|— Metropolis —|
|Nickname(s): City of waterfalls|
|• Body||Ranchi Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Rama Khalko|
|• Deputy mayor||Sanjeev Vijayvargiya|
|• Total||5,321 km2 (2,054 sq mi)|
|Elevation||629 m (2,064 ft)|
|• Total||1,126,741 (UA)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||JH 01|
|Sex ratio(per 1000 male)||950|
Ranchi // (Hindi राँची ) is the capital of and the second-most populous city in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, Western West Bengal and the present eastern Chhattisgarh. Jharkhand State was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.
The name Ranchi comes from the original Oraon village Archi at the site. Archi derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave or archi. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished; Archi became Rachi, and Rachi became Ranchi. One historically significant neighborhood is Doranda ('duran' 'दुरङ' means song and 'daah' 'दअः' means water in the Mundari language), between the Hinoo (Bhusur) & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station, treasury and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny. The present Purani (old) Ranchi marks the site of the old village of Archi.
Early history 
Ranchi was ruled by Munda Rajas.. The old Ram Temple in Ranchi was their royal palace. Possibly, the area was included in the Magadh Empire during the reign of Ashoka ( 273-232 B.C. ). With the decline of Mauryan power, King Kharavela of Kalinga led on army through Jharkhand and ransacked Rajgriha and Pataliputra of Magadh. Later, Samudra Gupta (335-380 A.D.) must have passed through the area on his expedition to the Deccan.
Ranchi is located at  The total area covered by the Ranchi municipal area is 175.12 square kilometres and the average elevation of the city is 651 m above sea level..
Ranchi is located on the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi is referred to as the "City of Waterfalls", due to the presence of numerous large and small falls of around the close vicinity of the city. The most popular ones are Dassam Falls, Hundru Falls, Jonha Falls, Hirni Falls and Panchghagh Falls.
The Subarnarekha river and its tributaries constitute the local river system. Dams in Kanke, Rukka and Hatia have been built over these channels to cater to the water requirements of majority the population.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its combination with dense tropical forests ensures that it enjoys a comparatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. Previously, it was accorded a 'hill station' status during the British rule. Rapid population growth and industrialization have caused considerable change in the weather pattern and rise in average temperatures. This has resulted in gradual loss of this "Hill Station" like status.
||Varanasi, Allahabad, Kanpur, New Delhi||Gaya, Patna, Gorakhpur, Kathmandu||Bokaro, Dhanbad, Siliguri, Guwahati|
|Bhopal, Indore, Pune, Mumbai, Ahmedabad||Kolkata, Dhaka, Aizawl|
|Raipur, Hyderabad, Solapur, Goa||Rourkela, Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Bengaluru, Chennai||Jamshedpur, Kharagpur, Bay of Bengal|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate. However, due to its position and the forests around the city, it is known for its pleasant climate. Its climate is the primary reason why Ranchi was once the summer capital of the undivided State of Bihar. Ranchi used to be a preferable hill station in the past. Temperature ranges from maximum 42 to 20 °C during summer, and from 25 to 0 °C during winter. December and January are the coolest months with temperature getting to freezing point in some places of the city. The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.
|Climate data for Ranchi|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.2
|Average low °C (°F)||9.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||21.8
As per latest 2011 India census, Ranchi has a population of 2,912,022, making it the 46th largest city in India and third largest city in Jharkhand after Jamshedpur and Dhanbad. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%.Ranchi is the second most populous district of Jharkhand after dhanbad. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68% (census 2011), higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 92.48%, and female literacy is 82.48%. In Ranchi, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was the highest employment generating Tier-III city in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.
Ranchi is well connected via Rail, Air and Road routes.
Ranchi is now well connected with major cities of India via rail routes and one of the most profitable station in South Eastern Railways. Ranchi Railway Station with station code RNC is main station of Ranchi. Apart from Ranchi station, there are few more stations in city namely, Hatia Station, Tatisilwai Station and Namkom Station. Many important trains start from Hatia station as well. 16 trains start, 16 trains end and 20 trains pass from Ranchi Railway station. It is well connected with metro and major cities of India like Jaipur, Bilaspur, New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bhubaneswar, Bangalore, Vishakhapatnam, Vijaywada, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Patna, Amritsar, Nagpur, Gorakhpur, Pune, Raipur, Cuttack, Puri, Rourkela, Durg, Ajmer, Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Jammu, Surat, etc.
Birsa Munda Airport (IXR) of Ranchi has direct flights from Patna, Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata. Few major airlines like Air India, GoAir and Jet Airways serve this purpose. A new international terminal is now ready which is spread over 19,676 square metres of land, is furnished with the finest equipment imported from China, Germany and Singapore, and has the capacity to handle 500 domestic and 200 international passengers at a time. This terminal is having some ultra modern facilities. 
