|Studio album by Paul and Linda McCartney|
|Released||17 May 1971|
|Recorded||16 October, 1970 – 1 March, 1971|
|Producer||Paul McCartney, Linda McCartney|
|Paul McCartney chronology|
|Linda McCartney chronology|
|Singles from Ram|
Ram is the second studio album by Paul McCartney, released in May 1971 on Apple Records along with Linda McCartney. The album was recorded amid Paul McCartney's legal action in Britain's High Court to dissolve the Beatles' partnership, following their break-up the year before. This is the only album credited to the couple. He and Linda recorded it in New York with guitarists David Spinozza and Hugh McCracken, and future Wings drummer Denny Seiwell. Its release coincided with a period of bitter acrimony between McCartney and his former bandmate John Lennon, who perceived verbal slights in the lyrics to songs such as "Too Many People".
On release, the album was received negatively by the majority of music critics, although opinion has become more favourable in subsequent decades. A commercial success nonetheless, Ram topped the national albums charts in Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. Three singles were issued from Ram: "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey", which became McCartney's first number 1 hit in America, "The Back Seat of My Car" and "Eat at Home". The album was reissued in May 2012.
Recording and structure
Paul McCartney and his family flew to New York City in October 1970 to begin working on the follow-up to McCartney. While McCartney had featured him on every instrument, for Ram Paul decided to hold auditions for musicians, bringing some in under the guise of a session to record a commercial jingle. Auditions were held in an attic on 45th Street for three days, where David Spinozza was tapped for guitar duties, after being asked by Linda, before auditions moved to a basement, where Denny Seiwell was recruited on drums.[nb 1] McCartney later claimed to have found Seiwell "lying on a mattress one day in The Bronx". Midway through the sessions, Spinozza was replaced by Hugh McCracken when Spinozza became unavailable.
The basic tracks for the album were taped at Columbia's Studio B from 12 October to 20 November 1970 before the McCartneys returned to their Scottish farm for the Christmas holidays. Work continued at Studio B and A&R Recording Studios, New York, from the second week of January 1971 through to February. Playing guitar or piano and singing at the same time, Paul chose to overdub his bass later on. Although it was a collaborative project, Linda's vocal duties were mostly limited to singing harmonies and backing Paul, who sang almost all of the lead parts; however, Linda sang co-lead vocals on "Long Haired Lady".[nb 2] The New York Philharmonic was brought in by McCartney to play on "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey", "Long Haired Lady" and "The Back Seat of My Car", as well as the McCartneys' forthcoming, non-album single "Another Day". Paul and Linda's daughter, Heather, sang backing vocals on "Monkberry Moon Delight".
In July 1971, Northern Songs and Maclen Music sued Paul and Linda McCartney for violating an exclusive rights agreement by collaborating on the song "Another Day", released three months before Ram. Although six of the eleven songs on Ram were also co-written with Linda, both parties agreed the issue of royalties for the album could be decided at a later date. In June 1972, ATV announced that "all differences between them have been amicably settled" and Paul and Linda signed a new seven-year co-publishing contract between ATV and McCartney Music. The sessions also produced songs such as "Dear Friend", released on Wings' debut album, Wild Life (1971), "Little Woman Love", as well as tracks featured on Wings' 1973 album Red Rose Speedway: "Get on the Right Thing", "Little Lamb Dragonfly"[nb 3] and "Big Barn Bed". It has recently surfaced that "I Lie Around", issued as the B-side to Wings' 1973 single "Live and Let Die", was taped during the sessions. Also recorded was the first incarnation of "Seaside Woman".
The album was mixed at Sound Recorders in Los Angeles. By early 1971, the project was completed, along with "Another Day" and its B-side, "Oh Woman, Oh Why". In addition to the songs released on Ram and the first two Wings albums, McCartney recorded the following tracks during these sessions: "Hey Diddle", "A Love for You", "Great Cock and Seagull Race", "Now Hear This Song of Mine", "Rode All Night", "Sunshine Sometime" and "When the Wind Is Blowing".
