|Gandhi in 1989|
|6th Prime Minister of India|
31 October 1984 – 2 December 1989
|Preceded by||Indira Gandhi|
|Succeeded by||V. P. Singh|
|Minister of External Affairs|
25 July 1987 – 25 June 1988
|Preceded by||N. D. Tiwari|
|Succeeded by||P. V. Narasimha Rao|
31 October 1984 – 25 September 1985
|Preceded by||Indira Gandhi|
|Succeeded by||Bali Ram Bhagat|
|Minister of Finance|
24 January 1987 – 25 July 1987
|Preceded by||V. P. Singh|
|Succeeded by||N. D. Tiwari|
|Minister of Defence|
25 September 1985 – 24 January 1987
|Preceded by||P. V. Narasimha Rao|
|Succeeded by||V. P. Singh|
20 August 1944
Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India
(now Mumbai, Maharashtra, India)
|Died||21 May 1991
Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge
Imperial College, London
Rajiv Gandhi (i/ /; 20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was the sixth Prime Minister of India (1984–1989). He took office after his mother's assassination on 31 October 1984; he himself was assassinated on 21 May 1991. He became the youngest Prime Minister of India when he took office at the age of 40.
Rajiv Gandhi was the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi. He went to study at Trinity College, Cambridge, and later at Imperial College London, but did not complete a degree at either. At Cambridge he met the Italian-born Antonia Albina Maino, who was also studying in the university, whom he later married. After dropping out of university, he became a professional pilot for Indian Airlines. He remained aloof from politics, despite his family's political prominence. Following the death of his younger brother Sanjay Gandhi in 1980 Rajiv entered politics. Following the assassination of his mother in 1984 after Operation Blue Star, the Indian National Congress party leaders nominated him to be Prime Minister.
Rajiv Gandhi led the Congress to a major election victory in 1984 soon after, amassing the largest majority ever seen in the Indian Parliament, the Congress party winning 411 seats out of 542. He began dismantling the License Raj – government quotas, tariffs and permit regulations on economic activity – modernised the telecommunications industry, the education system, expanded science and technology initiatives and improved relations with the United States.
In 1988, Gandhi reversed the coup in Maldives antagonising the militant Tamil outfits such as PLOTE. He was also responsible for first intervening and then sending Indian troops (Indian Peace Keeping Force or IPKF) for peace efforts in Sri Lanka in 1987, which soon ended in open conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. In mid-1987, the Bofors scandal broke his honest, corruption-free image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 elections.
Rajiv Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991. While campaigning, he was assassinated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. His widow Sonia Gandhi became the leader of the Congress party in 1998, and led the party to victory in the 2004 elections. His son Rahul Gandhi is a Member of Parliament and the Vice President of the Indian National Congress.
Early life and career 
Rajiv Gandhi was born into India's most famous political family. His grandfather was the Indian independence leader Jawaharlal Nehru, who was India's first Prime Minister after independence. Rajiv Gandhi was not related to Mahatma Gandhi, although they share the same surname. His father, Feroze, was one of the younger members of the Indian National Congress party, and had befriended the young Indira, and also her mother Kamala Nehru, while working on party affairs at Allahabad. Subsequently, Indira and Feroze grew closer to each other while in England, and they married, despite initial objections from Jawaharlal due to his religion (Zoroastrianism).
Rajiv was born in 1944 in Mumbai, during a time when both his parents were in and out of British prisons. In August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru became the prime minister of independent India, and the family settled in Allahabad, and then at Lucknow, where Feroze became the editor of the National Herald newspaper (founded by Motilal Nehru). The marriage was faltering and, in 1949, Indira and the two sons moved to Delhi to live with Jawaharlal, ostensibly so that Indira could assist her father in his duties, acting as official hostess, and helping run the huge residence. Meanwhile, Feroze continued alone in Lucknow. In 1952, Indira helped Feroze manage his campaign for elections to the first Parliament of India from Rae Bareli.
