|• Arabic||رام الله|
|• Also spelled||Ramallah (official)|
|Governorate||Ramallah & al-Bireh|
|• Type||City (from 1995)|
|• Head of Municipality||Eng. Musa Hadid|
|• Jurisdiction||16,344 dunams (16.3 km2 or 6.3 sq mi)|
Ramallah (Arabic: رام الله Pronounced Rāmallāh (help·info) is composed of “Ram,” an Aramaic word that means “high place or mountain” and “Allah,” the Arabic word for God.) (literally "Height of God") is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of Jerusalem, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority. With a population of nearly 27,092, Ramallah was historically a Christian town, but today Muslims form the majority of the population, with Christians still making up a significant minority.
Geography and Climate 
This area generally enjoys a Mediterranean climate of a dry summer and mild, rainy winter with occasional snowfall. The recorded average of Ramallah’s rainfall is about 694 mm (27 in) and (minimum rainfall is 307 mm (12 in) and maximum rainfall is 1,591 mm (63 in)).
The Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras [1 million – 5,000 BC] 
Human remains dating back as far as 500,000 BC have been found in the region surrounding Ramallah. Prehistoric Stone, wood, and bone tools have been found in caves in the Ramallah region. Mud brick square and rounded dwellings have also been found in the area, which are evidence of early agricultural communities.
The Bronze Age / The Chalcolithic Era [4,500 – 1,200 BC] 
A culture originating in modern Syria settled here during this period, bringing the use of copper and stone tools, giving the region a more urban fabric. By the early Bronze Age, Canaanite cities were developing, enclosed in mud-brick walls for security. These city states had diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria. Part of this urban civilization was destroyed around 2,300 BC – but no one knows why. By the middle Bronze Age, the area was influenced by nomadic groups settling in the hills, as well as the surrounding civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, and Syria.
The Iron Age [1,200 – 330 BC] 
Classical Antiquity era [333 BC – 640 AD] 
Briefly before, and beginning Anno Domini, for nearly 400 years, the Roman Empire and briefly Palmyrene Empire ruled the region. The inhabitants of what is now Ramallah at this time would have spoken Latin and
After the Fall of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine empire ruled for 300 years.
According to Christian tradition, Joseph and Mary rested in Ramallah on their way from Jerusalem to Galilee when they discovered that Jesus, who had stayed behind in the Temple of Jerusalem, was missing. A Crusader church, known as the Church of the Holy family, marks the spot where they stopped.
Arab Caliphate era [638 – 1099 AD] 
Following the Islamic conquest in 638, the ban on Judaism imposed under Roman rule was officially lifted, and Christians and Jews were granted the official title of “Peoples of the Book” to underline the common monotheistic roots they shared with Islam. European Christian pilgrims also visited and made generous donations to Christian holy places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem at this time.
Crusader era [1099 – 1187 AD] 
Under the European rule, fortifications, castles, towers and fortified villages were built, rebuilt and renovated across Palestine largely in rural areas.
During the 12th century, French Crusaders built a stronghold in Ramallah and the remains of a Crusader tower, known as al-Tira, can still be seen in the old part of town.
When the Mamluks conquered Palestine they expelled many Crusaders, those remaining either went home or merged with the local Palestinian population.
Mamluk era [1270 – 1516 AD] 
Ottoman era [1516 – 1917 AD] 
Palestine and the area of Ramallah were under rule by the Ottoman Empire at this time.
Modern Ramallah was founded in the mid-1500s by the Haddadins, a clan of brothers descended from Ghassanid Christians. The Haddadins, and their leader Rashid El-Haddadin, arrived from east of the Jordan River from the areas of Karak and Shoubak. The Haddadin migration is attributed to fighting and unrest among clans in that area.
Haddadin was attracted to the mountainous site of Ramallah because it was similar to the other mountainous areas he came from, as well as being a heavily forested area which could supply him with plenty of fuel for his forges.