NH 33 and NH 23 passes through Ranchi. Roads connecting major cities are providing movement for passenger and freight traffic. Buses of the Jharkhand State Road Transport Corporation and private buses ply regularly to connect Ranchi to the other parts of Jharkhand. Also, Bihar State Road Transport Corporation run regularly for major cities (Patna, Gaya, Purnea etc.) of Bihar. Regular bus services are there to Kolkata and other towns of neighboring states. Private buses also ply regularly to Jamshedpur, Siwan, Begusarai, Rourkela, Dumka, Varanasi, Khagaul, Hajipur, Patna and Kolkata. Luxury Mercedes buses are also available from Ranchi to Gaya and Patna. A new ring road is under construction around the city to reduce the growing traffic overload on the city roads. Three flyovers are coming up for smooth movement of traffic in busiest zones of the city. All major NH and other roads are being widened to six lanes or eight lanes.
Bulk of the public transport constitute of auto rickshaw and cycle rickshaw. A city bus service under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission was started in 2010 to meet the demands of public transport. There are a total of 150 city buses operating in Ranchi. The Jharkhand Tourism Development Corporation (JTDC) was given the responsibility of running the buses in Ranchi.
Ranchi is the healthcare hub not only for the people of Jharkhand but also for people of nearby states. Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) is one of the biggest and oldest hospitals of Ranchi. Government Hospitals like the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP) and RINPAS are famous throughout the country for Psychiatric treatment. Ranchi also has several private hospitals like Abdul Razaque Ansari Memorial Weavers Trust Hospital (an Apollo Hospital franchisee),Orchid Medical Centre, Rani Hospital, Nagarmal Modi Seva Sadan which is the oldest trust hospital in Ranchi. Other major hospitals include Guru Nanak Hospital, Raj Hospital, ESI Hospital, HEC Hospital and Military Hospital, Namkom. An upgraded Sadar Hospital is also about to be inaugurated in the city centre.
Higher Education Institutions 
- Indian Institute of Management Ranchi, IIMR
- National University of Study and Research in Law, Ranchi (NUSRL)
- Usha Martin Academy (UMA), Ranchi
- Birla Institute of Technology (BIT), Mesra
- National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology (NIFFT)
- Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS)
- Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi (CUJ, Ranchi)
- Xavier Institute of Social Service (XISS)
- Birsa Agricultural University
- BIT, Lalpur Extension branch of BIT, Mesra-Management and MCA BCA Institute
- Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke
- Ranchi Institute of Neuro Psychiatry and Applied Sciences (RINPAS)
- Central Tasar Research & Training Institute (CTR&TI), Central Silk Board, Min. of Textiles, Govt. of India, Piska-Nagri, Ranchi
- Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums (IINRG), Namkum
- Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology
- International Institute of Fashion Technology (IIFT, Ranchi Center)
Colleges under Ranchi University affiliation 
- Gossner College
- St. Xavier College
- Marwari College
- Ranchi College
- Women's College
- Nirmala College
- Yogada College
- Doranda College
- S.S.Memorial College
- St. Paul College
- JN College
- Maulana Azad Collage
- S.G.Memorial College
Primary and secondary schools 
Ranchi is a regional hub for leading pre-schools, primary and secondary schools. Some of the best schools in eastern India are in Ranchi. Major schools include:-
- Kairali School, Ranchi
- Delhi Public School, Ranchi
- DAV Kapildev Public School, Kadru, Ranchi
- DAV Public School, Bariatu, Ranchi
- St. Xavier's School, Doranda
- Jawahar Vidya Mandir, Shyamali
- Vivekananda Vidya Mandir
- Oxford Public School
- Saraswati Shishu Vidya Mandir, Dhurwa
- Modern Public School, Tupudana.
- Army Public School Ranchi
- D.A.V Public School, Dhurwa
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sector 2
- Guru Nanak Higher Secondary School
- Lala Lajpat Rai Senior Secondary School, Pundag.
