Raising of school leaving age

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The raising of school leaving age (often shortened to ROSLA) is an act brought into force when the legal age a child is allowed to leave compulsory education increases. In most countries, the school leaving age reflects when young people are seen to be mature enough within their society, but not necessarily when they are old enough to be regarded as an adult.

There are several reasons why a government may wish to raise the school leaving age. It may be due to a lack of skilled labour in the country, or it may simply be a way of reducing a country's unemployment figures.

Asia[edit]

Israel[edit]

The school leaving age was raised from 16 to 18 following a law change on 17 July 2007. The change will be implemented within three years of the law being passed. [1] In the 2005-6 school year 5.6% of students left school before the age of 18, mostly at age 16; the dropout rate was highest amongst Bedouin (9.8%) and lowest amongst Jewish students (4.7%).[1]

Australasia[edit]

Australia[edit]

The current age which a child can leave compulsory education in the state of New South Wales was raised to 17 in May 2009. The Education Minister Carmel Tebbutt stated "all the research shows that if students either get their Higher School Certificate or an equivalent vocational qualification, then their employment opportunities in later life are far greater and so is their income-earning capacity." She mentions the change to the school leaving age is being combined with more subject options to make sure school remains relevant for all students.[2]

The state of South Australia also suggested similar proposals in March 2006, saying that their school minimum age should be raised from 16 to 17 by 2008. Independent state MP Bob Such suggests that it may not happen for at least another four years, whilst in the meantime, too many children are leaving school without any qualifications. The age will be raised by law on 1 January 2009 to 17 or 16 if the person is working or training.[3][4]

Tasmania has for decades had their school leaving age set at 16, with a requirement to be participating in education or training until age 17 recently enacted as of 2007 according to the Department of Education.[5][6]

The Western Australian government is pushing the minimum school leaving age up from 15 in 2006 to 16 in January 2007 and to 17 in January 2008. This should stay set in place for many years to come.

Victoria changed their school leaving age from 15 to 16 in 2006.

The minimum ages from 2009 will be the following:

  • Northern Territory - 15;
  • ACT - 15;
  • South Australia - 17;
  • Queensland - 17;
  • Victoria - 17;
  • Western Australia - 15;
  • NSW - 17 (if they want to not do their HSC they need to be working at least 25 hours per week or at TAFE studying until they turn 17;
  • Tasmania - 17.

Some states such as Queensland allow for students to leave conventional schooling at 15 if going into full-time employment, obtaining an apprenticeship or completing a tertiary education course at approved institutions (I.e. TAFE) (From 1 January 2006 the Queensland minimum school leaving age was raised from 15 to 16 years or when a student has completed Year 10, whichever comes first.)

Europe[edit]

Belgium[edit]

The school leaving age in Belgium is set at 18.[6]

France[edit]

The statutory minimum school leaving age in France is 16. There are however a few specific cases where young people may enter employment before the age of 16, such as employment in the parents’ company, sporadic work or taking up an apprenticeship at 14, to name a few. The apprenticeship option is becoming increasingly popular [7]

Germany[edit]

The school leaving age in Germany is essentially set at 18. However, it does differ depending on the school type. For example, those attending a Gymnasium study for their Abitur and so leave at a later age of 18 than those for example attending a Berufsschule (16) or a Hauptschule (also 16).[6]

Ireland[edit]

Although the national schools provided free primary education in Ireland from the 1830s, the Powis Commission of 1868-70 recognised a problem of low school attendance.[8][9] The Education (Ireland) Act 1892 made attendance compulsory from ages 6 to 14 in urban districts, extended to rural districts by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.[8] However, there were many exemptions and enforcement was patchy.[8] The Killanin Committee of 1918–19 documented the flaws in the system.[8][10] The School Attendance Act, 1926 established a harder minimum of 14 years, controversially retaining a temporary exemption in spring and autumn for children over 12 working on the family farm.[11][8] This exemption was extended in 1936 and expired in 1940.[12][13] The 1926 Act also empowered the Minister for Education to raise the school leaving age to 15 or 16 for some or all children; though debated from the 1940s on, this was not invoked until 1972, to raise the age to 15.[14][15] The Education (Welfare) Act, 2000 raised the age to the current minimum of 16 years, and prohibits under-18s from leaving school until they have completed three years of secondary education (i.e. up to Junior Certificate).[16][17][18]

Italy[edit]

Until recently in Italy, students could leave school once they reached the age of 14. The compulsory school leaving age was raised to 16 years to bring the country into line with the rest of the EU. The reform of the educational system presently underway in Italy has increased the school leaving age to 18 years. Apprentices below the age of 18 without occupational qualifications are offered the option of completing compulsory education required by Italian law.[19]

Netherlands[edit]

School leaving age in Netherlands is set at 18.[6]

Poland[edit]

The most recent occurrence of the school leaving age being raised in Poland was in 1999. The Polish government overhauled the country's education system, resulting in school attendance being made compulsory up to the age of 18, though there are some non-school alternatives including apprenticeships.[20]

Spain[edit]

In Spain, compulsory education is enforced from the age of 6, with their school leaving age set at 16.[21]

England and Wales[edit]

The school leaving age in the UK, particularly in England and Wales, has been raised numerous times. The first act to introduce and enforce compulsory attendance was the Elementary Education Act 1870, with school boards set up to ensure children attended school, although exemptions were made for illness and travelling distance. Since then, the age has been raised several times, most notably to 15 through the Education Act 1944 and to 16 in 1972, along with the addition of ROSLA Buildings and Middle schools, the latter serving the 8-12 or 9-13 age ranges, though many have since been abolished.

