Ramón Corral

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Ramón Corral
Ramon Corral.jpg
6th Vice President of Mexico
In office
December 1, 1904 – May 4, 1911
President Porfirio Díaz
Preceded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Succeeded by José María Pino Suárez
Personal details
Born Ramón Corral Verdugo
10 January 1854(1854-01-10)
Álamos, Sonora, Mexico
Died 10 November 1912(1912-11-10) (aged 58)
Paris, France
Nationality Mexican
Occupation Politician

Ramón Corral Verdugo (January 10, 1854 – November 10, 1912) was the Vice President of Mexico under Porfirio Díaz from 1904 until their deposition in 1911.

Early Years[edit]

José Maria Bonifacio Leiva Perez - Photo taken during the time of his interview by Ramon Corral

Corral was born Ramón Corral Verdugo on Hacienda Las Mercedes (where his father worked),[1] near the city of Álamos, Sonora, on 10 January 1854 to Fulgencio Fabián Corral Rochín[2] (January, 1834–1868) and María Francisca Almada y Verdugo (1836- ). He was Christened on 21 January 1854 at the Purísima Concepción Roman Catholic Church.[3]

Image of Ramon Corral's baptism registration from 21 January 1854

Ramon Corral first gained notoriety in the year of 1872, when General Don Ignacio L. Pesqueira, Governor of the State of Sonora, an undefeated general who had provided many services to his homeland, created an outrage among the population. To avoid compliance with a law, Pesqueira introduced, among other reforms, a non- re-election provision for the office of Governor. On this occasion, the young Corral vigorously fought against the Pesqueira administration through the press, founding the newspapers " El Fantasma” (The phantom), and " La Voz de Álamos” (The voice of Álamos), and whose writings in the papers exhibited civil valor, love for democracy, and power as a political adversary of the Pesqueira administration. In the years that followed, Corral increasingly became involved in politics.

While General Secretary of the Government of Sonora, Corral was involved with the capture of the indigenous Yaqui military leader José Maria Leiva, known as Cajemé. In La Constitución (Periódico oficial del gobierno del estado libre y soberano de Sonora), beginning with the issue of April 22, 1887, and ending July 8, 1887, Corral published biographical notes about the legendary career of Cajemé, notes which were gathered only a few days earlier during personal talks with Cajemé. These talks took place during long and entertaining hours with Cajemé while he was held under arrest. Cajemé was being held at the time in the house of the military chief of the area, Angel Martinez, who had personally arrested him while he was hiding in San Jose de Guaymas. Of all of the published works of Ramon Corral, nothing is more welcome than the biography of Cajemé. As a historical document, it is priceless, because it was inspired by the most accurate sources: a personal narrative, told first-hand, by someone that was even then (in 1887) considered an Indian hero.

Corral was married to Amparo V. Escalante on February 25, 1888. Miss Escalante was the daughter of Vicente Escalante, a well known Mexican statesman of the time. The religious element of the twofold marriage ceremony was performed by Rev. Father Ortega of Hermosillo, with a civil ceremony performed by Civil Judge Bonito Mendez, of the Hermosillo District.[4][5]

Activity in the Political Arena[edit]

Corral was one of the Científicos that advised President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz. He served as Secretary of State from 1891 to 1895. He became Governor of the Federal District of Mexico in 1900, and was sworn in as Minister of the Interior in the cabinet of Porfirio Díaz in 1903. He was elected Vice President in 1904 and re-elected in 1910.

Offices Held[edit]

Local Deputy of Sonora: 1879-1881, 1883–1885, 1885–1887. Federal Deputy of Sonora: 1881-1883. General Secretary of Government of Sonora: 1879-1880, 1883-1887. Vice-Governor of Sonora: 1887-1891. Secretary of State: 1891-1895. Governor of Sonora 1895-1899. Governor of the Federal District: 1900-1903. Secretary of the Interior and Vice-President of the Republic: 1903-1904, 1904–1911, 1910-1911.

Final Days[edit]

Ramon Corral and his family.