 According to modern living descendents of original Haddadin family members, Rashid's brother Sabra Haddadin was hosting Emir Ibn Kaysoom, head of a powerful Muslim clan in the region, when Sabra's wife gave birth to a baby girl. According to Islamic custom, the Emir proposed a betrothal to his own young son when they came of age. Sabra believed the proposal was in jest, as Muslim-Christian marriages were not customary, and gave his word. When the Emir later came to the Haddadins and demanded that they fulfill their promise, they refused. This set off a bloody conflict between the two families. The Haddadins fled and settled on the hilltops of Ramallah, where only a few local Christian and Muslim families lived at the time.
In 1596, Ramallah appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 71 Christian households and 9 Muslim households. It paid taxes on wheat, barley, olives, vines or fruit trees, and goats or beehives.
Today, a large community of people with direct decent from the Haddadins who founded Ramallah live in the United States. The town is now predominately Muslim, but still contains a Christian minority. This is due mostly to new immigration of Muslims to the area, and Emigration of Christians from the area.
Christian town 
Ramallah grew dramatically throughout the 17th and 18th centuries as an agricultural village; thus, attracting more (predominantly Christian) inhabitants from all around the region. In 1700, Yacoub Elias was the first Ramallah native to be ordained by the Eastern Arab Orthodox Church, the Christian denomination that prevailed in the Holy Land at the time. In the early 19th century, the first Arab Orthodox Christian church was built. Later in the 1850s, "The Church of Transfiguration", was built to replace it and is the sole Orthodox Church in Ramallah today. During that same decade, the Latin (Roman Catholic) Church established its presence in Ramallah, constituting the second largest Christian denomination in the city. The Roman Catholic Church established the St. Joseph's Girl's School runs by St. Joseph sisters, as well as the co-educational Al-Ahliyyah College high school runs by Rosary sisters. With the influx of Muslim and Christian refugees and internal migration, new mosques and churches were built.
In the 19th century, the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) established a presence in Ramallah and built the Ramallah Friends Schools, one for girls and later a boys school, to alleviate the dearth of education for women and girls. Eli and Sybil Jones opened “The Girls Training Home of Ramallah” in 1869. A medical clinic was established in 1883, with Dr. George Hassenauer serving as the first doctor in Ramallah. In 1889, the girls academy became the Friends Girls School (FGS). As the FGS was also a boarding school, it attracted a number of girls from surrounding communities, including Jerusalem, Lydda, Jaffa, and Beirut. The Friends Boys School (FBS) was founded in 1901 and opened in 1918. The Quakers opened a Friends Meeting House for worship in the city center in 1910. According to the schools' official website, most high school students choose to take the International Baccalaureate exams instead of the traditional "Tawjihi" university exams.
The activity of foreign churches in southern Ottoman Syria in the late 19th century increased awareness of prosperity in the West. In Ramallah and Bethlehem, a few miles south, local residents began to seek their fortunes overseas. In 1901, merchants from Ramallah emigrated to the United States and established import-export businesses, selling handmade rugs and other exotic wares across the Atlantic. Increased trade dramatically improved living standards for Ramallah's inhabitants. American cars, mechanized farming equipment,radios, and later televisions became attainable luxuries for upper-class families. As residents of Jaffa and Lydda moved to Ramallah, the balance of Muslims and Christians began to change.
Ramallah was declared a city in 1908 and had an elected municipality as well as partnership projects with the adjacent town of al-Bireh. The Friends Boys School became a temporary hospital during the War.
British Mandate 
The British Army occupied Ramallah in December 1917. The city remained under British rule until 1948. The economy improved in the 1920s. The landed aristocracy and merchants who formed the Palestinian upper class built stately multi-storied villas during this period; many of these estates are still standing today. The Jerusalem Electric Company brought electricity to Ramallah in 1936, and most homes were wired shortly thereafter. That same year, the British authorities inaugurated the "Palestine Broadcasting Service" in Ramallah, the staff of which was trained by the British Broadcasting Corporation to deliver daily broadcasts in Arabic, Hebrew, and English. This station was later renamed "Kol Yerushalayim" (The Voice of Jerusalem).
