Lane road is proposed on V.I.P. road which will connect airport to city more efficiently. The New Airport Terminal is proposed to avoid crowd hassle in old mana airport. The airport has seen a surge in traffic post after 2006 and presently connects Raipur to most of the major airports of India & operates 38 flights Daily.

Airlines Destinations
Air India Delhi, Mumbai, Nagpur
IndiGo Bangalore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Mumbai
Jet Airways Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Kolkata, Mangalore, Mumbai
JetKonnect Delhi, Mumbai,
Air Odisha Bhubaneswar

Local transport[edit]

A city bus service is provided by Raipur City Bus Limited (RCBL) for the intra-city travel. Raipur Municipal Corporation launched the Raipur City Bus service on 25 February 2008. The company runs 40 buses out of which 32 are low floor Tata Starbus. Paratransit in the form of auto-rickshaws and tuk-tuk are available all over the city. 100 new city buses under JNNURM have been inducted by Raipur Nagar Nigam Transport Limited (RNNTL), which serve the Raipur and connect Naya Raipur also.

Economy[edit]

Historically, when Raipur was a part of Madhya Pradesh, it was the second major commercial centre in Madhya Pradesh after Indore. Traditionally, Raipur's economy has been based on agricultural-processing, Steel, Cement, Alloy, Poha and Rice. The city is located centrally in the state of Chhattisgarh, and now serves as a regional hub for trade and commerce for a variety of local agricultural and forest products.

The traditional face of city has changed with Raipur becoming an important regional commercial and industrial destination for the coal, power, plywood, steel and aluminium industries. Raipur is the largest market of steel in India. Raipur is among the richest cities and India’s biggest iron market; there are about 200 steel rolling mills, 195 sponge iron plants, more than 6 steel plants, more than 60 plywood factories, 500 agro-industries and more than 35 ferro-alloy plants. There are more than 800 rice milling plants, and all major and local cement manufacturing companies (Century Cement, Ambuja, Grasim, Lafarg) have a presence in the city.

Raipur also has a big chemical plant which produces formalin and distributes throughout the country.

Raipur has a wagon repair shop, where wagons of goods trains are repaired. A heavy machinery plant of Jindal Group is situated in Raipur. Sponge iron plants of major steel companies including Monnet, Jayaswal Neco Steel Plant, and Drolia Electrosteels are situated in raipur. LPG bottling plants of Bharat Petroleum and Hindustan Petroleum are also present in the city. The industrial areas of Raipur are: Urla and Siltara (heavy and medium scale industries), Bhanpur, Birgaon, Gondwara (medium and small scale industries). The head office of "Spongytech Consulting Engineers Private Limited", a world class engineering consulting group, is in Raipur.

Bharti Walmart Private Limited, the joint venture between Bharti Enterprises and Walmart Stores Inc for wholesale, opened its first Best Price Modern Wholesale cash and-carry store in Chhattisgarh's Raipur in June 2011. The Best Price Modern Wholesale store situated at Bhanpuri, Bhilai Bilaspur Bye Pass Road, Ring Road No 2, Raipur, is spread over 53,000 square feet and stocks over 5,500 items.

Education[edit]

NIT Raipur

Raipur is well known as a hub for education in the region as number of institutes of national repute have come up.

Primary and secondary education[edit]

There are many government and private schools in Raipur. Some prominent schools of Raipur are:

  • Bharat Mata Higher Secondary School, Tatibandh
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya no.1, W.R.S. Colony
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya no.2, P.t.R.S.University Campus
  • Shri Gujrati School (Estd. 1945), Devendra nagar
  • J.R. Dani Government Girls Higher Secondary School
  • Adarsh vidyalaya, (Devendra Nagar)
  • Govt. Hindu High School
  • P.G. Umathe Government Girls School
  • Kalibadi Government School
  • Govt. Multipurpose High School
  • Sishu Niketan Eng. Med. Hr. Sec School.(W.R.S.Colony)

Other notable private schools include:

  • St.Paul School Byron Bazar(One of the oldest in the city)
  • Gyandeep Vidya Mandir
  • Sachdeva International School
  • Brighton International School, Raipur
  • Kaanger Valley Academy
  • Salem English School
  • Rajkumar College, Raipur
  • Gyan Ganga Educational academy
  • DPS, Raipur
  • Holy Cross Senior Secondary School Kapa
  • Holy Cross School, Byron Bazaar
  • Krishna Public School, Raipur
  • Shishu Niketan Hr. Sec. School
  • N.H.Goel World School
  • Mintu Public International School
  • Indus World School
  • Holy Cross School, Pension Bada, Raipur
  • St.Vincent Pallotti College
  • St. Xavier's High School, Raipur
  • Raipur Convent Hr. Sec School, Gudhiyari
  • Raipur Convent Hr. Sec School, Khamtarai
  • Raipur Convent Hr. Sec School, New Rajendra Nagar
  • M.G.M HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL, GAYATRI NAGAR
  • Holy Hearts Educational Academy, Raipur.
  • Desh Bandhu School, Raipur
  • Adarsh Vidyalaya, Raipur
  • Shri Balaji Vidya Mandir, Devendra Nagar Raipur
  • Radiant Public School, Raipur
  • indus world school
  • Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan's R.K. Sarda Vidya Mandir
  • Rashtriya Vidyalaya Near State Bank of India, Kutcheri Chowk Raipur
  • Abhibhavak Vidyalaya,Off.V.I.P Road
  • Maharshi Vidya Mandir
  • International Hotel Management School- Raipur