After becoming an MP, Feroze Gandhi also moved to Delhi, but "Indira continued to stay with her father, thus putting the final seal on the separation." Relations were strained further when Feroze challenged corruption within the Congress leadership over the Haridas Mundhra scandal. Jawaharlal suggested that the matter be resolved in private, but Feroze insisted on taking the case directly to parliament:
- "The Parliament must exercise vigilance and control over the biggest and most powerful financial institution it has created, the Life Insurance Corporation of India, whose misapplication of public funds we shall scrutinise today." Feroze Gandhi, Speech in Parliament, 16 December 1957. The scandal, and its investigation by justice M C Chagla, lead to the resignation of one of Nehru's key allies, finance minister T.T. Krishnamachari, further alienating Feroze from Jawaharlal.
After Feroze Gandhi had a heart attack in 1958, the family was reconciled briefly when they holidayed in Kashmir. Feroze died soon afterwards from a second heart attack in 1960.
At the time of his father's death, Rajiv was away at a private boarding school for boys: The Doon School, located in Dehradun, Uttarakhand. He was sent to London in 1961 to study his A-levels. In 1962, he was offered a place at Trinity College, Cambridge, to study engineering. Rajiv stayed at Cambridge until 1965, but did not complete his degree. In 1966, he was offered and took up a place at Imperial College London, but after a year left that course also without a degree.
Rajiv began working for Indian Airlines as a professional pilot while his mother became Prime Minister in 1966. He exhibited no interest in politics and did not live regularly with his mother in Delhi at the Prime Minister's residence. In 1970, his wife gave birth to their first child Rahul Gandhi, and in 1972, to Priyanka Gandhi, their second. Even as Rajiv remained aloof from politics, his younger brother Sanjay became a close advisor to their mother.
Entry into politics 
Following his younger brother's death in 1980, Gandhi was pressured by Indian National Congress party politicians and his mother to enter politics. He and his wife were both opposed to the idea, and he even publicly stated that he would not contest for his brother's seat. Nevertheless, he eventually announced his candidacy for Parliament. His entry was criticised by many in the press, public and opposition political parties. Rajiv also became member of the Asian Games Organizing Committee in 1982 with his close friend and then sports Minister Sardar Buta Singh as president of the committee He fought his first election from Amethi Loksabha seat. In this by-election, he defeated Lokdal leader Sharad Yadav by m Elected to Sanjay's Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituency of Amethi in Uttar Pradesh state in February 1981, Gandhi became an important political advisor to his mother. It was widely perceived that Indira Gandhi was grooming Rajiv for the prime minister's job, and he soon became the president of the Youth Congress – the Congress party's youth wing.
Rajiv Gandhi was in West Bengal when his mother, Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by two of her Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, to avenge the military attack on the Harmandir Sahib (Sikhism's holiest shrine, also called "The Golden Temple") during Operation Blue Star. Senior Congress Leader and then union minister Sardar Buta Singh, as well as President Zail Singh pressed Rajiv to become India's Prime Minister, within hours of his mother's assassination by two of her Sikh bodyguards. Commenting on the anti-Sikh riots in the national capital Delhi, Rajiv Gandhi said, "When a giant tree falls, the earth below shakes"; a statement for which he was widely criticised. Many Congress politicians were accused of orchestrating the violence. Soon after assuming office, Rajiv asked President Zail Singh to dissolve Parliament and hold fresh elections, as the Lok Sabha completed its five-year term. Rajiv Gandhi also officially became the President of the Congress party. The Congress party won a landslide victory – with the largest majority in history of Indian Parliament— giving Gandhi absolute control of government. He also benefited from his youth and a general perception of being free of a background in corrupt politics.