Jordanian rule 
Following the creation of the State of Israel and the ensuing war, Jordan conquered the area they named the West Bank, including Ramallah. The area was relatively tranquil during the years of Jordanian occupation between 1948 and 1967, with residents enjoying freedom of movement between the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and elsewhere. Jordan had annexed the West Bank, applying its law to the territory. However, many Palestinians were jailed for being members of what the Jordanian government regarded as illegal political parties, including the Palestine Communist Party and other socialist and pro-independence groups. Jordanian law also restricted the creativity and freedom desired by many Palestinians at the time. By 1953, Ramallah's population had doubled, but the economy and infrastructure were not equipped to handle the influx of poor villagers. Natives of Ramallah left, primarily to the United States. By 1946, 1,500 of Ramallah's 6,000 natives (or about a quarter) had emigrated, and Arabs from the surrounding towns and villages particularly Hebron, bought up the property and homes the émigrés left behind.
Israeli rule 
During the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel captured Ramallah, imposing a military closure and conducting a census a few weeks later. Every person registered in the census was given an Israeli identity card which allowed the bearer to continue to reside there. Those who were abroad during the census lost their residency rights. For residents of Ramallah, the situation had now reversed itself; for the first time in 19 years residents could freely visit Israel and the Gaza Strip and engage in commerce there.
Unlike the Jordanians, Israel did not attempt to annex all of the West Bank or offer citizenship to the residents. Ramallah residents were issued permits to work in Israel. The city remained under Israeli military rule for over four decades. The Israeli Civil Administration (CA), established in 1981, was in charge of civilian and day-to-day services such as issuing permission to travel, build, export or import, and host relatives from abroad. The CA reprinted Jordanian textbooks for distribution in schools but did not update them. The CA was in charge of tax collection and land expropriation, which sometimes included olive groves that Arab villagers claimed to have tended for generations. According to the Israeli Human Rights activists, Jewish settlements in the Ramallah area, such as Beit El and Psagot, prevented the expansion of the city and cut it off from the surrounding villages. As resistance increased, Ramallah residents were jailed or deported to neighboring countries for membership in the Palestine Liberation Organization. In December 1987, the popular uprising known as the Intifada erupted.
First Intifada 
Ramallah residents were among the early joiners of the First Intifada. The Intifada Unified Leadership, an umbrella organization of various Palestinian factions, distributed weekly bulletins on the streets of Ramallah with a schedule of the daily protests, strikes and action against Israeli patrols in the city. At the demonstrations, tyres were burned in the street and the crowds threw stones and Molotov cocktails. The IDF responded with tear gas and rubber bullets. Schools in Ramallah were forcibly shut down, and opened gradually for a few hours a day. House arrests were carried out and curfews were imposed that restricted travel and exports in what Palestinians regarded as collective punishment. In response to the closure of schools, residents organized home schooling sessions to help students make up missed material; this became one of the few symbols of civil disobedience. The Intifada leadership organized "tree plantings" and resorted to the tactics used in pre-1948 Palestine, such as ordering general strikes in which no commercial businesses were allowed to open and no cars were allowed on the streets.
In 1991, the Palestinian delegation to the Madrid International Peace Conference included many notables from Ramallah. As the Intifada wound down and the peace process moved forward, normal life in Ramallah resumed. On September 13, 1993 the famous White House handshake between Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat took place, and schoolchildren in Ramallah handed out olive branches to Israeli soldiers patrolling the streets. In December 1995, in keeping with the Oslo Accords, the Israeli army abandoned the Mukata'a and withdrew to the city outskirts. The newly established Palestinian Authority assumed civilian and security responsibility for the city, which was designated "Area A" under the accords.
