Ramon Magsaysay

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Ramon Magsaysay
Ramon F Magsaysay.jpg
7th President of the Philippines
3rd President of the Third Republic
In office
December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957
Vice President Carlos P. García
Preceded by Elpidio Quirino
Succeeded by Carlos P. García
Secretary of National Defense
In office
January 1, 1954 – May 14, 1954
President Himself
Preceded by Oscar Castelo
Succeeded by Sotero B. Cabahug
In office
September 1, 1950 – February 28, 1953
President Elpidio Quirino
Preceded by Ruperto Kangleon
Succeeded by Oscar Castelo
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Zambales' Lone District
In office
May 28, 1946 – September 1, 1950
Preceded by Valentin Afable
Succeeded by Enrique Corpus
Personal details
Born Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay
(1907-08-31)August 31, 1907
Iba, Zambales, Philippines
Died March 17, 1957(1957-03-17) (aged 49)
Balamban, Cebu, Philippines
Resting place Manila North Cemetery, Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines
Political party Nacionalista Party (1953–1957)
Liberal Party[1][2] (1946–1953)
Spouse(s) Luz Banzon
Children Teresita
Milagros
Ramon
Alma mater José Rizal University
Profession Engineer, Soldier
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature
Military service
Allegiance Flag of the Philippines.svg Republic of the Philippines
Years of service 1942–1945
Rank Captain

Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was the seventh President of the Republic of the Philippines, serving from December 30, 1953 until his death in a 1957 aircraft disaster. An automobile mechanic, Magsaysay was appointed military governor of Zambales after his outstanding service as a guerilla leader during the Pacific War. He then served two terms as Liberal Party congressman for Zambales before being appointed as Secretary of National Defense by President Elpidio Quirino. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He was the first Philippine President born during the 20th century.

Life[edit]

Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales on August 31, 1907 to Exequiel Magsaysay y de los Santos (April 18, 1874 in San Marcelino, Zambales - January 24, 1968 in Manila), a blacksmith, and Perfecta del Fierro y Quimson (April 18, 1887 in Castillejos, Zambales - May 5, 1980 in Manila), a schoolteacher.[3][4][5]

Early life[edit]

He spent his elementary life somewhere in Castillejos and his high school life at Zambales Academy at San Narciso, Zambales. After high school, Magsaysay entered the University of the Philippines in 1927, where he enrolled in a pre-medical course.[3] He worked as a chauffeur to support himself as he studied engineering; and later, he transferred to the Institute of Commerce at José Rizal College (1928–1932), where he received a baccalaureate in commerce. He then worked as an automobile mechanic in a bus company (Florida) and shop superintendent.[3]

Career during World War II[edit]

At the outbreak of World War II, he joined the motor pool of the 31st Infantry Division of the Philippine Army. When Bataan surrendered in 1942, Magsaysay escaped to the hills, narrowly evading Japanese arrest on at least four occasions. There he organised the Western Luzon Guerrilla Forces, and was commissioned captain on 5 April 1942. For three years, Magsaysay operated under Col. Merrill's famed guerrilla outfit & saw action at Sawang, San Marcelino, Zambales, first as a supply officer codenamed Chow and later as commander of a 10,000 strong force.[3] Magsaysay was among those instrumental in clearing the Zambales coast of the Japanese prior to the landing of American forces together with the Philippine Commonwealth troops on January 29, 1945.

Family[edit]

He was married to Luz Magsaysay (née Banzon) in June 16, 1933 and they had three children: Teresita Banzon-Magsaysay (1934–1979), Milagros "Mila" Banzon-Magsaysay (b. 1936) and Ramon "Jun" Banzon-Magsaysay, Jr. (b. 1938).

Relatives[edit]

Several of Magsaysay's descendants became prominent public figures in their own right:

House of Representatives[edit]

On 22 April 1946, Magsaysay, encouraged by his ex-guerrillas, was elected under the Liberal Party[1] to the Philippine House of Representatives. In 1948, President Manuel Roxas chose Magsaysay to go to Washington as Chairman of the Committee on Guerrilla Affairs, to help to secure passage of the Rogers Veterans Bill, giving benefits to Philippine veterans. In the so-called "dirty election" of 1949, he was re-elected to a second term in the House of Representatives. During both terms he was Chairman of the House National Defense Committee.