NIT raipur convert in IIT raipur

Universities and deemed universities[edit]

Administrative Building of Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, India

Engineering and management colleges[edit]

  • AVS Presidency International College, Raipur(APIC)
  • Kruti Institute of Technology & Engineering(KITE)
  • Raipur Institute of Technology
  • New Government Engineering College, Raipur
  • Disha institute of management and technology(DIMAT)
  • Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Professional Management and Technology, Raipur (SSIPMT)
  • Pragati College of Engineering and Management
  • Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institutions, Raipur
  • ITM UNIVERSITY
  • Bhilai Institute of Technology, Raipur
  • Dignity College of Architecture
  • MM College of Technology, Raipur(MMCT)
  • Parthivi College of Engineering and Management, Raipur
  • Columbia Institute Of Engineering And Technology
  • Vindhya Institute of Technology
  • Rungta college of Engineering and Technology, Nandanvan, Raipur
  • Rungta Engineering college, Nandanvan, Raipur
  • Central college of Engineering and Management, kabir nagar, Raipur
  • Professional Institute of Engineering and Technology, Raipur.[PIETECH]

Medical colleges[edit]

Some prominent religious places[edit]

  • Hatkeshwar Mahadev Temple
  • Dudhadhari Monastery and Temple
    Dudhadhari Monastery & Temple in Raipur
  • Mahamaya Temple
  • Banjaari Mata Dham
  • Kali Badi
  • St Paul Church
  • Sadani Darbar
  • St Joseph Cathedral
  • Jagannath temple, Gayatri nagar
  • Baba budhasahib Gurudwara, (opposite Telibandha lake)
  • Choti Masjid, Byron Bazar
  • Rishabh dev Jain Temple, Sadar Bazaar
  • Dadabadi Jain Temle, M.G Road
  • Shree Ayyappa Temple, Tatibandh
  • Jama Masjid(Halwayi line)
  • Bargah e Sayed Sher Ali Aaga (Banjariwale baba)
  • Bargaah e Sayed Qutub e Shaher (Halwayi line)
  • Khanqah of Raipur

Media[edit]

News channels[edit]

Many local news channels are telecast from Raipur in Hindi :

News Channels Language Notes
CG 24 news channel CG Hindi
IBC 24 Hindi
Khabar Bharati Hindi
Grand News (Cable Network) Hindi
ETV MP Chhattisgarh Hindi
Sadhna News Hindi
Sahara Samaye Hindi
Zee MP CG Hindi
India News MP CG Hindi
Bansal News Hindi
Abhi Tak (Cable Network) Hindi

Newspaper[edit]

Many national and local newspapers are published from Raipur both in Hindi and English:

Newspaper Language Notes
Dainik Bhaskar Hindi
Patrika Hindi
Nava Bharat Hindi
Deshbandhu Hindi
Nai Duniya Hindi
Haribhoomi Hindi
The Central Chronicle English
The Times of India English
Hindustan Times English
Hindustan Hindi
The Hitavada English
The Pioneer English
Business Standard English, Hindi
Business Bhaskar English, Hindi

Radio[edit]

Raipur has 6 Radio stations & from the beginning MY FM is leading the private FM Radio space :

Radio station name Radio frequency
Akashwani Raipur (All India Radio) 981 kHz
Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz
My FM 94.3 MHz
Rangila FM 104.8 MHz
Radio Tadka 95 MHz
Vividh Bharti 101.6 MHz

Entertainment[edit]

Shopping malls[edit]

Ambuja City Centre Vidhansabha Road INOX-2[7] Name Location Multiplex
City Mall 36 G.E Road, Telibandha INOX
Magneto, The Mall G.E Road, Telibandha PVR Cinemas
R.K. Mall Amanaka Railway crossing Glitz Cinemas
Chhattisgarh City Center Devendra Nagar, Pandri CineMAX
Lalganga Colors Mall Pachpedi Naka Glitz Cinemas -2
Vicon Infiniti Mall (Upcoming) Tatibandh Not disclosed
SBPL City Center (Upcoming) Parsoda, Naya Raipur Not disclosed
Treasure Island (upcoming) NH 6,Near Agri University Fun Republic
Mosaic Mall (upcoming) Old Dhamtari road Not disclosed

Attractions in the city[edit]

