Ramiro de Maeztu
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He was among the young Spanish intellectuals deeply affected by their country's humiliating defeat in Spanish-American War of 1898, along with José Martínez Ruiz ("Azorín"), Pío Baroja and others forming the literary Generation of '98. His first collection of essays was published in 1898 under the name "Hacia otra España" ("Towards a Different Spain").
After returning to Spain, Maeztu rejected many of his radical friends and argued that human reason alone was not enough to solve social problems, and argued for the importance of strong authority and tradition rooted in the Roman Catholic Church. These ideas were embodied in his 1916 book, Authority, Liberty, and Function in the Light of the War, first published in English, and later in Spanish as La crisis del humanismo (1919).
Maeztu became one of the most prominent defenders of the regime of Miguel Primo de Rivera, and called for Spain to "recover its 16th-century sense of Roman Catholic mission." In 1926 his literary essays were published in Don Quijote, Don Juan y La Celestina, and in 1928 he served as Spanish ambassador to Argentina.
Along with Pedro Sainz Rodríguez and others, Maeztu founded the right-wing, monarchist Acción Española movement in 1931. In 1934, his final published book was written, Defensa de la hispanidad ("In Defense of Spanishness"), advocating "a return to pure Spanishness" and strongly condemning Liberalism and the French Revolution's slogan "Liberté, égalité, fraternité".
His younger sister was the Spanish educator and feminist, María de Maeztu who founded the Residencia de Señoritas and the Lyceum Club in Madrid, and his younger brother was the painter Gustavo de Maeztu who has a museum named for him in the Palace of the Kings of Navarre in Estella, Spain.
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Ramiro de Maeztu
- Boyd, Carolyn P. Historia Patria: Politics, History, and National Identity in Spain, 1875-1975. Pages 225-226. Princeton University Press, 1997.
- Hacia otra España (1899).
- Don Quijote, Don Juan y La Celestina (1926).
- Authority, Liberty, and Function in the Light of the War (1916, later published in Spanish in 1919 as La crisis del humanismo) .
- Defensa de la hispanidad (1934).