The song "Ram On", from the album's first side, was reprised on the second side,[nb 4] before the album's final track "The Back Seat of My Car".[nb 5] "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey" is in a similar vein to the Abbey Road medley, as the song consisted of several unfinished songs combined into one. Music videos were made for "3 Legs" and "Heart of the Country", from footage that was filmed on 2 January 1971, and edited together 5 months later, by Ray Benson.[nb 6]
According to Peter Brown, John Lennon believed that a number of songs on Ram contained jibes aimed at him, particularly "Too Many People" and "Dear Boy". Lennon thought the line "Too many people preaching practices" was directly referencing him and Yoko Ono. McCartney later claimed that only two lines in "Too Many People" were directed at Lennon. "In one song, I wrote, 'Too many people preaching practices,' I think is the line. I mean, that was a little dig at John and Yoko. There wasn't anything else on [Ram] that was about them. Oh, there was 'You took your lucky break and broke it in two.'"[nb 7] Brown also described the picture of two beetles copulating on the back cover as symbolic of how Paul McCartney felt the other Beatles were treating him. George Harrison and Ringo Starr were said to consider the track "3 Legs" as an attack on them and Lennon. Paul said that "Dear Boy" was directed at Linda's ex-husband, and not Lennon. As well as conducting a war of words via Britain's music press, Lennon's response was the scathing "How Do You Sleep?", and it has been considered too that "Crippled Inside", also from his Imagine album, was directed at McCartney. Early editions of Imagine included a postcard of Lennon pulling the ears of a pig in a parody of Ram's cover photograph of McCartney holding a ram by the horns.
"Another Day" / "Oh Woman, Oh Why" was released that February and became a worldwide Top 5 hit. In May, Ram was unveiled, on 17th in the US and on the 21st in the UK. "The Back Seat of My Car" was excerpted as a UK single[nb 8] that August, only reaching number 39, but the US release[nb 9] of the ambitious "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey" proved much more successful, giving McCartney his first number 1 single since leaving The Beatles. The album reached number 1 in Britain and number 2 in the US, where it spent over five months in the Top 10 and went platinum. Despite the phasing-out of monaural albums by the late 1960s, Ram was pressed in mono (MAS 3375) with unique mixes that differ from the common stereo version (SMAS 3375). These were only made available to radio stations and are among the most valuable and sought-after of Paul McCartney's solo records. The album has sold over 2 million copies.
Upon its release, Ram was poorly received by music critics. McCartney was particularly hurt by the harsh reviews − especially as he had attempted to address the points raised in criticism of his earlier album, McCartney, by adopting a more professional approach this time around. In his review for Rolling Stone, Jon Landau called Ram "incredibly inconsequential" and "monumentally irrelevant", and criticised its lack of intensity and energy. He added that it exposes McCartney as having "benefited immensely from collaboration" with the Beatles, particularly John Lennon, who "held the reins in on McCartney's cutsie-pie, florid attempts at pure rock muzak" and kept him from "going off the deep end that leads to an album as emotionally vacuous as Ram". Playboy accused McCartney of "substituting facility for any real substance", and compared it to "watching someone juggle five guitars: It's fairly impressive, but you keep wondering why he bothers." Robert Christgau, writing in The Village Voice, called it "a bad record, a classic form/content mismatch", and felt that McCartney succumbed to "conspicuous consumption" by overworking himself and obscenely producing a style of music meant to be soft and whimsical. Writing four years later, Roy Carr and Tony Tyler from NME suggested that "it would be naive to have expected the McCartneys to produce anything other than a mediocre record ... Grisly though this was, McCartney was to sink lower before rescuing his credibility late in 1973."
His fellow ex-Beatles, all of whom were riding high in the critics' favour with their recent releases, were likewise vocal in their negativity. Lennon hated the album, dismissing his former songwriting partner's efforts as "muzak to my ears" in his song "How Do You Sleep?". Starr told Britain's Melody Maker: "I feel sad about Paul's albums ... I don't think there's one [good] tune on the last one, Ram ... he seems to be going strange."