Secretary of National Defense[edit]

In early August 1950, he offered President Elpidio Quirino a plan to fight the Communist guerillas, using his own experiences in guerrilla warfare during World War II. After some hesitation, Quirino realized that there was no alternative and appointed Magsaysay Secretary of National Defence on August 31, 1950. He intensified the campaign against the Hukbalahap guerillas. This success was due in part to the unconventional methods he took up from a former advertising expert and CIA agent, Colonel Edward Lansdale. In the counterinsurgency the two utilized deployed soldiers distributing relief goods and other forms of aid to outlying, provincial communities. Prior to Magsaysay's appointment as Defense Secretary, rural citizens perceived the Philippine Army with apathy and distrust. However, Magsaysay's term enhanced the Army's image, earning them respect and admiration.[6]

In June 1952, Magsaysay made a goodwill tour to the United States and Mexico. He visited New York, Washington, D.C. (with a medical check-up at Walter Reed Hospital) and Mexico City where he spoke at the Annual Convention of Lions International.

By 1953, President Quirino thought the threat of the Huks was under control and Secretary Magsaysay was becoming too weak. Magsaysay met with interference and obstruction from the President and his advisers, in fear they might be unseated at the next presidential election. Although Magsaysay had at that time no intention to run, he was urged from many sides and finally was convinced that the only way to continue his fight against communism, and for a government for the people, was to be elected President, ousting the corrupt administration that, in his opinion, had caused the rise of the communist guerrillas by bad administration. He resigned his post as defense secretary on February 28, 1953, and became the presidential candidate of the Nacionalista Party, disputing the nomination with senator Camilo Osías at the Nacionalista national convention.

1951 Negros Occidental incident[edit]

Theatrical poster of the 1961 film The Moises Padilla Story that narrates the 1951 event.

When news reached Magsaysay that his political ally Moises Padilla was being tortured by the forces of provincial governor Lacson, he rushed to Negros Occidental, but was too late. He was then informed that Padilla's body was swimming in blood, pierced by fourteen bullets, and was positioned on a police bench in the town plaza.[7] Magsaysay himself carried Padilla's corpse with his bare hands and delivered it to the morgue, and the next day, news clips showed pictures of him doing so.[8] Magsaysay even used this event during his presidential campaign in 1953.

The trial against Lacson started in January 1952; Magsaysay and his men presented enough evidence to convict Lacson and his 26 men for murder.[7] In August 1954, Judge Eduardo Enriquez ruled the men were guilty and Lacson, his 22 men and three other mayors of Negros Occidental municipalities were condemned to the electric chair.[9]

Presidential election of 1953[edit]

Presidential elections were held on November 10, 1953 in the Philippines. Incumbent President Elpidio Quirino lost his opportunity to get a second full term as President of the Philippines to former Defense Secretary Magsaysay. His running mate, Senator José Yulo lost to Senator Carlos P. García. Vice President Fernando López did not run for re-election. This was the first time that an elected Philippine president did not come from the Senate. Moreover, Magsaysay started the practice in the Philippines of "campaign jingles" during elections, for one of his inclinations and hobbies was dancing.

The United States Government, including the Central Intelligence Agency, had a strong influence on the 1953 elections, and candidates in the election fiercely competed with each other for U.S. support.[10]

Presidency[edit]

Presidential styles of
Ramon F. Magsaysay
Reference style His Excellency
Spoken style Your Excellency
Alternative style Mr. President

In the Election of 1953, Magsaysay was decisively elected president over the incumbent Elpidio Quirino. He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by a Philippine president. He was then called "Mambo Magsaysay".

As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, that aimed to defeat communist-Marxist movements in South East Asia, South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific. During his term, he made Malacañang literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public. One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force (PAF): President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight. He brought back the people's trust in the military and in the government.

His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free; his presidency was cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports, culture and foreign affairs. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and well-governed countries.[citation needed]

Cabinet[edit]

Domestic policies[edit]

Economy of the Philippines under
President Ramon Magsaysay
1953–1957
Population
1954 \approx 21.40 million
Gross Domestic Product
1954 Increase Php 157,054 million
1956 IncreasePhp 179,739 million
Growth rate, 1954-56 7.22 %
Per capita income
1954 Decrease Php 7,339
1956 Increase Php 8,073
Total exports
1954 Increase Php 36,462 million
1956 Decrease Php 34,727 million
Exchange rates
1 US US$ = Php 2.00
1 Php = US US$ 0.50
Sources: Philippine Presidency Project
Malaya, Jonathan; Eduardo Malaya. So Help Us God... The Inaugurals of the Presidents of the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc. 
President's Inauguration Day[edit]

