Ralph M. Steinman
|Ralph M. Steinman|
|Born||Ralph Marvin Steinman
January 14, 1943
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
|Died||September 30, 2011
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
|Residence||New York City, U.S.|
|Fields||Immunology and cell biology|
|Institutions||Rockefeller University in New York City|
|Alma mater||McGill University
|Academic advisors||Elizabeth Hay (Harvard)
James G. Hirsch and Zanvil A. Cohn (Rockefeller University)
|Known for||Discovery of dendritic cells and its role in adaptive immunity|
|Notable awards||2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (posthumous)|
|Spouse||Claudia Hoeffel (3 children)|
Ralph Marvin Steinman (January 14, 1943 – September 30, 2011) was a Canadian immunologist and cell biologist at Rockefeller University, who in 1973 coined the term dendritic cells while working as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Zanvil A. Cohn, also at Rockefeller University. Steinman was one of the recipients of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Early life and education 
Ralph Steinman was born into an Ashkenazi Jewish family in Montreal, one of four children of Irving Steinman (d. 1995), a haberdasher, and Nettie Steinman (née Takefman, b. 1917). The family soon moved to Sherbrooke, where the father opened and ran a small clothing store "Mozart's". After graduating from Sherbrooke High School, Steinman moved back to Montreal where he stayed with his maternal grandparents Nathan and Eva Takefman. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from McGill University and received his M.D. (magna cum laude) in 1968 from Harvard Medical School. He completed his internship and residency at Massachusetts General Hospital.
On October 3, 2011, the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine announced that he had received one-half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for "his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity". The other half went to Bruce Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann, for "their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity". However, the committee was not aware that he had died three days earlier, on September 30, from pancreatic cancer. This created a complication, since the statutes of the Nobel Foundation stipulate that the prize is not to be awarded posthumously. After deliberation, the committee decided that as the decision to award the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged.
Steinman's daughter said that he had joked the previous week with his family about staying alive until the prize announcement. Steinman said: "I know I have got to hold out for that. They don't give it to you if you have passed away. I got to hold out for that."
Steinman had received numerous other awards and recognitions for his lifelong work on dendritic cells, such as the Albert Lasker Award For Basic Medical Research (2007), the Gairdner Foundation International Award (2003), and the Cancer Research Institute William B. Coley Award (1998). In addition, he was made a member of Institute of Medicine (U.S.A.; elected 2002) and the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.; elected 2001).
List of awards 
- 1998 – William B. Coley Award
- 1999 – Robert Koch Prize
- 2003 – Gairdner Foundation International Award
- 2007 – Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research
- 2009 – Albany Medical Center Prize (Shared with Charles A. Dinarello and Bruce Beutler; )
- 2010 – Heineken Prizes
- 2011 – Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with Bruce Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann)
See also 
- "Rockefeller University scientist Ralph Steinman, honored today with Nobel Prize for discovery of dendritic cells, dies at 68". Rockefeller University. October 3, 2011.
- Nussenzweig, M. C.; Mellman, I. (2011). "Ralph Steinman (1943–2011)". Nature 478 (7370): 460. doi:10.1038/478460a. PMID 22031432.
- Steinman RM, Cohn ZA (1973). "Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution". J. Exp. Med. 137 (5): 1142–62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237. PMID 4573839.
- "January 2008 ASCB Newsletter Member Profile – Ralph M. Steinman" (PDF). Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Dendritic cells: from the fabric of immunology" (PDF). Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Name * (April 4, 2011). "Nettie Steinman". Whereretireestalk.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Canadian scientist wins Nobel prize days after death". .canada.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Bar-Mitzvah of Steinman's brother Mark Charles (Canadian Jewish Review)". Multiculturalcanada.ca. March 24, 1961. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Seymour David Steinman". Google. September 11, 1962. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Canadian Jewish Review: Mark Charles Steinman". Multiculturalcanada.ca. December 17, 1965. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Nathan Zelig Takefman (1891–1965)". Cousinsconnection.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Dr. Ralph M. Steinman Receives the 2010 Thomas E. Starzl Prize in Surgery and Immunology".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011" (Press release). Nobel Foundation. October 3, 2011.
- "Nobel winner died days before award announced". CNN. October 3, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- "Montreal-born scientist dies before Nobel honour". CBC News. October 3, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- "Ralph Steinman Remains Nobel Laureate". The Nobel Foundation. October 3, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Sample, Ian (2011-10-03). "Nobel prize to be awarded to dead scientist". The Guardian (London). Retrieved October 10, 2011. "The Nobel foundation concluded that the award should stand, saying: "The Nobel prize to Ralph Steinman was made in good faith, based on the assumption that the Nobel laureate was alive.""
- Orange, Richard (October 3, 2011). "Nobel jury left red faced by death of laureate". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15156342 Nobel winner Ralph Steinman's quest to cure cancer - including his own