|The A.V. Club||A|
|The New Zealand Herald||4/5|
Decades after Ram was released, critics have reviewed the album more favourably. Some prominent critics have even called it one of McCartney's finest solo works. Mojo said that "today it sounds quintessentially McCartney". AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine wrote: "in retrospect it looks like nothing so much as the first indie pop album, a record that celebrates small pleasures with big melodies". In a review of its 2012 reissue, Pitchfork Media's Jayson Greene called Ram "a domestic-bliss album, one of the weirdest, earthiest, and most honest ever made". Simon Vozick-Levinson of Rolling Stone dubbed it a "daffy masterpiece" and "a grand psychedelic ramble full of divine melodies and orchestral frippery". David Quantick of Uncut felt that, although it is not as "legendary" as publicised, the album is "occasionally brilliant and historically fascinating" as "post-Beatles mish-mash". Steven Hyden, writing for The A.V. Club, said that the "lightweight" style that was originally panned by critics is "actually (when heard with sympathetic ears) a big part of what makes it so appealing". However, Q magazine still found Ram to be "frustratingly uneven". In a retrospective review, Robert Christgau panned McCartney's songs as pretentious "crotchets ... so lightweight they float away even as Paulie layers them down with caprices".
Re-release and tributes
In 1977, McCartney supervised the release of an instrumental interpretation of Ram (recorded in June 1971 and arranged by Richard Hewson) with the release of Thrillington under the pseudonym of Percy "Thrills" Thrillington. Thrillington was later released as part of the 2012 remaster of Ram. The album, along with McCartney's Wings over America and Tug of War albums, was issued in the US on compact disc on 18 January 1988.[nb 10] In 1993, the album was remastered and reissued on CD as part of The Paul McCartney Collection series with "Another Day" and "Oh Woman, Oh Why" as bonus tracks.[nb 11] That same year Digital Compact Classics released an audiophile edition prepared by Steve Hoffman.[nb 12] On 21 May 2012 (in the UK) and 22 May (in the US), the album was reissued by McCartney's current label, Hear Music. The mono mix had never been issued previously on compact disc, except by bootleggers. The mono version was released commercially in 2012, albeit as a limited edition LP.[nb 13]
In 2009, two tribute albums featuring all of the songs from the album were made available for digital download:
- Ram On L.A was compiled by the website Aquarium Drunkard and featured Los Angeles-based acts.
- Tom was put together by New Jersey radio station WFMU DJ Tom Scharpling and included Aimee Mann and Death Cab for Cutie, among others.
In 2012, Danish rock singer/songwriter Tim Christensen, American singer/songwriters Mike Viola and Tracy Bonham, and Christensen's solo band The Damn Crystals did a one-off tribute show, performing Ram in full length along with other post-Beatles songs, at Vega in Copenhagen, in celebration of McCartney's 70th birthday. Vega's large concert hall, with a capacity of 1500, was sold out. The concert was met with very positive reviews. In 2013 the concert was released as the DVD/CD and DVD/2-LP album Pure McCartney. In 2013, the collective held further performances playing McCartney songs.
All songs written and composed by Paul & Linda McCartney, except where noted.
|1.||"Too Many People"||Paul McCartney||4:10|
|2.||"3 Legs"||Paul McCartney||2:44|
|3.||"Ram On"||Paul McCartney||2:26|
|5.||"Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey"||4:49|
|6.||"Smile Away"||Paul McCartney||3:51|
|1.||"Heart of the Country"||2:21|
|2.||"Monkberry Moon Delight"||5:21|
|3.||"Eat at Home"||3:18|
|4.||"Long Haired Lady"||5:54|
|5.||"Ram On (Reprise)"||Paul McCartney||0:52|
|6.||"The Back Seat of My Car"||Paul McCartney||4:26|
- Bonus tracks
|1993 The Paul McCartney Collection bonus tracks|
|2.||"Oh Woman, Oh Why"||Paul McCartney||4:36|
Ram was reissued in several packages:
- Standard Edition[nb 14] 1-CD; the original 12-track album
- Standard Edition digital download; the original 12-track album
- Special Edition[nb 15][nb 16] 2-CD; the original 12-track album on the first disc, plus 8 bonus tracks on a second disc
- Deluxe Edition Box Set[nb 17][nb 18] 4-CD/1-DVD; the original 12-track album, the bonus tracks disc, the original album in mono, Thrillington, DVD of films (including the documentary 'Ramming' narrated by Paul and directed by Ben Ib, as well as the original music videos for "Heart of the Country" and "3 Legs"), 112-page book, 5 prints, 8 facsimiles of lyric sheets, photograph book, and download link to all of the material
- Remastered vinyl[nb 19] 2-LP version of the Special Edition and a download link to the material
- Remastered mono vinyl[nb 20] limited edition LP of the mono mixes
- Remastered (Record Store Day 2012 exclusive) vinyl single of "Another Day" and "Oh Woman, Oh Why"
The original 12-track album.