  • Mahant Ghasidas Museum - It was built in 1875 by Raja Mahant Ghasidas, King of erstwhile Rajnandgaon state.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur Museum - It was built in honour of Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur situated near Ghasidas museum.
  • Sushilpikangan - The Art Gallery:Gallery of Chhatisgar / Bastar art where you can find Dhokra arts with finest workmanship.
  • Shabari handicrafts emporium and Chhattisgarh Haat - These are famous for uplifting the local artist and craftsman.
  • Mahakoshal Kala Parishad - This is a historic place for the exhibit of arts and paintings.
    Mahakaushal Kala Parishad
  • Purkhauti Muktangan Museum - This is being developed by Government of Chhattisgarh, Culture Department under Ministry of Tourism. It is spread over 18 hectares exhibiting entire Natural Resources with existing infrastructures, industries, places of tourists attraction, etc. including the VISION 2020
Statue of Swami Vivekananda at Vivekananda Sarovar
  • Vivekananda Sarovar (Budha Talab) - It is a very old lake which is as old as the city. A 37 ft high statue of Swami Vivekananda has been build in between the lake. This statue has been added in Limca Book of Records for being the 'largest model for a statue'. The lake has color-light fountains[8]
  • Nandanvan - It is a mini zoo in the western fringes of the city on the banks of river Kharoon
  • Nagar Ghadi (City Clock Tower) - It is a clock tower situated in one of the busiests squares of the city. This clock plays a different local folk tune every hour(24 tunes in a day).
  • Gaurav path (The pride way) - This is a stretch of G.E road within the city which has been decorated with beautiful sculpture and plantation on both sides.
  • Rajiv Smriti Van and Urja Park (Energy Park)- This is a theme park built in the memory of Rajiv Gandhi. The unique feature here is that everything runs on solar energy.
  • Shaheed Smarak Bhavan- A huge and beautiful building with an art gallery and an auditorium dedicated to the freedom fighters of India
  • MM Funcity - A water cum amusement park in the eastern outskirts of the city .
  • Water World Resort - A water park on the banks of river kharoon in the south-western part of the city.
  • Raipur Municipal Corporation Building (White House) - The new building of the Raipur Municipal Corporation is a latest attraction in the city. It a 7 storeyed building built with a mix of ancient and modern architecture. The building is illuminated in blue light at night.
  • Mahavir Park (Anupam Garden) - This is the most beautiful park in the city with illuminated trees and fountains. It also has a battle tank provided by Indian Army for display.
  • 5D shows - Raipur is one of the few cities in India which have three 5D theatres. These are located in Magneto Mall, City Mall 36 and CG City Centre
  • Ramkrishna Mission Vivekanand Aasram.

Attractions around Raipur[edit]

Chitrakot Falls in Chhattisgarh
Laxman Temple at Sirpur

Notable people associated with Raipur[edit]

Swami Vivekananda spent 2 years of his teenage in this building at Raipur

.

Naya Raipur[edit]

Naya Raipur (New Raipur) is the new city of Chhattisgarh.[12] Located between National Highways NH-6 and NH-43. It is 17 km away in the south-east direction from the current capital Raipur. Swami Vivekananda Airport separates the old and new cities. Naya Raipur is serving as the administrative capital of the State and also cater to the infrastructural needs of industry and trade in the region.

Naya Raipur spreads over an area of about 8000 hectares. It includes 41 villages out of which 27 villages form the core of the Naya Raipur. The population of just one village has been displaced in this renovation of villages for the construction of Naya Raipur. About half of the total acquired land is being used for afforestation, roads, parks, public conveniences, water facilities-canals, green belts etc. 23 percent of the land would be reserved for educational institutions, government offices and public auditoriums etc. 30 percent of the land will be used for residential and economical purposes. Naya Raipur is India's fourth planned capital city after Gandhinagar in Gujarat; Chandigarh serting both Punjab and Harayana; and Bhubaneshwar in Odisha.

The ongoing project is likely to cost anywhere between Rs 1,500 and 2,000 crore. The city is expected to house about 4.5 lakh people within a decade and provisions, in the form of future infrastructure upgradation, have been made for its expansion.

Recently, a delegation consisting of Chhattisgarh housing minister Rajesh Munat gave presentation to Union Minister for Urban Development and Housing M Venkaiah Naidu to develop Naya Raipur as Smart City.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  2. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  4. ^ "Chhattisgarh Details, Chhattisgarh Online, Chhattisgarh Information, Chhattisgarh State". Walkincg.com. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  5. ^ "Historical Weather for Raipur, Assam, India". Whetherbase. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  6. ^ "National Highways and their Length" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  7. ^ "Ambuja Realty's first mall in Central India to open in October 2012". Indiaretailing.com. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  8. ^ "The statue of Vivekananda's masterpiece, recorded - नायाब नमूना है विवेकानंद की ये प्रतिमा, लिम्का बुक में हुआ दर्ज". www.bhaskar.com. 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  9. ^ "Reminiscences of Swami Vivekananda - Frank Parlato Jr. - Bhupendranath Datta". Vivekananda.net. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  10. ^ Carter 1990, p. 44
  11. ^ "Songs of Lucky Ali · Bollywood Songs". Jhunkar.com. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  12. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/raipur/Naya-Raipur-spurs-Afghans-to-develop-New-Kabul-City/articleshow/37063117.cms

External links[edit]