Economic policy 
He increased government support for science and technology and associated industries, and reduced import quotas, taxes and tariffs on technology-based industries, especially computers, airlines, defence and telecommunications. In 1986, he announced a National Policy on Education to modernise and expand higher education programs across India. He founded the Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya System in 1986 which is a Central government based institution that concentrates on the upliftment of the rural section of the society providing them free residential education from 6th till 12 grade. His efforts created MTNL in 1986, and his public call offices, better known as PCOs, helped spread telephones in rural areas. He introduced measures significantly reducing the License Raj, in post-1990 period, allowing businesses and individuals to purchase capital, consumer goods and import without bureaucratic restrictions.
Foreign policy 
Rajiv Gandhi began leading in a direction significantly different from his mother's socialism. He improved bilateral relations with the United States – long strained owing to Indira's socialism and friendship with the USSR — and expanded economic and scientific cooperation. During his state visit to the Soviet Union he met with Premier Nikolai Tikhonov, Andrey Gromyko of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mikhail Gorbachev.
Security policy 
Rajiv authorised an extensive police and army campaign to contain terrorism in Punjab. A state of martial law existed in the Punjab state, and civil liberties, commerce and tourism were greatly disrupted. There are many accusations of human rights violations by police officials as well as by the militants during this period. It is alleged that even as the situation in Punjab came under control, the Indian government was offering arms and training to the LTTE rebels fighting the government of Sri Lanka. The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed by Rajiv Gandhi and the Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene, in Colombo on 29 July 1987. The very next day, on 30 July 1987, Rajiv Gandhi was assaulted on the head with a rifle butt by a young Sinhalese naval cadet named Vijayamunige Rohana de Silva, while receiving the honour guard. The intended assault on the back of Rajiv Gandhi's head glanced off his shoulder and it was captured in news crew photographs and video.
With his speech while addressing the Joint Session of the US Congress and India, he said, "India is an old country, but a young nation; and like the young everywhere, we are impatient. I am young and I too have a dream. I dream of an India, strong, independent, self reliant and in the forefront of the front ranks of the nations of the world in the service of mankind."
Anti-Sikh riots 
This refers to the statement of Rajiv Gandhi as Prime Minister at a Boat Club rally 19-days after the assassination of Indira Gandhi, which read as “Some riots took place in the country following the murder of Indiraji. We know the people were very angry and for a few days it seemed that India had been shaken. But, when a mighty tree falls, it is only natural that the earth around it does shake a little.”
This statement sent a wrong signal to the authorities, who adopted a callous approach of not allowing the truth to come out despite the government setting up probe panels one after the other, including two full fledged judicial commissions, the first headed by retired Chief Justice of India Ranganath Misra and the second by a former apex court judge G.T. Nanavati. According to the authors of the book titled – “When a Tree Shook Delhi” written by senior advocate H.S. Phoolka and co-author, journalist Manoj Mitta (who have based the details of the book mainly on evidence produced before the nine panels and trial courts and high courts in the form of sworn affidavits by hundreds of witnesses). Based on eyewitness accounts the book said that instead of targeting the aggressors the police cracked down on the Sikh victims, who had been defending their properties when they were attacked by hooligans led by local Congress leaders.
Bofors scandal 
Rajiv Gandhi's finance minister, V. P. Singh, uncovered compromising details about government and political corruption, to the consternation of Congress leaders. Transferred to the Defence ministry, Singh uncovered what became known as the Bofors scandal, involving tens of millions of dollars – concerned alleged payoffs by the Swedish Bofors arms company through Italian businessman and Gandhi family associate Ottavio Quattrocchi, in return for Indian contracts. Upon the uncovering of the scandal, Singh was dismissed from office, and later from Congress membership. Rajiv Gandhi himself was later personally implicated in the scandal when the investigation was continued by Narasimhan Ram and Chitra Subramaniam of The Hindu newspaper. This shattered his image as an honest politician; he was posthumously cleared over this allegation in 2004.