Second Intifada 
The years between 1993 and 2000 (known locally as the "Oslo Years") brought relative prosperity to Ramallah. Many expatriates returned to establish businesses there and the atmosphere was one of optimism. In 2000, unemployment began to rise and the economy of Ramallah declined. The Israel Defense Forces remained in control of the territories, the freedom of movement enjoyed by Ramallah residents prior to the first Intifada was not restored. Travel to Jerusalem required special permits, and expansion of Israeli settlements around Ramallah increased dramatically. A network of bypass roads for use of Israeli citizens only was built around Ramallah, and land was confiscated for settlements. Many official documents previously handled by the Israeli Civil Administration were now handled by the Palestinian Authority but still required Israeli approval. A Palestinian passport issued to Ramallah residents was not valid unless the serial number was registered with the Israeli authorities, who controlled border crossings. The failure of the Camp David summit in July 2000 led to the outbreak of the al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada) in September 2000.
Young Ramallah residents demonstrated daily against the Israeli army, with marches to the Israeli checkpoints at the outskirts of the city. Over time, the marches were replaced by sporadic use of live ammunition against Israeli soldiers; and various attacks targeting Jewish settlers, particularly on the Israeli-only bypass roads. Army checkpoints were established to restrict movement in and out of Ramallah.
On October 12, 2000, two Israeli army reservists, Vadim Norzhich and Yosef Avrahami were lynched in Ramallah. They had taken a wrong turn, and were set upon by a mob, enraged in particular by the Muhammad al-Durrah incident in Gaza. A frenzied crowd killed the two IDF reservists, mutilated their bodies, and dragged them through the streets. Later that afternoon, Israeli army carried out an air strike on Ramallah, demolishing the police station, Israel later succeeded in capturing and prosecuting some of those involved in the deaths.
In 2002, Ramallah was reoccupied by Israel in an IDF operation codenamed Operation Defensive Shield, which resulted in curfews, electricity cuts, school closures and disruptions of commercial life. Many Ramallah institutions, including government ministries, were vandalized, and equipment was destroyed or stolen. The IDF took over local Ramallah television stations, and social and economic conditions deteriorated. Many expatriates left, as did many other Palestinians who complained that the living conditions had become intolerable. The Israeli West Bank barrier has furthered Ramallah's isolation.
Palestinian Authority rule 
Yasser Arafat established his West Bank headquarters, the Mukata'a, in Ramallah. Although considered an interim solution, Ramallah has become the de facto capital of the Palestinian Authority, hosting almost all governmental headquarters. In December 2001, Arafat held meetings at the Mukata'a, but lived with his wife and daughter in Gaza City. After suicide bombings in Haifa, Arafat was confined to the Ramallah compound. In 2002, the compound was partly demolished by the Israeli Defense Forces and Arafat's building was cut off from the rest of the compound.
On November 11, 2004 Arafat died at the Percy training hospital of the Armies near Paris. He was buried in the courtyard of the Mukata'a on November 12, 2004. The site still serves as the Ramallah headquarters of the Palestinian Authority, as well the official West Bank office of Mahmoud Abbas.
In December 2005, local elections were held in Ramallah in which candidates from three different factions competed for the 15-seat municipal council for a four-year term. The council elected Janet Mikhail as mayor, the first woman to hold the post.
Munir Hamdan, a member of Fatah and a Ramallah businessman, told a journalist that the fact that “The president and prime minister have their offices here. So do the parliament and all the government ministries,” represents a "collusion" between the Palestinian Authority and Israel to turn Ramallah into the political as well as the financial capital of the Palestinians. He is particularly worried by the construction of a large new governmental complex by the PA. Hatem Abdel Kader, a Jerusalem resident, Fatah legislator and former Minister for Jerusalem Affairs, complained that “If they are building a new government compound here, that means they have no plans to be based in Jerusalem... Unfortunately, the Palestinian government of Salam Fayyad has abandoned Jerusalem in favor of Ramallah.”
Many foreign nations have located their diplomatic missions to the Palestinian Authority in Ramallah, including, as of 2010, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Korea, South Africa, Norway, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, China, Poland, Portugal, The Netherlands, Russia, Jordan, Brazil, Finland, Denmark, Ireland, Germany, India, Japan, the Czech Republic, Canada and Mexico.
In November 2011, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited Ramallah for the first time since 2000.