Some 16 year olds in England and Wales are of Compulsory age (those who turn 16 between September and June). Students must remain in school until the last Friday in June in the school year they turn 16 (usually the end of Year 11). This does of course mean that a small number of students leave school still aged 15.

From September 2013 the education leaving age will be raised to 17, and from September 2015 it will rise to 18.[22] These changes allow that becoming an apprentice or going to college are alternatives to school.

Raising the participation age to 18 was first proposed to come into effect with the Education Act 1918. Plans for this were soon dropped when the government needed to cut public spending after World War I, as was the case when attempts were made to raise it in 1944, with cuts in spending after World War II delaying any plans preparing for it.[23]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

In Canada, the age in which children are required to attend schools is determined by the provinces. Currently, enrollment in education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in all provinces and territories of Canada, barring Manitoba, New Brunswick and Ontario in which the school-leaving age is 18 unless the student graduates secondary education at an earlier age. In some provinces, early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances under the age of 16.

United States[edit]

In the United States, most states allow for the ability to drop out without parental consent at the age of 16. Those states which have raised their minimum dropout ages above 16 usually provide for exceptions of parental consent at ages 16 and 17. Further, most states have clauses allowing for graduation by students who manage to complete all academic requirements early.

States that have raised their minimum dropout age to 18[edit]

States that have raised their minimum dropout age to 17[edit]

States debating raising the minimum dropout age above 16[edit]

Organizations[edit]

The National Education Association, the main teachers' union in the United States, advocates requiring students to earn a high school diploma or stay in school until age 21.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Knesset raises school dropout age to 18 Haaretz, 18 July 2007 Archived 21 August 2011 at WebCite
  2. ^ NSW Govt considers raising school leaving age ABC News, 17 November 2006 Archived October 7, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ MP moots change to school-leaving age ABC News, 10 March 2006 Archived October 7, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "New school leaving age for South Australia". Premier Mike Rann. 2007-05-02. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  5. ^ [1] Department of Education Guaranteeing Futures legislation 16 July 2008 Archived October 7, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b c d School: leaving it too early Online Opinion, 1 September 2005 Archived January 3, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Contribution to EIRO thematic feature on Youth and work - case of France EIRO, 5 March 2007
  8. ^ a b c d e Fahey, Tony (July 1992). "State, family and compulsory schooling in Ireland". Economic & Social Review (Economic & Social Research Institute) 23 (4): 369–395. ISSN 0012-9984. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. 
  9. ^ "Report of the Royal Commission of inquiry into primary education". 1870. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  10. ^ "Report of the Vice-Regal Committee of Enquiry into Primary Education (Ireland) 1918; volume I: report". 1919. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  11. ^ "School Attendance Act, 1926, Section 4". Irish Statute Book. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  12. ^ "Legislation Directory: 1926 acts affected". Irish Statute Book. pp. 17: School Attendance Act, 1926. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  13. ^ "School Attendance Act, 1936, Section 2". Irish Statute Book. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  14. ^ Hyland, Áine; Milne, Kenneth (1992). Irish Educational Documents. NAIRTL. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-9509289-2-0. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  15. ^ "S.I. No. 105/1972 - School Attendance Act, 1926 (Extension of Application) Order, 1972.". Irish Statute Book. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "School attendance". Citizens Information. Ireland: Citizens Information Board. 2 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  17. ^ "Education (Welfare) Act, 2000". Irish Statute Book. §§2, 17. Archived from the original on 2013-10-23. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  18. ^ "Education (Welfare) Bill, 1999: Second Stage.". Seanad Éireann debates. 19 May 1999. pp. Vol.159 No.10 p.8 c.757. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 6 January 2014. "The Bill, when enacted, will raise the school leaving age from 15 years to 16 years or the completion of three years' post-primary education, whichever is the later." 
  19. ^ Title of good practice: Basic skills for minor apprentices European Civil Society Archived September 30, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ An Overview of the Education System in Poland - SQA Archived April 5, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Spain RightToEducation.org, 12 November 2001 Archived July 3, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ BBC - Schools Parents - What happens after the age of 16? Archived January 2, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Under-18s who leave school to be fined The Independent, 23 March 2007 Archived July 3, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Proposal raises dropout age to 21 Archived September 24, 2012 at the Wayback Machine