Opposition parties united under Singh to form the Janata Dal coalition. In the 1989 election, the Congress suffered a major setback. With the support of Indian communists and the Bharatiya Janata Party, Singh and his Janata Dal formed a government. Rajiv Gandhi became the Leader of the Opposition, while remaining Congress president. While some believe that Rajiv and Congress leaders influenced the collapse of V. P. Singh's government in October 1990 by promising support to Chandra Shekhar, a high-ranking leader in the Janata Dal, sufficient internal contradictions existed, within the ruling coalition, especially over the controversial reservation issue, to cause a fall of government. Rajiv's Congress offered outside support briefly to Chandra Sekhar, who became Prime Minister. They withdrew their support in 1991, and fresh elections were announced.
Sri Lanka policy 
Then Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranasinghe Premadasa opposed the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord, but accepted it due to pressure from then President Junius Richard Jayewardene. In 1987, When he was inspecting guard of honour in Sri Lanka, he was attacked by a Sri Lankan soldier Vijitha Rohana de Silva of Naval rating. His own agility and Indian Special Protection Group saved Rajiv from that brutal attack. In January 1989 Premadasa was elected President and on a platform that promised that the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) leave within three months. In the 1989 elections, both the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and United National Party wanted the IPKF to withdraw, and they got 95 percent of the vote.
The police action was unpopular in India as well, especially in Tamil Nadu, as India was fighting the Tamil separatists. Rajiv Gandhi refused to withdraw the IPKF, believing that the only way to end the civil war was to politically force Premadasa and militarily force the LTTE to accept the accord. Gandhi had concluded a visit to Sri Lanka; this was just after the Indian Peace Keeping Force (a contingent of India armed forces sent to Sri Lanka to help with their battle against Tamil insurgents) had been recalled and there was a good deal of resentment that Indian troops had been deployed there.
Shah Bano case 
In 1985, the Supreme Court of India ruled in favour of Muslim divorcee Shah Bano, declaring that her husband should give her alimony. Muslim fundamentalists in India treated it as an encroachment in Muslim Personal Law and protested against it. Gandhi agreed to their demands. In 1986, the Congress (I) party, which had an absolute majority in Parliament at the time, passed an act that nullified the Supreme Court's judgement in the Shah Bano case. This was viewed by many in India, including the Bharatiya Janata Party as appeasement of Muslims.
Allegations of black money 
In November 1991, the Schweizer Illustrierte (Swiss Illustrated) magazine published an article on black money held in secret accounts by Imelda Marcos and 14 other rulers of Third World countries. Citing McKinsey as a source, the article stated that Rajiv Gandhi held 2.5 billion Swiss francs in secret Indian accounts in Switzerland. Several leaders of opposition parties in India have raised the issue citing the Schweizer Illustrierte article. In December 1991, Amal Datta raised the issue in the Indian Parliament – the then speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shivraj Patil, expunged Rajiv Gandhi's name from the proceedings. In December 2011, Subramanian Swamy wrote a letter to the director of the Central Bureau of Investigation which cited the article, asking him to take action on black money accounts of the Nehru-Gandhi family. On 29 December 2011, Ram Jethmalani made an indirect reference to the issue in the Rajya Sabha, calling it a shame that one of India's former Prime Ministers was named by a Swiss magazine. This was met by uproar and a demand for withdrawal of the remark by the ruling Congress party members.
Allegations of funding from KGB 
In 1992, two Indian newspapers, the Times of India and The Hindu, published reports alleging that Rajiv Gandhi had received funds from the KGB. The Russian government confirmed this disclosure and defended the payments as necessary for the Soviet ideological interest. In their 1994 book The State Within a State, the journalists Yevgenia Albats and Catherine Fitzpatrick quoted a letter signed by Viktor Chebrikov in the 1980s, the then-head of the KGB. The letter says that the KGB maintained contact with Rajiv Gandhi, who expressed his gratitude to the KGB for benefits accruing to his family from commercial dealings of a controlled firm, and a considerable portion of funds obtained from this channel were used to support his party. Albats later revealed that in December 1985, Chebrikov had asked for authorisation from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to make payments to family members of Rajiv Gandhi including Sonia Gandhi and Rahul Gandhi. The payments were authorised by a resolution and endorsed by the USSR Council of Ministers, and had been coming since 1971. In December 2001, Subramanian Swamy filed a writ petition in the Delhi High Court, acting on which the court ordered CBI to ascertain the truth of the allegations in May 2002. After two years, the CBI told the Court that Russia would not entertain such queries without a registered FIR.
