Amar Singh I
|Maharana Amar Singh|
|Ruler of Mewar-Udaipur|
Painting of Maharana Amar Singh I by Raja Ravi Verma
|Reign||19 January 1597 - 26 January 1620|
|Born||March 16, 1559|
|Birthplace||Chittorgarh Fort, Rajasthan, India|
|Died||January 26, 1620 (age 61)|
|Place of death||Udaipur, Rajasthan, India|
|Mother||Maharani Ajbade Punwar|
Maharana Amar Singh I, the Maharana[nb 1] of Mewar - Udaipur (March 16, 1559 - January 26, 1620) was the eldest son and successor of Maharana Pratap of Mewar. He was the 13th Rana of Mewar dynasty of Sisodia Rajputs and ruler of Mewar from 19 January 1597 till his death on 26 January 1620.
Birth and childhood
Amar Singh was the eldest son of Pratap Singh born to his first wife, Maharani Ajabadeh Punwar, who was the daughter of Rao Ram Rakh Panwar. He was born in Chittor on March 16, 1559, the same year when foundation of Udaipur was laid by his grandfather, Maharana Udai Singh.
Prince and Commander
Udai Singh died in 1572 at Gogunda and his son Pratap Singh was made to ascend the throne of Mewar by the commandeers of royal house of Mewar. Maharana Pratap waged a war against Mughals and did not succumb to Akbar and fought several wars with them to re-conquer Chittor and other territories lost to Mughals. Amar Singh thus being eldest son became the heir-apparent and prince or Rajkunwar.
Amar Singh was trained in military warfare and weapons since childhood. Upon growing up, he proved to be a great warrior and general and fought many wars with Maharana Pratap against Akbar.
In an incident, the womenfolk of Abdur Rahim Khankhana, along with a Mughal officer, fell into the hands of Amar Singh. He at once brought them as prisoners to Maharana Pratap. At this point of time, Khankhana was actually on the march against Pratap, and was camping at Sherpur in order to make preparations for an assault against Pratap. Nonwithstanding all this, Pratap rebuked Amar Singh for having arrested ladies of the enemy camp and commanded Amar Singh to arrange for the safe conveyance of the Mughal ladies to their camp. Khankhana was so affected by this incident that he refused to campaign against such a chivalrous monarch. He petitioned Akbar to be relieved of his post and was subsequently (in 1581) appointed guardian of Akbar's own son, Salim. Also it is believed that the slogan Jo dridh rakhe dharm, ne tahi rakhe kartar was spoken by Abdur Rahim Khankhana, who is also known as "Rahim das" in Hindi poetry.
Maharana Pratap died at Chavand succumbing to the injuries sustained in hunting. While on death-bed he made Amar Singh his successor in front of his chiefs and made them swear to maintain their fight against the Mughals and to re-conquer Chittor.
Amar Singh thus succeeded Maharana Pratap upon his death on 19 January 1597 and was the ruler of Mewar till his death on 26 January 1620, as the 13th regent of Mewar dynasty.
Battles against Jahangir
Amar Singh, fought many wars with the Mughals during his lifetime. Both against Akbar, who died in 1605, which were mainly during life-time of Maharana Pratap and later after his coronation against next Mughal Emperor, Jahangir.
The first expedition Jahangir sent after his coronation was against Amar Singh. He sent Prince Pravez and Asaf Khan, who led an army of 20,000 horse which fought a battle against Rana Amar Singh at Dewar in year 1606, which was fought in a valley of Aravalli about 40 km north-east of Kumbhalgarh. Amar Singh showed great bravery in Battle of Dewar and in the battle Amar Singh killed the Mughal commander in charge, Sultan Khan. He thrust his spear with such a force that the weapon struck in the ground after piercing the strong coat of mail and chaste and the horse of Sultan Khan. Amar Singh was able to defend his territories in the battle.
Jehangir sent another army against Amar Singh in 1608 under Mahabat Khan in which though Mughals won but they could not make any decisive change to ground situation. Later an expedition was again sent under leadership of Prince Shah Jahan, which caused much damage to life and property of Mewar. Many temples were destroyed and several villages put on fire and ladies and children were captured and tortured to make Amar Singh accept surrender. Ultimately, after Mewar was depleted financially and in manpower due to several battles against Mughals, he thought it was prudent diplomatic move in interest of his pupils and Mewar, to conditionally accept the Mughals as rulers. He started negotiations with them and finally, entered into a treaty with Shah Jahan, who negotiated on behalf of Jehangir in 1615, where in it was agreed that Ruler of Mewar will not be bound to present himself in person at Mughal court. Later, when Amar Singh went to meet Jehangir at Ajmer, he was given a warm welcome by Mughal Emperor. and the territories around Chittor along with the Chittorgarh Fort were given back to Mewar in 1616 by Jehangir, as goodwill gesture.  However, the Chittorgarh fort was never inhabited fully and Udaipur remained the capital of Mewar State.
Amar Singh was loved by his pupils and chiefs for the qualities like bravery, leadership, valor, justice and kindness.
- Hamir of Mewar was the first to take title of Maharana, which became hereditary
- Sharma, Ankur (2013-10-09). "Maharana Pratap -The Indian Warrior King - life 'n' gadget". Lifengadget.com. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- Costumes of the Rulers of Mewar: With Patterns and Construction Techniques By Pushpa Rani Mathur. 1994. p. 23.
- Rajasthan [district Gazetteers].: Rajsamand -2001 - Page 35 The battle of Dewar was fought in a valley of Arvali about 40 km north -east of Kumbhalgarh. ... Prince Amar Singh fought valiantly and pierced through Sultan Khan and the horse he was riding.
- A military history of medieval India, 2003- Page 530 Prince Pravez and Asaf Khan led an army of 20,000 horse which fought a battle against Rana Amar Singh at Dewar.
- The Mughul Empire by Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava-1969, 1526-1803 A.D. - Page 269 Amar Singh bravely defended his territory and fought a tough battle at the pass of Dewar
- The Truth of Babri Mosque By Ashok Pant. 2002. p. 129.
- In 1616 Mughal emperor Jehangir restored the fort to the Rajput but it was not resettled.
- The Pearson Guide To The Central Police Forces Examination, 2/E By Thorpe. p. 312.