|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013)|
28 January 1925|
Tiptur, Tumkur district (in modern Karnataka State), British Indian Empire
|Died||September 24, 2004
Mumbai, Maharashtra State, India
|Institutions||Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Defence Research and Development Organisation
International Atomic Energy Agency
Ministry of Defence
National Institute of Advanced Studies
|Alma mater||Bishop Cotton Boys' School Bengaluru
Madras Christian College
University of Mumbai
King’s College London, United Kingdom
|Known for||Operation Smiling Buddha
Indian nuclear programme
|Notable awards||Padma Shri (1968)
Padma Bhushan (1973)
Padma Vibhushan (1975)
Raja Ramanna (January 28, 1925 – September 24, 2004) was an Indian nuclear scientist, best known for his leadership directing the research integral for the development of Indian nuclear programme in its early stages. Having started and joined the nuclear programme in 1964, Ramanna worked under Homi Jehangir Bhabha, and later directed this program in 1967. Ramanna expanded and supervised the scientific research on nuclear weapons and was the first directing officer of the small team of scientists that supervised and carried out the test of the nuclear device, under a codename Smiling Buddha, in 1974.
Ramanna associated and directed the India's nuclear weapons for more than 4 decades, and also initiate industrial defense programmes for the Indian Armed Forces. Because of his directing role and leadership for the developing the Indian nuclear programme for 4 decades, Ramanna is often considered as the "Father of the Indian nuclear programme", and also was a recipient of highest Indian civil decorations for honoring his services to build the nuclear programme. Ramanna died in Mumbai in 2004 at the age of 79. As a physicist and scientist, Dr. Raja Ramanna received great respect in India as well as from academics and scientists of Pakistan. He is remembered as a leading figure in the development of nuclear physics.
Raja Ramanna was born in beginning of 1925 to Rukmini and Ramanna in Tumkur, in the princely State of Mysore. The parents having recognized his talent for music early in in life were instrumental in introducing him to classical Western music. Beginning his studies at Bishop Cotton Boys' School, Bangalore, where he mostly studied literature and classical musics. He later attended from Madras Christian College and resided at St.Thomas's Hall where he continued his interests in arts and literature but soon shifted back to physics. At Madras Christian College, Ramanna obtained B.Sc. in Physics and gained B.A. degree in Classical music in 1947.
The same year, went on to attended the Bombay University where gained his M.Sc. in Physics, followed by M.Mus. in Music theory. Ramanna was awarded and received Commonwealth Scholarship, and traveled to Great Britain in 1952 to complete his doctorate. Ramanna attended London University's King's College, a constitute college of London University, and enrolled in doctoral programme there. In 1954, Raja Ramanna obtained Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics and also did a L.R.S.M. from King's College London. In United Kingdom, Ramanna was offered to do his research at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) where he gained expertise in nuclear fuel cycle and reactor designing. While in U.K., Ramanna enjoyed his interests in European music and Western philosophy, attending Opera and Orchestra performances every week.
Western music and philosophy remained lifelong passion for Ramanna, and after returning to India, Ramanna accomplished himself as being one of the talented pianist having performed classical European music, at many a public concert in India and abroad but had a keen ear for Indian classical music. His music talent also reached a wide appreciation in adjacent and neighbor country, Pakistan. In 1956, Ramanna was invited by National College of Arts and National Academy of Performing Arts to perform deliver a lecture on classical piano and also performed a live ensemble where he received jubilant praise and honor for his live performance.
Indian nuclear programme
Ramanna was one of the secretive personalities surrounding the Indian nuclear programme, a programme started and envisioned by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1947, and being directed by Homi J. Bhabha. After gaining his doctorate in physics, Ramanna returned in 1954 to India, where he joined the senior technical staff of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), where he worked under Homi J. Bhabha in classified nuclear weapons projects. In 1958, Ramanna was made its Chief Directing Officer (CDO), where he was tasked to develop the ingenious nuclear fuel cycle critical for the development of the nuclear device.
While Bhaba dedicated to develop this programme, Ramanna inducted by to choose the preferable nuclear test site to carry out the weapon-testing experiments. The exact dates are unknown, but Ramanna chose and began the underground construction of nuclear test site at an Indian Army base, the Pokhran Test Range (PTR). After the disastrous death of Homi Bhaba, Ramanna was immediately elevated to became the directing officer of this programme. Ramanna, serving as the CDO of BARC, began to take initiate to develop the first nuclear weapon. At BARC, the initial designing of nuclear weapon was completed under his guidance and the necessary nuclear weapons' explosive material for this weapon was completed under Ramanna by 1970. As the first nuclear device was completed and developed under his guidance, Ramanna went to Indian Prime Minister's Office, where he had notified Indian premier Indira Gandhi about the successful development of the nuclear device.