The mono version of the original 12-song album.
The Thrillington album.
Available only on Paulmccartney.com and iTunes.
- Paul McCartney - lead, harmony and backing vocals, bass, piano, keyboards, guitar on "Heart of the Country", and ukelele on "Ram On"
- Linda McCartney - harmony and backing vocals, co-lead vocals on "Long Haired Lady"
- David Spinozza - guitar
- Hugh McCracken - guitar
- Denny Seiwell - drums
- Heather McCartney - backing vocals on "Monkberry Moon Delight"
- Marvin Stamm - flugelhorn on "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey"
- New York Philharmonic on "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey" and "The Back Seat of My Car"
- Seiwell would later become the drummer of the McCartneys' new band, Wings.
- This composition is made up of two songs: "Long Haired Lady" and "Love Is Long", making it the longest track on the album.
- Spinozza played lead guitar on "Get on the Right Thing", while McCracken played it on "Little Lamb Dragonfly".
- Near the end of the reprise version of "Ram On" Paul sings lyrics from Wings' "Big Barn Bed".
- "The Back Seat of My Car" was premiered during the Beatles' Get Back/Let It Be sessions in January 1969.
- Both videos had an airing on the 24 June 1971 edition of the BBC TV show Top of the Pops, while the "3 Legs" video had an extra airing, albeit a 20-second clip on VH-1's One to One on 3 May 1993.
- In the original version of the line "You took your lucky break and broke it in two", "You" was "Yoko".
- UK Apple R 5914
- US Apple 1837
- US Capitol CDP 7 46612 2
- Europe Parlophone CDPMCOL 2/0777 7 89139 2 4
- US DCC Compact Classics GZS-1037
- Europe Hear Music HRM-33452-01
- Europe Hear Music HRM-33448-02/0888072334489
- Europe Hear Music HRM-33449-02/0888072334496
- US Hear Music HRM-33449-02
- Europe Hear Music HRM-33450-00
- US Hear Music HRM-33450-00
- Europe Hear Music HRM-33451-01
- Europe Hear Music HRM-33452-01
- Sounes, p. 273.
- Perone, p. 147.
- "Album – Paul McCartney". paulmccartney.com. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Madinger & Easter, p. 157.
- Miles, Barry; Badman, Keith, ed. (2001). The Beatles Diary After the Break-Up: 1970–2001 (reprint ed.). London: Music Sales Group. ISBN 9780711983076.
- Badman, p. 22.
- Luca Perasi, Paul McCartney: Recording Sessions (1969-2013), L.I.L.Y. Publishing, 2013, ISBN 978-88-909122-1-4, pp. 26-56.
- Sounes, p. 275.
- Spizer, p. 128.
- Perone, p. 154.
- "McCartney and Wife Sued on 'Another Day' Recording", New York Times, 23 July 1971, p. 15.
- McNicoll, Don. (AP) "McCartney album jumps legal snags, sure to be a hit" The Miami News 22 May 1971: 8-A
- Perry, Rupert. Northern Songs: The True Story of the Beatles Song Publishing Empire (2006)
- Benitez, p. 41.
- Sounes, p. 290.
- Benitez, p. 45.
- Calkin, Graham (2001). "Ram". jpgr.com. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Luca Perasi, Paul McCartney: Recording Sessions (1969-2013), LILY Publishing, ISBN 9788890912214, 2013, p.56.
- Perone, p. 149.
- Perone, p. 150.
- Raymer & Colebrook, pp 48–49.
- Brown, p. 351.
- Perone, p. 148.
- Perone, p. 142.