Ushering, indeed, a new era in Philippine government, President Magsaysay placed emphasis upon service to the people by bringing the government closer to the former.[2] This was symbollically seen when, on inauguration day, President Magsaysay ordered the gates of Malacañan Palace open to all and sundry, who were allowed to freely visit all the dependencies of the presidential mansion. Later, this was regulated to allow weekly visitation.[2]

True[2] to his electoral promise, President Magsaysay created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee.[2] This body immediately proceeded to hear grievances and recommend remedial action. Headed by soft-spoken, but active and tireless, Manuel Manahan, this committee would come to hear nearly 60,000 complaints in a year, of which more than 30,000 would be settled by direct action and a little more than 25,000 would be referred to government agencies for appropriate follow-up. This new entity, composed of youthful personnel, all loyal to the President, proved to be a highly successful morale booster restoring the people's confidence in their own government.[2]

Agrarian reform[edit]

To amplify and stabilize the functions of the Economic Development Corps (EDCOR), President Magsaysay worked[2] for the establishment of the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA).[2] This body took over from the EDCOR and helped in the giving some sixty-five thousand acres to three thousand indigent families for settlement purposes.[2] Again, it allocated some other twenty-five thousand to a little more than one thousand five hundred landless families, who subsequently became farmers.[2]

As further aid to the rural people,[2] the president established the Agricultural Credit and Cooperative Financing Administration (ACCFA). The idea was for this entity to make available rural credits. Records show that it did grant, in this wise, almost ten million dollars. This administration body next devoted its attention to cooperative marketing.[2]

Along this line of help to the rural areas, President Magsaysay initiated in all earnestness the artesian wells campaign. A group-movement known as the Liberty Wells Association was formed and in record time managed to raise a considerable sum for the construction of as many artesian wells as possible. The socio-economic value of the same could not be gainsaid and the people were profuse in their gratitude.[2]

Finally, vast irrigation projects, as well as enhancement of the Ambuklao Power plant and other similar ones, went a long way towards bringing to reality the rural improvement program advocated by President Magsaysay.[2]

President Ramon Magsaysay at the Presidential Study, Malacañan Palace.

President Ramón Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program:

  • Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954—Abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao.
  • Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) – governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing share-tenancy and leasehold system. The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations.
  • Republic Act No. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) – Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations.
  • Republic Act No. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) – Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.[11]
HUKBALAHAP[edit]

In early 1954, Benigno Aquino, Jr. was appointed by President Ramón Magsaysay to act as personal emissary to Luís Taruc, leader of the Hukbalahap, a rebel group. Also in 1954, Lt. Col. Laureño Maraña, the former head of Force X of the 16th PC Company, assumed command of the 7th BCT, which had become one of the most mobile striking forces of the Philippine ground forces against the Huks, from Colonel Valeriano. Force X employed psychological warfare through combat intelligence and infiltration that relied on secrecy in planning, training, and execution of attack. The lessons learned from Force X and Nenita were combined in the 7th BCT.

With the all out anti-dissidence campaigns against the Huks, they numbered less than 2,000 by 1954 and without the protection and support of local supporters, active Huk resistance no longer presented a serious threat to Philippine security. From February to mid-September 1954, the largest anti-Huk operation, "Operation Thunder-Lightning" was conducted that resulted to the surrender of Luis Taruc on May 17. Further cleanup operations of guerillas remaining lasted throughout 1955, diminishing its number to less than 1,000 by year's end.[12]

Foreign policies[edit]

Eleanor Roosevelt with President Ramón Magsaysay and then First Lady Luz Magsaysay of the Philippines in Manila
SEATO[edit]

The administration of President Magsaysay was active in the fight against the expansion of communism in the Asian region. He made the Philippines a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which was established in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954 during the "Manila Conference".[13] Members of SEATO were alarmed at the possible victory of North Vietnam over South Vietnam, which could spread communist ideology to other countries in the region. The possibility that a communist state can influence or cause other countries to adopt the same system of government is called the domino theory.[14]

The active coordination of the Magsaysay administration with the Japanese government led to the Reparation Agreement. This was an agreement between the two countries, obligating the Japanese government to pay $550 million as reparation for war damages in the Philippines.[14]

Defense Council[edit]