WikiLeaks allegations 
Rajiv Gandhi's last public meeting was at Sriperumbudur on 21 May 1991, in a village approximately 30 miles from Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where he was assassinated while campaigning for the Sriperumbudur Lok Sabha Congress candidate. The assassination was carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
At 10:21 pm, a woman (later identified as Thenmozhi Rajaratnam) approached Rajiv Gandhi in a public meeting and greeted him. She then bent down to touch his feet (an expression of respect among Indians) and detonated a belt laden with 700 grams of RDX explosives tucked under her dress. The explosion killed Rajiv Gandhi, his assassin and at least 14 other people. The assassination was caught on film through the lens of a local photographer, whose camera and film were found at the site. The cameraman himself died in the blast but the camera remained intact. Rajiv Gandhi's mutilated body was airlifted to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi for post-mortem, reconstruction and embalming.
A state funeral was held for Rajiv Gandhi on 24 May 1991. His funeral was telecast live nationally and internationally, and was attended by dignitaries from over 60 countries. He was cremated on the banks of the river Yamuna, near the samadhis of his mother, brother, grandfather and Mahatma Gandhi. Today, the site where he was cremated is known as Vir Bhumi.
The Rajiv Gandhi Memorial was built at the site recently and is one of the major tourist attractions of the small industrial town.
The Supreme Court judgement, by Judge Thomas, confirmed that the killing was carried out due to personal animosity of the LTTE chief Prabhakaran towards Mr Rajiv Gandhi arising out of his sending the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to Sri Lanka and the alleged IPKF atrocities against Sri Lankan Tamils. The Rajiv Gandhi administration had already antagonised other Tamil militant organisations like PLOTE for reversing the military coup in Maldives back in 1988.
The judgment further cites the death of Thileepan in a hunger strike and the suicide by 12 LTTE cadres in a vessel in Oct 1987.
In the Jain Commission report, various people and agencies are named as suspected of having been involved in the murder of Rajiv Gandhi. Among them, the cleric Chandraswami was suspected of involvement, including financing the assassination. S Nalini Sriharan is the lone surviving member of the five-member squad behind the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi and is serving life impriosonment. Arrested on June 14, 1991, she was sentenced to death, along with 25 others, by a special court on January 28, 1998. The SC confirmed death only for four of the convicts, including Nalini, on May 11, 1999. Nalini, who was a close friend of an LTTE operative known as V Sriharan alias Murugan, another convict in the case who has been sentenced to death, later gave birth to a girl,Harithra Murugan in prison.Nalini was earlier given the death sentence. On the intervention of Rajiv Gandhi's widow and Congress president Sonia Gandhi in 2000, the death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Nalini was being treated as an 'A' class convict from September 10, 1999 till the privilege was withdrawn in May 2010 after a mobile phone was allegedly recovered from her cell during a surprise check. She "regrets" the killing of the former Prime Minister and claims that the real conspirators have not been booked yet. President of India had rejected the clemency pleas of Murugan and two others on death row, T Suthendraraja alias Santhan and A G Perarivalan alias Arivu in August 2011. The execution of the three convicts was scheduled on September 9, 2011. However, the Madras High Court intervened and stayed their execution for eight weeks based on their petitions. Nalini was shifted back to Vellore prison from Puzhal prison amidst tight security on September 7, 2011.In 2010,Nalini had moved the Madras High Court seeking release as she served more than 20 years in prison. She argued that even life convicts were released after 14 years of prison term. However, the state government rejected her request. Interestingly, Murugan, Santhan and Perarivalan, the three convicts condemned to death sentence, claim that they are not ordinary criminals but political prisoners.