Ramallah has been described as the seat of power of the Palestinian Authority and serves as the headquarters for most international NGOs and embassies. Hundreds of millions of dollars in aid flowing into the city have boosted Ramallah’s economy greatly since the end of the second Intifada.
The Ramallah construction boom is one of the most obvious signs of West Bank economic growth estimated at an annual rate of 8 percent. This has been attributed to relative stability and Western donor support to the Palestinian Authority. Ramallah's buoyant economy continues to draw Palestinians from other West Bank towns where jobs are fewer. The built-up area has grown fivefold since 2002.
By 2010 Ramallah had become the leading center of economic and political activity in the territories under the control of the Palestinian Authority. A building boom in the early years of the 21st century saw apartment buildings and "five-star" hotels erected, particularly in the Al-Masyoun neighborhood. In 2010, "more than one hundred" Palestinian businesses were reported to have moved to Ramallah from East Jerusalem, because “Here they pay less taxes and have more customers." One local boasted to a journalist that “Ramallah is becoming the de facto capital of Palestine.” This boast was seconded by the New York Times which, in 2010, called Ramallah the "de facto capital of the West Bank. According to Sani Meo, the publisher of This Week in Palestine, "Capital or no capital, Ramallah has done well and Palestine is proud of its achievements.” Some Palestinians allege that Ramallah's prosperity is part of an Israeli "conspiracy" to make Ramallah the capital of a Palestinian state, instead of Jerusalem.
ASAL technologies, an information technology company in Ramallah, has 120 employees and is looking forward to "exponential growth." 
According to the 1922 British Mandate census, Ramallah had a population of 3,067 which included 10 Jews. In Sami Hadawi's 1945 survey, the population stood at 5,080, with Christians forming the majority of the population. However, the demographic makeup of the town changed drastically between 1948 and 1967 with only slightly more than half of the city's 12,134 inhabitants being Christian, the other half Muslim.
Ramallah's population drastically decreased in the late 20th century from 24,722 inhabitants in 1987 to 17,851 in 1997. In the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) census in 1997, Palestinian refugees accounted for 60.3% of the population which was 17,851. There were 8,622 males and 9,229 females. People younger than 20 years of age made up 45.9% of the population, while those aged between 20 and 64 were 45.4%, and residents aged over 64 constituted 4.7%.
Only in 2005 did the population reach over 24,000. In a PCBS projection in 2006, Ramallah had a population of 25,467 inhabitants. In the 2007 PCBS census, there were 27,460 people living in the city. Sources vary about the current Christian population in the city, ranging around 25%.
Religious institutions 
The Jamal Abdel Nasser Mosque is one of the city's largest. The Orthodox Church of Ramallah, an Orthodox Christian convent, Melkite Catholic Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church, Arab Episcopal (Anglican) Church, Ramallah Local Church (Evangelical\Born Again) and Ramallah Baptist Church all operate schools in the city. A large new church has been built on top of one of the highest hills of Ramallah, belonging to the Coptic Orthodox Church. A small group of Jehovah Witnesses are present in the area as well and others.
During the annual "Saturday of Light" religious festival (which occurs on the Saturday between Good Friday and Easter Sunday to commemorate the light that tradition holds shone from the tomb of Jesus), the scouts hold a parade through the city streets to receive the flame from Jerusalem. (The flame is ignited in Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulchre and is passed on through candles and lanterns to regional churches.) A variety of mosques and churches of different denominations dot the landscape.
Ramallah is generally considered the most affluent and cultural, as well as the most liberal, of all Palestinian cities, and is home to a number of popular Palestinian activists, poets, artists, and musicians. It boasts a lively nightlife, with many restaurants including the Stars and Bucks Cafe, a branch of the Tche Tche Cafe and the Orjuwan Lounge, described in 2010 as two among the "dozens of fancy restaurants, bars and discotheques that have cropped up in Ramallah in the last three years."