- Goodman, Joan (December 1984). "Playboy Interview: Paul and Linda McCartney". Playboy (Playboy Press). Posted at "Playboy Interview With Paul and Linda McCartney". beatlesinterviews.org. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
- Badman, p. 22.
- Perone, p. 143.
- Norman, p. 672.
- "Paul McCartney singles". allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Ingham, p. 139.
- Billboard. 28 February 1970. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Chart Stats – Paul And Linda McCartney – Ram". UK Albums Chart. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "allmusic ((( Ram > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))". allmusic.com. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- Spizer, p. 132.
- Schaffner, p. 144.
- Landau, Jon (8 July 1971). "Paul McCartney Ram > Album Review". Rolling Stone (86). Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2006.
- "Review: Ram". Playboy. September 1971.
- Christgau, Robert (September 1971). "Living Without the Beatles". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- Carr & Tyler, p. 95.
- Woffinden, p. 52.
- Badman, p. 39.
- "Ram [Deluxe Edition] Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Ram (album) at AllMusic. Retrieved 14 April 2005.
- Dayal, Raj (22 May 2012). "Paul McCartney: Ram". American Songwriter (Nashville). Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Hyden, Steven (22 May 2012). "Paul and Linda McCartney: Ram". The A.V. Club (Chicago). Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (1990). Rock Albums of the '70s: A Critical Guide. Da Capo Press. p. 248. ISBN 0306804093.
- "Review: Ram [Deluxe Edition]". Mojo (London): 100. June 2012.
- Reid, Graham (23 June 2012). "Album review: Paul and Linda McCartney: Ram reissue". The New Zealand Herald (Auckland). Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Greene, Jayson (24 May 2012). "Paul McCartney / Linda McCartney: Ram | Album Reviews". Pitchfork. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Review: Ram [Deluxe Edition]". Q (London): 118. June 2012.
- Vozick-Levinson, Simon (22 May 2012). "Ram: Deluxe Edition". Rolling Stone (New York). Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Quantick, David (June 2012). "Paul McCartney – Ram [reissue]". Uncut (London): 96. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "All Music Guide". Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Sounes, p. 284.
- "Paul and Linda McCartney's Legendary Album RAM Set for Deluxe Reissue". paulmccartney.com. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- "Paul And Linda McCartney* – Ram (CD, Album)". discogs.com. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Marchese, Joe. "Ram On: Paul McCartney Archive Collection's "Ram" Coming This Spring, Previewed on Record store Day". The Second Disc. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- "RAM On L.A. :: A Los Angeles Music Sampler". Aquarium Drunkard. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Bronson, Kevin (18 March 2009). "11 L.A. artists honour Paul McCartney's 'Ram'". Pop & Hiss. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- Christensen, Tim (22 January 2013). "DVD-release: The Pure McCartney-tribute show". The Official Tim Christensen Blog.
- Bertelsen, Mikkel Drejer (22 March 2012). "Tim C hylder Paul McCartney" (Tim C celebrates Paul McCartney). GAFFA. (Danish)
- Viola, Mike (2012). Been quiet in the tour update front. Tumblr. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- "Paul McCartney – Another Day / Oh Woman, Oh Why (Vinyl)". Discogs.com. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Sir Paul McCartney 'RAM' tracklisting, reissue details revealed". paulmccartney.com. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, NSW: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Top Albums/CDs – Volume 16, No. 6". RPM. 25 September 1971. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- "dutchcharts.nl Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram". Hung Medien, dutchcharts.nl (in Dutch). MegaCharts. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "InfoDisc : Tous les Albums classés par Artiste > Choisir Un Artiste Dans la Liste" (in French). infodisc.fr. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Hit Parade Italia – Gli album più venduti del 1971" (in Italian). hitparadeitalia.it. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970-2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9.
- "norwegiancharts.com Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram". VG-lista. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
- "Swedish Charts 1969 – 1972 (in PDF-files)" (PDF) (in Swedish). Hitsallertijden. Retrieved 13 June 2012.Note: Ram peaked at number-three on the Kvällstoppen best-selling records list in June 1971, behind "Funny Funny" by The Sweet and "Going Back to Indiana" by Jackson 5.
- McGee, Garry (2003). Band on the Run: A History of Paul McCartney and Wings. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 233. ISBN 9780878333042.