The interim report of the Jain Commission created a storm when it accused Karunanidhi of a role in the assassination, leading to Congress withdrawing its support for the I. K. Gujral government and fresh elections in 1998. LTTE spokesman Anton Balasingham told the Indian television channel NDTV that the killing was a "great tragedy, a monumental historical tragedy which we deeply regret." A memorial christened Veer Bhumi was constructed at his cremation spot in Delhi. In 1992, the Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award was instituted by All India Congress Committee (AICC) of the Indian National Congress Party (INC).
The International Airport constructed at Hyderabad has been named Rajiv Gandhi International Airport and was inaugurated by UPA chairperson Sonia Gandhi. Rajeev Gandhi Memorial Boarding School in Sheopur is named after him.
Further reading 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rajiv Gandhi|
- Sachi Sri Kantha; Prabhakaran Phenomenon, Lively Comet Imprint,2005;641 pp (chapters 24 to 35, pp. 207–352, cover in detail the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi)
- "Working with Rajiv Gandhi" by R.D. Pradhan
- Mani Shankar Aiyar "Remembering Rajiv", Rupa, New Delhi, 1992
See also 
- Unequal effects of Liberalisation – Dismantling the license raj in India.
- "Indian Troops end coup in Maldives". The New York Times. 5 November 1988. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "IPKF should not have been sent to Sri Lanka". Pune Mirror. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- Rahul Gandhi unanimously endorsed as vice president of India's ruling Congress, Xinhua, 20 January 2012
- "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2007)". Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- "HAMs to meet at SEANET". Retrieved 19 February 2011.[dead link]
- "We aren't family". The Indian Express. 20 January 2002. Retrieved 19 February 2011.[dead link]
- Tariq Ali. The Nehrus and the Gandhis: An Indian dynasty. Pan Books, London 1985, Revised edn 1991.p. 134
- Shashi Bhushan, M.P. (1977). Feroze Gandhi: A political Biography. Progressive People's Sector Publications, New Delhi.p. 75
- "Back to the dynasty". Frontline. Hinduonnet.com. 6 March 1998. Retrieved 7 March 2010.[dead link]
- "World | South Asia | Leaders 'incited' anti-Sikh riots". BBC News. 8 August 2005. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- "End of the road". Frontline. 2 January 2005. Retrieved 19 February 2011.[dead link]
- "Rajiv Gandhi aimed at value based education in rural India through JNVs". Pressbrief. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "MTNL Letter". 16 September 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "Rajiv Gandhi Biography – Rajiv Gandhi Life & Profile". Culturalindia.net. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- "Bad to Worse". The Economist. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- July 30, 1987 (30 July 1987). "Sri Lankan in Honor Guard Attacks Gandhi". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 January 2013. Text "Associated Press " ignored (help)
- "Nation special". Nation. 1987-07-30. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Rajiv Gandhi attacked by a Sri Lankan soldier". YouTube. 2012-04-11. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Untitled-6" (PDF). June 2005. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- S.S. Negi (31 October 2007). "84 Anti-Sikh riot Probes: Book presents gloomy picture of justice denied". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India. Retrieved 3 March 2011.[dead link]
- "Rajiv Gandhi cleared over bribery". BBC News. 4 February 2004. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- "Reincarnation/Rebirth of the Indo-Lanka Accord". Colombo Telegraph (Srilanka). 9 August 2012.
- Sachi Sri Kantha (28 July 2006). "The Botched JVP Hit on Rajiv Gandhi Revisited". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Lankan sailor who attacked Rajiv Gandhi sells Hindi music". Lanka Newspapers (Colombo, Srilanka). 31 July 2007.
- "When Rajiv was attacked in Srilanka". Rediff (India). 11 October 2005.