Taking the advantage of the presence of U.S. Secretary John Foster Dulles in Manila to attend the SEATO Conference, the Philippine government took steps to broach with him the establishment of a Joint Defense Council. Vice-President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Garcia held the opportune conversations with Secretary Dulles for this purpose. Agreement was reached thereon and the first meeting of the Joint United States-Philippines Defense Council was held in Manila following the end of the Manila Conference. Thus were the terms of the Mutual Defense Pact between the Philippines and the United States duly implemented.[2]

Laurel-Langley Agreement[edit]
At Malacañan Palace, 1955. Clockwise, from top left: Senator Edmundo Cea, Former President José P. Laurel Sr., Senator Primicias, Senate President Eulogio A. Rodriguez, Sr., President Ramón F. Magsaysay, & House Speaker José B. Laurel Jr.

The Magsaysay administration negotiated the Laurel-Langley Agreement which was a trade agreement between the Philippines and the United States which was signed in 1955 and expired in 1974. Although it proved deficient, the final agreement satisfied nearly all of the diverse Filipino economic interests. While some have seen the Laurel-Langley agreement as a continuation of the 1946 trade act, Jose P. Laurel and other Philippine leaders recognized that the agreement substantially gave the country greater freedom to industrialize while continuing to receive privileged access to US markets.[15]

The agreement replaced the unpopular Bell Trade Act, which tied the economy of the Philippines to that of United States economy.

Bandung Conference[edit]

Billed as an all-Oriental meet to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism orneocolonialism by either the United States or the Soviet Union in the Cold War, or any other imperialistic nations, the Asian–African Conference was held in Bandung (Java) in April 1955, upon invitation extended by the Prime Ministers of India, Pakistan, Burma, Ceylon, and Indonesia. The conference is commonly known as the Bandung Conference. Although, at first, the Magsaysay Government seemed reluctant to send any delegation. Later, however, upon advise of Ambassador Carlos P. Romulo, it was decided to have the Philippines participate in the conference. Ambassador Romulo was asked to head the Philippine delegation.[2] At the very outset indications were to the effect that the conference would promote the cause of neutralism as a third position in the current cold war between the capitalist bloc and the communist group. John Kotelawala, Prime Minister of Ceylon, however, broke the ice against neutralism.[2] He was immediately joined by Philippine envoy Romulo, who categorically stated that his delegation believed that "a puppet is a puppet",[2] no matter whether under a Western Power or an Oriental state.[2]

At one time in the course of the conference, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru acidly spoke against the SEATO. Quick to draw, Ambassador Romulo delivered a stinging, eloquent retort that prompted Prime Minister Nehru to publicly apologize to the Philippine delegation.[2]

Records had it that the Philippine delegation ably represented the interests of the Philippines and, in the ultimate analysis, succeeded in turning the Bandung Conference into a victory against the plans of its socialist and neutralist delegates.[2]

Reparation agreement[edit]

Following the reservations made by Ambassador Romulo, on the Philippines behalf, upon signing the Japanese Peace Treaty in San Francisco on September 8, 1951, for several years of series of negotiations were conducted by the Philippine government and that of Japan. In the face of adamant claims of the Japanese government that it found impossible to meet the demand for the payment of eight billion dollars by the way of reparations, president Magsaysay, during a so-called "cooling off"[2] period, sent a Philippine Reparations Survey Committee, headed by Finance Secretary Jaime Hernandez, to Japan for an "on the spot" study of that country's possibilities.[2]

When the Committee reported that Japan was in a position to pay, Ambassador Felino Neri, appointed chief negotiator, went to Tokyo. On May 31, 1955, Ambassador Neri reached a compromise agreement with Japanese Minister Takazaki, the main terms of which consisted in the following: The Japanese government would pay eight hundred million dollars as reparations. Payment was to be made in this wise: Twenty million dollars would be paid in cash in Philippine currency; thirty million dollars, in services; five million dollars, in capital goods; and two hundred and fifty million dollars, in long-term industrial loans.[2]

On August 12, 1955, President Magsaysay informed the Japanese government, through Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama, that the Philippines accepted the Neri-Takazaki agreement.[2] In view of political developments in Japan, the Japanese Prime Minister could only inform the Philippine government of the Japanese acceptance of said agreement on March 15, 1956. The official Reparations agreement between the two government was finally signed at Malacañan Palace on May 9, 1956, thus bringing to a rather satisfactory conclusion this long drawn controversy between the two countries.[2]

