|Born||August 24, 1933|
|Died||December 10, 2008(aged 75)|
|Notable work(s)||The Last Skeptic of Science (aka MENSA Lectures);
NASA Mooned America!
Ralph René (August 24, 1933 – December 10, 2008) was an American conspiracy theorist, small press publisher and inventor. René was a vocal proponent of the Apollo Moon landing hoax theory. René's last self-published work, a pamphlet he distributed called WTC Lies and Fairy Tales, details his beliefs that the U.S. government was responsible for the September 11 attacks.
René appeared frequently in shows produced by The History Channel, National Geographic Channel, Fox television and Showtime. In one such show, The Truth Behind the Moon Landings: Stranger Than Fiction, journalist and former NASA employee James Oberg referred to René and other Moon landing hoax proponents as cultural vandals. René reacted onscreen with amusement and stated that he liked the characterization. René was also featured in an episode of Penn & Teller: Bullshit! covering conspiracy theories. René was introduced as a physicist on the 2001 Fox documentary, Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon?, and had the designation "Author/Scientist" under his picture. However, René admitted in his biography that he did not hold a degree from any university and always referred to himself as "self-taught."
Apollo Moon landing
His 1992 self-published book, NASA Mooned America!, details why he felt that the Apollo Moon landings were faked and actually produced from a closed studio.
Some of his main arguments were that:
- Astronauts could not have survived the radiation that they would have been exposed to while passing through the Van Allen radiation belt.
- That photos taken on the Moon do not show stars in the background.
- That video shows wind blowing the U.S. flag on the Moon although the Moon has no atmosphere.
- That the letter "C" is visible on a rock in a photo which indicates it was a Hollywood sound stage prop.
- The gloves on the Apollo space suits would have expanded in the vacuum of space to the point where they would be immobile.
- Who put the camera on the ground in front of the lunar lander to show Neil Armstrong stepping down the ladder for the first step on the Moon?
- The shaded side of objects are not dark due to three point lighting in a studio.
In addition to contending that NASA never sent astronauts to the Moon, René also proposes:
- Einstein's theory of relativity is not valid.
- The Earth's Equatorial bulge is smaller than that predicted by Isaac Newton.
- Newton's law of universal gravitation is erroneous.
- That the value of π is an algebraic number that is equal to , or approximately 3.146264.
- Fluorescence, not Rayleigh scattering, causes the sky to be blue.
- Archimedes' principle requires revision.
- Coulomb's law requires revision after experimentally 'proving' plates with like polarity and charge will repel, however plates with like polarity and different charge can attract.
- The force that holds the Solar System together is electrostatic.
René addressed most of these issues in his self-published book, The Last Skeptic of Science (1995). The original title of the book, MENSA Lectures (1990), resulted in a lawsuit against him by Mensa who felt he was misappropriating the name of their organization and using it to suggest they backed his beliefs.
René referred to himself as an "extra bright kid from the slums." After attending Rutgers University for a time, he dropped out and went to work as a carpenter and millwright. He then continued to pursue his personal interests in structural and mechanical engineering, physics, writing and inventing. René held two patents for simple mechanical tools. He maintained a website that archived many of his past columns and essays on a wide variety of subjects.
- René, Ralph; (as René) (1990). MENSA Lectures. Illustrations by Subi. Matlacha, FL: René. OCLC 21209369.
- ——; (as René) (1994). Lucas, Stu, ed. NASA Mooned America!. Drawings by Chris Wolfer. Passaic, NJ: René. OCLC 36317224.
- ——; (as René) (1998) [First published 1995 (formerly MENSA Lectures (1990))]. Lucas, Stu; Hughes, Ed, eds. The Last Skeptic of Science: "The Book Mensa Tried To Stop". Final edit by Steve Krisocki (1995 edition); Illustrations by Subi (Revised ed.). Passaic, NJ: René. OCLC 37029845.
- René, Ralph. A Case of the Jitters.
- ——. A Case of the Missing Members.
- ——. Husa 1.
- ——. Husa 2.
- René, Ralph; (as René) (2000). ON SQUARING THE CIRCLE & The new π it brings!: Exploring Dan W. Gaddy's Quadrature of the Circle (Pamphlet). René.
- —— (2002). WTC Lies and Fairy Tales (Pamphlet). René.
- René, Ralph. "Ralph René: Books". Ralph Renés' Website. Langley, British Columbia: Pioneer Abbey. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- The Truth Behind the Moon Landings: Stranger Than Fiction (2003) (TV) at the Internet Movie Database
- "Conspiracy Theories". Penn & Teller: Bullshit!. Season 3. Episode 3. May 9, 2005. Showtime (TV channel).
- Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? (2001) (TV) at the Internet Movie Database
- René, Ralph. "Ralph René: Biography". Ralph Renés' Website. Langley, British Columbia: Pioneer Abbey. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Dean, Katie (July 20, 1999). "Man on Moon or Pie in Sky?". Wired (New York: Condé Nast Publications). Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- René, Ralph. "Ralph René: Gaddy's Pi and the Circle Squared". Ralph Renés' Website. Langley, British Columbia: Pioneer Abbey. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Patent US4191333 - Flame tip for soldering torch". Google Patents. Googleplex, Mountain View, CA: Google Inc. Retrieved May 13, 2013. US patent issue date: March 4, 1980.
- "Patent US3164353 - VARIABLE PITCH ROOF BRACKET". Google Patents. Googleplex, Mountain View, CA: Google Inc. Retrieved May 13, 2013. US patent issue date: January 5, 1965.