|First Lady of the Soviet Union|
1 October 1988 – 25 December 1991
|Preceded by||Lydia Gromyko|
|Succeeded by||Title abolished|
|Born||Raisa Maximovna Titarenko
5 January 1932
Rubtsovsk, Altai Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Died||20 September 1999
|Spouse(s)||Mikhail Gorbachev (m. 1953–1999; her death); 1 child|
|Children||Irina Mikhailovna Virganskaya|
|Alma mater||Moscow State University|
Raisa Maximovna Gorbacheva (Russian: Раи́са Макси́мовна Горбачёва tr. Raisa Maksimovna Gorbachyova, née Titarenko, Титаре́нко; 5 January 1932 – 20 September 1999) was the wife of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. She raised funds for the preservation of Russian cultural heritage, fostering of new talent, and treatment programs for children's blood cancer.
Raisa Maximovna Titarenko was born in the city of Rubtsovsk in the Altai region of Siberia. She was the eldest of three children of Maxim Andreyevich Titarenko, a railway engineer originally from Chernihiv, Ukraine, and his Siberian wife, Alexandra Petrovna Porada, originally from Veseloyarsk. She spent her childhood in the Ural Mountains, and met her future husband while studying philosophy in Moscow. She earned an advanced degree at the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute, and taught briefly at Moscow State University.
They married in September 1953 and moved to her husband's home region of Stavropol in southern Russia upon graduation. There, she taught Marxist–Leninist philosophy and defended her sociology research thesis about kolkhoz life. She gave birth in 1958 to their only child, Irina Mikhailovna (married name: Virganskaya; Ири́на Миха́йловна Вирга́нская). When her husband returned to Moscow as a rising Soviet Communist Party official, Gorbacheva took a post of a lecturer at her alma mater, Moscow State University. She left the post when her husband became a leader of the Soviet Union in 1985. Her public appearances beside her husband as first lady were a novelty at home and went a long way in humanizing the country's image. She was one of the few wives of a communist party leader to have a high public profile of her own.
In 1989, after a personal address by Professor A.G. Rumyantsev and others, Gorbacheva contributed $100,000 to the charity International Association of Hematologists of the World for Children. This and further donations raised by Gorbachevs helped to buy equipment for blood banks and to train Russian doctors abroad.
On 1 June 1990, Gorbacheva accompanied U.S. first lady Barbara Bush to Wellesley College in Massachusetts. Both women spoke before the graduating class during the commencement service, touching on the role of women in modern society. All the American TV networks covered the addresses live; CNN provided live cable-TV coverage round the world. The events of the Soviet Coup of 1991 left a scar on Gorbacheva. The political turmoil that followed pushed aside the Gorbachevs' life from the headlines.
In 1997, Gorbacheva established the Raisa Maksimovna's Club, which is meant to galvanize the participation of women in politics. She also supported soft diplomacy and welcomed youth delegations to the Kremlin. Gorbacheva worked to raise awareness of children's issues and frequently welcomed youth delegations to the Kremlin when her husband could not be present. In 1989, she received a famous painting from "all of the children in the world" from youth ambassador to the former Soviet Union Elizabeth Bissell Miller.
In 2006, her family founded the Raisa Gorbacheva Foundation, which seeks to reduce childhood cancer.
Health and death
Gorbacheva suffered from a stroke in October 1993. On July 22, 1999 at the Institute of Hematology RAMS doctors, found that Raisa Gorbachev suffers from leukemia. Among the possible causes of the disease were identified transferred medication, stress, complications of other diseases. It is also possible that the disease was the result of nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk in 1949, when the radioactive cloud covered her hometown. One of the causes of the disease Gorbachev called the consequences of radiation exposure received by it during a visit shortly after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
On 26 July 1999, Raisa Gorbachev, accompanied by her husband and daughter, arrived in Munster in Westphalia at the medical clinic of the Wilhelm University, which is known for its success in the treatment of cancer. She was treated there for about two months under the supervision of Professor Thomas Buechner, one of the leading hematologists and oncologists in Europe. She died on 20 September 1999 at Münster University Hospital in Germany, aged 67. Her body was interred at the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.
|This article lacks ISBNs for the books listed in it. (December 2011)|
- Gorbachyova, Raisa Maksimovna (1991). Ya nadejus'... Novosti.
- Raisa. Vospominaniya, dnevniki, interview, statyi, telegrammy. Moscow: Vagrius Petro-News. 2000.
- Gorbachev's Revolution, p. 55
- Watson, Robert P. (1 September 2000). The Presidents' Wives: Reassessing the Office of First Lady. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-55587-948-8. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- "The Gorbachev Files: Secret Papers Reveal Truth Behind Soviet Collapse". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "Combatting Childhood Cancer". RG Foundation. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Schmemann, Serge (3 November 1993). "Gorbachev, Energetic, Chatty, but Not Yet Political". The New York Times. p. 3.
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