Ramadanids

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Ramadanids / Ramazanoğulları

1352–1608


Unknown

Capital Adana
Languages Turkish
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Emirate
Bey
 -  1352 Ramazan Bey
 -  1608 Pir Mansur Bey
Historical era Early Modern
 -  Established 1352
 -  Disestablished 1608
History of Anatolia
Bronze Age
Troy I–VIII 3000–700 B.C.
Hattians 2500–2000 B.C.
Akkadian Empire 2400–2150 B.C.
Luwian hieroglyphs / Luvians 2300–1400 B.C.
Assyria 1950–1750 B.C.
Achaeans (Homer) 1700–1300 B.C.
Kizzuwatna 1650–1450 B.C.
Hittites 1680–1220 B.C.
  Hittite Old Kingdom
  Middle Hittites
  Hittite New Kingdom
Arzawa 1500–1320 B.C.
Mitanni 1500–1300 B.C.
Lycia / Lycians 1450–350 B.C.
Assuwa 1300–1250 B.C.
Neo-Hittites 1200–800 B.C.
Phrygia / Phrygians 1200–700 B.C.
Caria / Carians 1150–547 B.C.
Tuwanuwa 1000–700 B.C.
Ionia 1000–545 B.C.
Urartu 859–595/585 B.C.
From Stone Age to Classical antiquity
Lydia / Lydians 685–547 B.C.
Persia-Achaemenid Empire 559–331 B.C.
Alexander the Great 334–301 B.C.
Seleucid Empire 305–64 B.C.
Pontus / Kingdom of Pontus 302–64 B.C.
Pergamon / Kingdom of Pergamon 282–129 B.C.
Galatia / Galatians 281–64 B.C.
Armenian Empire 190 B.C. – 428 A.D.
Roman Republic 133–27 B.C.
Roman Empire 27 B.C. – 330 A.D.
Middle Ages
Byzantine Empire 330 – 1453
Danishmends 1071 – 1178
Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti 1077–1307
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1078–1375
Ramadanids of Cilicia 1352–1608
Artuqids 1101–1409
Empire of Trebizond 1204–1461
Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261
Karamanids 1250–1487
Ilkhanate 1256–1335
Eretnids (Successor of Ilkhanids) 1335–1381
Qizilbash-Dulkadirids of Elbistan 1337–1522
Kara Koyunlu 1375–1468
Ak Koyunlu 1378–1501
Ottomans and Turkey
Rise of the Ottoman Empire 1299–1453
Growth of the Ottoman Empire 1453–1683
Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire 1683–1827
Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1828–1908
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 1908–1922
Republic of Turkey 1922–present

History of Turkey

The Ramadanids, also known as the Ramadanid dynasty, Emirate of Ramadan and Ramadanid principality (Modern Turkish: Ramazanoğulları, Ramazan and Ramazanoğulları Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks. Its capital was in Adana. It was one of the frontier emirates established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.

History[edit]

Because of the Mongol invasion Turkmens started migrating into Anatolia in great numbers. The Mameluk sultan gave them the right to settle from Antioch to Gaza. In return Turkmens became a great help in battles against Crusaders and Mongols.

As a result of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan's death, Turkmens turned their eyes on Cilicia and they started to settle the provinces which they captured. With the help of the Mameluks in 1360 Adana and Tarsus were captured, leaving only a few castles to the Armenians. Ramazan Bey, from the Yuregir clan of Oghuz Turks had founded the emirate and made Elbistan the capital. However, after the conquest of Elbistan by the Emirate of Dulkadir, the capital was moved to Adana.

Longest surviving among the Anatolian Beyliks, "Ramazanoğulları" (1352 - 1608) was established in the historical Cilicia region of Anatolia.

In 1375, Ramadanids destroyed the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in the name of the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, this became the core territory of the Ramadanids.

After the death of Ramazan Bey, his son Ibrahim Bey made alliance with the Karaman Emirate. Alaeddin Bey and Ibrahim Bey together tried to break the Mameluks' might in the province. After this alliance a great Mameluk army moved in and began to plunder but Ibrahim Bey's army achieved a great victory against the Mameluks in Belen. Also in this battle Temur Bey, the general of the Mameluks, had been captured. Yilboga, the amir of Aleppo moved on to the Turkmens after this defeat and he conquered Misis Castle.

The Ramadanids played an important role in 15th century Ottoman-Mamluk relations, being a buffer state located in the Mamluk al-'Awasim frontier zone.

In 1516, Selim I incorporated the beylik into the Ottoman Empire after his conquest of the Mamluk state. The beys of Ramadanids held the administration of the Ottoman sanjak of Adana in a hereditary manner until 1608, with the last 92 years as a vassal of the Ottomans.

The dynasty remains prominent in Turkish society to this day.

Architecture[edit]

Ramazanoğlu Hall, which is used currently as a cultural center, was the state residence of the Beylik. Administration hall of the Beylik does not exist today.

Rulers of Ramadanids[edit]

  1. Ramazan Bey (1352-1378)[1]
  2. İbrâhim Bey (1378-1383)
  3. Şihâbeddîn Ahmed Bey (1383-1416)
  4. İbrâhim II Bey (1416-1418)
  5. İzzeddîn Hamza Bey (1418-1426)
  6. Mehmed Bey (1426-1435)
  7. Eylûk Bey (1435-1439)
  8. Dündar Bey (1439-1470)
  9. Ömer Bey (1470-1485)
  10. Gıyâseddîn Halil Bey (1485-1510)
  11. Mahmûd Bey (I. 1510-1514- II. 1516-1517)
  12. Selim Bey (1514-1516)
  13. Kubad Paşa (1517-1520)
  14. Pîrî Mehmed Paşa (1520-1568)
  15. Derviş Bey (1568-1569)
  16. İbrahim III Bey (1569-1589)
  17. Mehmed II Bey (1589-1594)
  18. Pir Mansur Bey (1594-1608)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yeni Rehber Ansiklopedisi, Türkiye Gazetesi, 1993 (Turkish)

External links[edit]