In 1974, Ramanna and other officials of the BARC verbally notified Indira Gandhi that India was ready to conduct the test of its small miniature nuclear device. Indira Gandhi verbally gave permission to Ramanna to carry out the test, and preparation was taken under Ramanna. Ramanna immediately traveled to Pokhran to pay a visit to the nuclear site that was constructed under his guidance. Preparations were completed under extreme secrecy and the first nuclear device was flown from Trombay to Pokhran Test Range with Ramanna. Ramanna and his team installed the nuclear device in the nuclear test site and necessary preparations were done before Indira Gandhi's visit to his site. In the morning in May 1974, Ramanna conducted the first test of a small nuclear device under codename Smiling Buddha. Pictures of Indira Gandhi inspecting the aftermath of the explosion site were flashed on front pages of newspapers in India and the world over with Ramanna and Dr. Homi Sethna, India's top nuclear scientist duo, by her side. Following this achievement, Ramanna gained international famed and was also honored with India's highest civilian awards the same year by the Indira Gandhi's administration.
In 1978, Saddam Hussein approached Ramanna for help to build an Iraqi nuclear bomb. The offer came while Ramanna was in Baghdad for a week as Saddam's personal guest. He was given a tour of the capital and Iraq's main nuclear facility at Tuwaitha. At the end of the trip, Saddam invited the scientist to his office and told him: "You have done enough for your country; don't go back. Stay here and take over our nuclear programme. I will pay you whatever you want."  Ramanna was shocked and scared by the Iraqi proposal. He reportedly could not sleep that night, worried that he might never see his homeland again. He took the next flight out.
Later in his career, Ramanna advocated for the strict policies to prevent nuclear proliferation. Ramanna also travelled to Pakistan, where he attended the annual International Physics Conference to deliver a lecture on nuclear physics, notably lectures on nuclear force. Ramanna began lobbying for peace process between India and Pakistan, and was a leading force to prevent nuclear escalation in the region. Later in the 1980s and 1990s, Ramanna served as Director of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and as scientific adviser to the Defence Minister of India in 2000. Ramanna also joined the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1984 where he served as the President of the 30th General Conference of the IAEA.
A multi-faceted personality, Ramanna was a gifted musician, and could play the piano as dextrously as he could speak about atomic energy. Music was close to his heart, and one of the two books he wrote was The Structure Of Music In Raga And Western Systems (1993). The other was his autobiography, entitled Years Of Pilgrimage (1991). 
Minister of State
In 1990, Ramanna was made Union minister of State for defence in 1990 by V.P. Singh administration. He was a nominated member of the Rajya Sabha from 1997 to 2003. Dr. Ramanna was closely associated with the I.I.T. Bombay, having been Chairman of the Board of Governors for three consecutive terms from 1975 to 1984. In 2000, Ramanna was also the first director of National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.
Institute Named After Ramanna
- Chairman, Governing Council, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
- Council of Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore
- Chairman, Board of Governors, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
- President, Indian National Science Academy
- Vice-President, Indian Academy of Sciences
- Scientific Adviser to the Minister of Defence
- Director-general of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
- Secretary for Defence Research, Government of India
- Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission
- Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy
- Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
- Director, National Institute of Advanced Studies, IISc campus, Bangalore
- Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology in 1963
- Padma Shri in 1968
- Padma Bhushan in 1973
- Padma Vibhushan in 1975
- The Structure of Music in Raga and Western Systems
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- Ramanna, Raja. Years of Pilgrimage: An Autobiography. New Delhi: Viking, 1991.
- Srinivasan, M. R. From Fission to Fusion: The Story of India’s Atomic Energy Programme. New Delhi: Viking, 2002.
- Singh, Jagjit. Some Eminent Indian Scientists. New Delhi: Publications Division, Govt. of India.
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- Profiles in Scientific Research: Contributions of the Fellows. Vol.1. pp. 460–62. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy, 1995.
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- Interview with Dr. Raja Ramanna
- Obituary in rediff.com
- Biography in Vigyan Prasar Science Portal