Death[edit]

The crash site of Ramon Magsaysay's presidential plane at Mount Manunggal, Cebu
Tomb of President Magsaysay at the Manila North Cemetery.
Monument at the crash site in Manunggal, Balamban, Cebu

Magsaysay's term, which was to end on 30 December 1957, was cut short by a plane crash. On 16 March 1957, Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu City where he spoke at three educational institutions. That same night, at about 1 am, he boarded the presidential plane "Mt. Pinatubo", a C-47, heading back to Manila. In the early morning hours of 17 March, the plane was reported missing. By late afternoon, newspapers had reported the airplane had crashed on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu, and that 36 of the 56 aboard were killed (the actual number on board was 25, including Magsaysay). Only newspaperman Néstor Mata survived. Vice-President Carlos García, who was on an official visit to Australia at the time, assumed the presidency to serve out the last eight months of Magsaysay's term.

An estimated 2 million people attended Magsaysay's burial on 31 March 1957.[16][17][18] He was posthumously referred to by people as the "Idol of the Masses".

Popular references[edit]

  • The First Team, a 1971 thriller by author John Ball, hinges on the effort to recapture the USS Ramon Magsaysay, an American ballistic missile submarine. Freeing the submarine from control of the Soviet Union will force the Soviets to surrender their occupation of the United States.
  • In Robert A. Heinlein's novel Starship Troopers, the smallest starships are named after footsoldiers. Upon reading some of their names, Filipino protagonist Johnnie Rico remarks, "There ought to be one named Magsaysay."
  • In Gundam Seed, an Agamemnon-class carrier is named after Magsaysay; in episode 48: "The Magsaysay will take command of space divisions 48 and 211 from this point on", and this reference is further related to Starship Troopers' tribute: "The remaining vessels of the 15th carrier group are to gather at the signal coordinates of the Heinlein"

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Ramon Magsaysay." Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
  3. ^ a b c d Manahan, Manuel P. (1987). Reader's Digest November 1987 issue: Biographical Tribute to Ramon Magsaysay. pp. 17–23. 
  4. ^ "Exequiel S Magsaysay". Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Perfecta Q del Fierro Magsaysay". Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  6. ^ Ladwig III, Walter C. (2014). "When the Police are the Problem: The Philippine Constabulary and the Huk Rebellion"," (PDF). in C. Christine Fair and Sumit Ganguly, (eds.) Policing Insurgencies: Cops as Counterinsurgents. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 
  7. ^ a b "THE PHILIPPINES: Justice for the Governor". Time Magazine. September 6, 1954. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Remembering President Ramón Magsaysay y Del Fierro: A Modern-Day Moses". Retrieved February 3, 2010.  A privileged speech by Senator Nene Pimentel delivered at the Senate, August 2001.
  9. ^ "THE PHILIPPINES: Justice for the Governor". Time. September 6, 1954. Retrieved February 3, 2010.  Second page of Time '​s coverage of Rafael Lacson's case.
  10. ^ Cullather, Nick (1994). Illusions of influence: the political economy of United States-Philippines relations, 1942–1960. Stanford University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-8047-2280-3. 
  11. ^ Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) – Organizational Chart
  12. ^ Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray, The Magsaysay Story (1956), is a full-length biography
  13. ^ Ramon Magsaysay (president of Philippines) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  14. ^ a b Grace Estela C. Mateo: Philippine Civilization – History and Government, 2006
  15. ^ Illusions of influence: the political economy of United States-Philippines. By Nick Cullather
  16. ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press. 
  17. ^ Townsend, William Cameron (1952). Biography of President Lázaro Cárdenas.        See the SIL International Website at:   Establishing the Work in Mexico.
  18. ^ Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray: The Magsaysay Story (The John Day Company, 1956, updated – with an additional chapter on Magsaysay's death – re-edition by Pocket Books, Special Student Edition, SP-18, December 1957)
House of Representatives of the Philippines
Preceded by
Valentin Afable
Member of the House of Representatives from Zambales' At-large district
1946–1953
Succeeded by
Enrique Corpus
Political offices
Preceded by
Elpidio Quirino
President of the Philippines
December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957
Succeeded by
Carlos Garcia
Preceded by
Ruperto Kangleon
Secretary of National Defense
1950–1953
Succeeded by
Oscar Castelo
Preceded by
Oscar Castelo
Secretary of National Defense
1954
Succeeded by
Sotero B. Cabahug