- "Album Search: Paul & Linda McCartney: Ram" (in German). Media Control. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- "austriancharts.at Paul & Linda McCartney – RAM" (ASP). Hung Medien (in German). Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "ultratop.be Paul & Linda McCartney – RAM" (ASP). Hung Medien (in Dutch). Ultratop. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "ultratop.be Paul & Linda McCartney – RAM" (ASP). Hung Medien (in French). Ultratop. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "lescharts.com Paul & Linda McCartney – RAM" (ASP). Hung Medien (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- ポール&リンダ・マッカートニー-リリース-ORICON STYLE-ミュージック "Highest position and charting weeks of Ram by Paul & Linda McCartney". Oricon Style (in Japanese). Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – RAM" (ASP). Hung Medien. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "swedishcharts.com Paul & Linda McCartney – RAM" (ASP) (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- Caulfield, Keith (1 June 2012). "Chart Moves: Kimbra Debuts in Top 20 on Billboard 200, McCartney's 'Ram' Returns". billboard.biz. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1971" (ASP) (in Dutch). Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "Les Albums (CD) de 1971 par InfoDisc" (PHP) (in French). infodisc.fr. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- "The Official UK Charts Company : ALBUM CHART HISTORY". Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- 1971 Year-end Albums – The Billboard Pop Albums. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- "Canadian album certifications – Paul McCartney – Ram". Music Canada.
- "American album certifications – Paul McCartney – Ram". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- Perone, p. 152.
- Perone, p. 153.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – The Back Seat Of My Car / Heart Of The Country (Vinyl)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Uncle Albert / Admiral Halsey (Vinyl)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (CD, Album)". discogs.com. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (CD, Album)". discogs.com. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (Vinyl, LP, Album)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (CD, Album)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (CD, Album)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (CD, Album)". Discogs.com. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (Box Set, Album)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (CD, Album, Album, Album)". Discogs.com. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (Vinyl, LP, Album, LP)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- "Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram (Vinyl, LP, Album)". Discogs.com. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- Badman, Keith (2001). The Beatles Diary Volume 2: After the Break-Up 1970–2001. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-711-983076.
- Benitez, Vincent P. (2010). The Words and Music of Paul McCartney: The Solo Years. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. ISBN 9780313349690.
- Brown, Peter; Gaines, Steven (2002). The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles. New York: New American Library. ISBN 0-451-20735-1.
- Carr, Roy; Tyler, Tony (1978). The Beatles: An Illustrated Record. London: Trewin Copplestone Publishing. ISBN 0-450-04170-0.
- Castleman, Harry; Podrazik, Walter J. (1976). All Together Now: The First Complete Beatles Discography 1961–1975. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25680-8.
- Doggett, Peter (2011). You Never Give Me Your Money: The Beatles After the Breakup. New York, NY: It Books. ISBN 978-0-06-177418-8.
- Ingham, Chris (2003). The Rough Guide to The Beatles. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 9781843531401.
- Madinger, Chip; Easter, Mark (2000). Eight Arms to Hold You: The Solo Beatles Compendium. Chesterfield, MO: 44.1 Productions. ISBN 0-615-11724-4.
- Norman, Philip (2008). John Lennon: The Life. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-075401-3.
- Perone, James E. (2012). The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313379079.
- Raymer, Miles; Colebrook, Claire (2010). How to Analyze the Music of Paul McCartney. ABDO. ISBN 1617587842.
- Rodriguez, Robert (2010). Fab Four FAQ 2.0: The Beatles' Solo Years, 1970–1980. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-9093-4.
- Schaffner, Nicholas (1978). The Beatles Forever. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-055087-5.
- Sounes, Howard (2010). Fab: An Intimate Life of Paul McCartney. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-723705-0.
- Spizer, Bruce (2005). The Beatles Solo on Apple Records. New Orleans, LA: 498 Productions. ISBN 0-9662649-5-9.
- Woffinden, Bob (1981). The Beatles Apart. London: Proteus. ISBN 0-906071-89-5.
- Further reading
- McGee, Garry (2003). Band on the Run; A History of Paul McCartney and Wings. New York: Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 0-87833-304-5.