Díaz choose Corral as his successor in 1911, but Corral had traveled to Paris for medical care, as he had been earlier diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. After being operated on, the cancer was found to be incurable. In light of his own deteriorating condition, and the increasing revolutionary opposition to the Díaz government, Corral submitted his resignation to Francisco León de la Barra, President Porfirio Díaz’s foreign secretary, which Barra held until Díaz submitted his own "Renuncia" on May 25, 1911.[6]

Letter of Resignation[edit]

Corral's letter of resignation gave no doubt that he had foreknowledge of President 's intention to resign, and that the course of events would lead to a new government for Mexico:

On the two occasions that the national convention advanced my candidacy as Vice-President of the republic, to figure in the elections with Gen. Diaz as President, I stated that I was prepared to occupy any office in which compatriots considered that I would be of use, and that if the public vote conferred upon me a position so far above my merits, then my intention would be to second in all respects Gen. Diaz's policy, in order to co-operate with him, as far as it lay in my power, toward the aggrandizement of the nation, which had developed so notably under his administration.

Those who concern themselves with public affairs and have observed their progress during the last few years will be able to say whether I have complied with my intention.

For my part, I can say that I have never endeavored to bring about the least obstacle either in the President's policy or his manner of carrying it out even at the cost of sacrificing my convictions, both because this was the basis of my programme and because this corresponded to my position and my loyalty, as well as that I did not seek any prestige in the office of Vice-President, so useful in the United States and so discredited in Latin countries.

In the events which have shaken the country during these latter months, the President has been brought to consider that it is patriotic to resign from the high office that the almost unanimous vote of Mexicans had conferred upon him in the last election, and that it is advisable at the same time, in the interest of the country, that the Vice-President do likewise, so that new men and new energies should continue forwarding the prosperity of the nation.

Following my programme of seconding Gen. Diaz's policy, I join my resignation with his and in the present note I retire from the office of Vice-President of the republic, begging the chamber to accept the same at the same time as that of the President.

I beg of you gentlemen to inform yourselves of the above, which I submit with the protests of my highest consideration.

Liberty and Constitution, Paris, May 4, 1911.

[Signed] "RAMON CORRAL."[7]

Death[edit]

Corral died in Paris of his illness on 10 November 1912, surrounded by family members.[8]

Selected Works by Corral[edit]

  • Breve Manifestación que la Diputación Permanente del Congreso del Estado, Hace al Pueblo. Ures, Sonora, México: Imprenta del Gobierno. 1878
  • El General Ignacio Pesqueira: Reseña Histórica del Estado de Sonora. Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico: Imprenta del Estado. 1900 [1886].[9] A biography of Ignacio Pesqueira, governor of Sonora for 20 years (1856–1876).
  • Informe leido por el C. Ramón Corral vice gobernador constitucional de Sonora ante la legislatura del mismo estado. Hermosillo, Sonora, México: Gobierno del Estado. 1889.
  • La Mayoría del Congreso del Estado, al Pueblo Sonorense. Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico: Imprenta de Roberto Bernal. 1878
  • La cuestion de la harina. Coleccion de articulos y documentos publicados en "El Telegrafo" México: Tip. de V. Villada. 1881.
  • Memoria de la administración pública del Estado de Sonora, presentada a la Legislatura del mismo por el Gobernador Ramón Corral. 2 vols. Guaymas, Sonora, México: Imprenta de E. Gaxiola. 1891
  • Memoria de la Secretaría de Gobernación : Que comprende de lo. de diciembre de 1904 a 30 de junio de 1906. México: Imprenta del Gobierno Federal. 1909
  • Obras históricas. Reseña histórica del Estado de Sonora, 1856-1877. Hermosillo, Sonora, México: Imprenta del Estado. 1900. A biography of José María Leiva (Cajemé), the Yaqui leader whom Corral interviewed shortly before Cajemé was executed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The American Review of Reviews. Vol. 42, No. 6, December, 1910, (Albert Shaw, Ed.), pp.730-731
  2. ^ Fulgencio Corral's full name, documented at his christening. Registros parroquiales : Bautismos 1829-1838. Alamos, Sonora, 1696-1968 Iglesia Católica. Purísima Concepción
  3. ^ Registros parroquiales : Bautismos 1838-1856. Alamos, Sonora, 1696-1968 Iglesia Católica. Purísima Concepción
  4. ^ A Wedding in Mexico. The New York Times, 1888
  5. ^ La Constitucion. March 2, 1888. p. 2
  6. ^ O'Shaughnessy, Edith. (1920). Intimate pages of Mexican history. pp.101-102.
  7. ^ Mexico Enters New Regime Under de la Barra. Los Angeles Times, May 26, 1911
  8. ^ Ramon Corral Dead from The New York Times, 1912
  9. ^ El General Ignacio Pesqueira: reseña histórica del Estado de Sonora