One hallmark of Ramallah is Rukab's Ice Cream, which is based on the resin of chewing gum and thus has a distinctive taste. Another is the First Ramallah Group, a boy- and girl-scout club that also holds a number of traditional dance (Dabka) performances and is also home to men's and women's basketball teams that compete regionally. International music and dance troupes occasionally make a stop in Ramallah, and renowned Israeli pianist Daniel Barenboim performs there often. The Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center, founded in 1996, is a popular venue for such events. The Al-Kasaba Theatre is a venue for plays and movies. In 2004, the state-of-the art Ramallah Cultural Palace opened in the city. The only cultural center of its kind in the Palestinian territories, it houses a 736-seat auditorium, as well as conference rooms, exhibit halls, and movie-screening rooms. It was a joint venture of the Palestinian Authority, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Japanese government. Ramallah hosted its first annual international film festival in 2004.
Ramallah Folklore 
Ramallah, like most Palestinian areas, has a rich folklore of song and dance. Songs accompanied people in every occasion whether it was the harvest season, roofing a house, traveling, coming back from travel, engagement, wedding, or even death. Most of the songs were sung by the women with the exception of Zaffeh and Mal'ab which are sung by the men at wedding celebrations. Palestinian educator Bahia Khalil's book "Ramallah Folklore Songs and Traditions" documents to a great extend this oral tradition inherited from one generation to another. The second edition of the book was published in 2002 by the American Federation of Ramallah, Palestine, an organization for Palestinian-Americans from the Ramallah region living in the United States.
Foreign travelers to Palestine in late 19th and early 20th centuries often commented on the rich variety of costumes among the Palestinian people, and particularly among the fellaheen or village women. Until the 1940s, a woman's economic status, whether married or single, and the town or area they were from could be deciphered by most Palestinian women by the type of cloth, colors, cut, and embroidery motifs, or lack thereof, used for the robe-like dress or "thoub" in Arabic
Palestinian costume 
Though experts in the field trace the origins of Palestinian costumes to ancient times, there are no surviving clothing artifacts from this early period against which the modern items might be definitively compared. Influences from the various empires to have ruled Palestine, such as Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Byzantine empire, and Ayyubids, among others, have been documented by scholars largely based on the depictions in art and descriptions in literature of costumes produced during these times.
Hanan Munayyer, collector and researcher of Palestinian clothing, sees examples of proto-Palestinian attire in artifacts from the Canaanite period (1500 BCE) such as Egyptian paintings depicting Canaanites in A-shaped garments. Munayyer says that from 1200 BC to 1940 AD, all Palestinian dresses were cut from natural fabrics in a similar A-line shape with triangular sleeves. This shape is known to archaeologists as the "Syrian tunic" and appears in artifacts such as an ivory engraving from Megiddo dating to 1200 BC.
Until the 1940s, traditional Palestinian costumes reflected a woman's economic and marital status and her town or district of origin, with knowledgeable observers discerning this information from the fabric, colours, cut, and embroidery motifs (or lack thereof) used in the apparel.
Due to the difficulty of travel in the 19th century, villages in southern Ottoman Syria remained isolated. As a result, clothing and accessories became a statement of region. In Ramallah, the back panels of dresses often incorporated a palm tree motif embroidered in cross-stitch. Ramallah women were famous for their distinctive dress of white linen fabric embroidered with red silk thread. The headdress or smadeh worn in Ramallah was common throughout northern Palestine: a small roundish cap, padded and stiffened, with gold and silver coins set in a fringe with a long veil pinned to the back, sometimes of silk and sometimes embroidered.
Young woman of Ramallah wearing dowry headdress, c. 1898–1914
Ramallah woman, c. 1920, Library of Congress
A man from Ramallah spinning wool. Hand tinted photograph from 1919, restored.
Twin towns – Sister cities 
Ramallah is twinned with:
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- Trondheim, Norway (since 2004)
- Muscatine, Iowa, United States of America (since 2011)
Çankaya, Turkey -Good Will Protocole with Çankaya, expected to be turned to twinned city agreement on May, 2012 in Çankaya
Notable residents 
See also 
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- Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 121.
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