- Sri Lanka Truth[dead link]
- K T Rajasingham. "Sri Lanka: The Untold story Chapter 43: Aftermath of the Indian withdrawal". Asia Times Online. Atimes.com. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- BBC India's Sri Lankan predicament
- "Shah Bano – Rajiv Gandhi". Homepages.uc.edu. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- Jethmalani, Ram (17 December 2010). "Dacoits have looted India". India Today. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Gisler, Daniela (11 November 1991). "Fluchtgelder – Die Schweizer Konten der Diktatoren" [Flight capital – the Swiss accounts of the dictators]. Schweizer Illustrierte (in German) (Zürich, Switzerland: Ringier AG) (46): 38–41. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Gurumurthy, S (30 January 2011). "Zero tolerance, secret billions". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Dr Subramanian Swamy asks CBI to take action on Rajiv Gandhi's family's black money accounts". Moneylife. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Lokpal debate: Ram Jethmalani creates ruckus in Rajya Sabha". India Today. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Swamy, Subramanian. "Sonia's KGB Connections: Annexure 12". Chennai, India: Janata Party. Retrieved 30 December 2011. "News Clipping from Times of India 27.6.92 and Hindu dt. July 4, 92 regarding receipt of payment by Rajiv Gandhi & family from KGB."
- Puri, Rajinder (15 August 2006). "How Free Is India?". Outlook India. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Albats, Yevgenia; Fitzpatrick, Catherine (1999) . The State Within a State: The KGB and its Hold on Russia-Past, Present, and Future. London, United Kingdom: Macmillan. p. 223. ISBN 0-374-52738-5, 9780374527389 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 30 December 2011. "A letter signed by Viktor Chebrikov, who replaced Andropov as the KGB head in 1982 noted: "the USSR KGB maintains contact with the son of the Premier Minister Rajiv Gandhi [of India] ... R Gandhi expresses deep gratitude for the benefits accruing to the Prime Minister's family from the commercial dealings of the firm he controls in co-operation with the Soviet foreign trade organisations. R Gandhi reports confidentially that a substantial portion of the funds obtained through this channel are used to support the party of R Gandhi.""
- N Sathiya Moorthy (January 1998). "Sonia checks her emotions, but her interpreter goes full throttle". Rediff.com. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- Ramesh Vinayak (1 February 1999). "The Nation: Terrorism: The RDX Files". India-today.com. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi – Shashi Ahluwalia, Meenakshi Ahluwalia. Google Books. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Essay (1991-05-21). "Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi and its aftermath". Knowledge Hub. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Rtiu Sarin (11 July 1998). "Probe Chandraswami's role in Rajiv case – Jain report". The Indian Express. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- [dead link]
- PTI Aug 3, 2008, 11.28am IST. "I regret Rajiv Gandhi's assassination: Nalini - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- TNN Sep 11, 2011, 02.11am IST (2011-09-11). "Nalini meets hubby on death row - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Rajiv Gandhi assassin Nalini Sriharan not to be freed : Latest Headlines, News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2010-03-29. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- TNN Mar 16, 2012, 01.49AM IST. "Rajiv Gandhi's assassin Nalini gets back 'A' class jail facilities - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Rajiv Gandhi's killer Nalini breaks down". NDTV.com. 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Nalini Sriharan back in Vellore - India - DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- TNN Jun 29, 2010, 02.00am IST. "Nalini shifted from Vellore jail to Puzhal - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- A Subramani, TNN Jan 21, 2010, 01.27am IST. "After 19 yrs in jail for Rajiv murder, Nalini may be freed - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "We deeply regret Rajiv's death: LTTE". The Indian Express. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- "Tamil Tiger 'regret' over Gandhi". BBC News. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- A Profile
- Press Brief in
- TERRORIST AND DISRUPTIVE ACTIVITIES (PREVENTION) ACT, 1987
- QRZ Ham Radio Callsign Database – VU2RG
- Rajiv Gandhi Memorial SEANET Convention
|Prime Minister of India
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
|Chairperson of the Planning Commission
|Minister of External Affairs
Bali Ram Bhagat
|Minister of Defence
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
|Minister of Finance
Narayan Dutt Tiwari
Narayan Dutt Tiwari
|Minister of External Affairs