- St.Francis School, Harmu
- St. Louis School, Harmu
- Surendranath Centenary School
- St. Anthony's School, Doranda
- St. Thomas School, Dhurwa
- Guru Nanak Higher Secondary School,pee pee compound
- St. Charles School, Hatia
- Taurian World School
- Sapphire International School
- Sarala Birla Public School
- St. Johns High School
- St. Aloysius High School
- St. Anne's Girls High School
- Ursuline Convent Girls High School
- Bishop Westcott Girls' School
- Bishop Westcott Boys' School
- Sacred Heart Convent
- Loreto Convent Doranda
- Bridgeford School Tupudana ranchi
- D.A.V Public School, Gandhinagar
- Cambrian Public School, Kanke Road
- Cambrian Public School, Rani Bagan Bariatu
- Cambridge School, Tatisilwai Ranchi
- International Public School, Kanke
- Central Academy, Kanke Road
- DAV Public School, Bariatu
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Dipatoli
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Hinoo, Doranda
- DAV Public School, Hehal
- St. Paul's School
- St. Thomas School
- St. Mary's School
- Holy Cross Girls High School, Purulia Road
- R.T.C High School, Buti
- Sri Doranda Balika Ucch Vidyalaya, Doranda, Ranchi
- S.S. Doranda Girls High School, Doranda, Ranchi
- Shyama Devi High School, Lalgutuwa Ranchi
- B.S.V High School Niwaranpur Ranchi
Some of major stadiums in Ranchi are:
- JSCA International Stadium, Ranchi - Cricket
- Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Athletics
- Shiekh Bhikhari Administrative Block, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Fencing, Karate- Do
- Veer Budhu Bhagat Aquatic Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Aquatics
- Harivansh Tana Bhagat Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Volleyball, Basketball, Wrestling
- Astroturf Hockey Stadium, Morhabadi, Ranchi - Hockey (Men & Women)
- Birsa Munda Football Stadium, Morhabadi, Ranchi - Football (Men), Rugby 7s
- Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Wushu, Badminton, Table Tennis
- R. K. Anand Lawn Bowl Greens, Namkum, Ranchi - Lawn Bowls, Judo
- Ganpat Rai Indoor Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Taekwondo, Gymnastics, Handball
- Albert Ekka Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Kabbadi, Kho-Kho
- Sidho Kanhu Velodrome Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Cycling
- Tikait Umrao Shooting Range, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Shooting
- Tennis Stadium, Mega Sports Complex, Ranchi - Tennis
An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. This international stadium will host an International Match between India and England on 19 January 2013. Apart from that, this stadium will also host two IPL 6 matches for KKR and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A Tennis Academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the Cricket stadium. Ranchi is among six cities in Hockey India League to be played in January 2013. Ranchi franchise was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos. Ranchi is also famous for being the hometown of World Cup winning Captain of Indian Cricket team, Mahendra Singh Dhoni. India's ace archer Deepika Kumari, gold medal winner of Commonwealth Games 2010 and current world no.1 rank holder, also hails from Ranchi.
Hindi, Bengali, Urdu and English newspapers are published from the city, including Dainik Jagran, Ananda Bazar Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Hindustan, Prabhat Khabar, Ranchi Express, Sunmarg, The Times of India, The Pioneer, The Telegraph, The Hindustan Times, The Economic Times and representations of national media houses like MiD-Day, Planman Media's magazines (The Sunday Indian, Business & Economy, The Human Factor, 4Ps etc.).
TV programming is provided by regional news channels like Sahara Samay, ETV Bihar and Jharkhand, etc. There are several news channels like News 11, City News, Maurya TV, Taaza TV, Mahua News,Divine News etc. broadcast by local cable operators in city areas. Ranchi has a Doordarshan Kendra, which telecasts its own programs on National Network from 5 PM to 8 PM everyday.
Ranchi has the following FM radio stations: (Listed in increasing order of frequency)
- Radio Mantra : 91.9 FM
- Big FM : 92.7 FM
- AIR FM Rainbow 100.5 FM
- Vividh Bharati (All India Radio) : 103.3 FM.
- Radio Dhoom : 104.8 FM
- Radio Dhamaal 106.4 FM
- Radio Hariyali Birsa Agri University : 107.8
- Mansa Puja
- Rath Yatra
- Durga Puja
- Chhath Puja
- Ram Navami
- Id-ul fitr
Shopping centre and entertainment points 
Ranchi is witnessing a boom in retail sector as there many malls functional in the city and many more are in the pipeline. Fast food giants like Dominos, Subway, KFC,Pizza hut Dosa Plaza, Cafe Coffee Day (CCD), Moti Mahal Delux Restaurant have their counters functional in the city and others are also opening their outlets sooner. GEL Church complex and Roshpa Tower are shopping points with many retails outlets and restaurants. Hi Street Mall, Eastern Mall(Pantaloons), Reliance Mart, Big Bazaar, Bazaar Kolkata, Vishal Mega Mart, Reliance Fresh, Reliance Trends, Reliance Footprint, Spring City Mall, galaxia mall are other shopping centres in Ranchi. Satya Paul Sarees and Gitanjali Lifestyle have already opened their outlets while West Side is coming up.
Ranchi has 4 multiplexes namely Eyelex-2 screens (Hinoo), Glitz Cinemas-3 screens (Hi Street Mall), Popkorn Cinemas-2 screens (The Galaxia Mall), and Fun Cinemas-3 screens (Spring City Mall). Other single or double screen theater are Plaza, Meenaxi, Sujata, PopKorn Cinemas(Upahar Cinema Campus, Galaxia Mall, Ratu Road), Sainik Theater.
Tourist attractions 
- Rock garden & Kanke dam(Gonda hills): Gonda Hill and Rock Garden is situated at a distance of about 4 km from Ranchi town on Ranchi Kanke Road. Rock Garden is carved out of the rocks of Gonda Hill and resembles its design to rock garden of Jaipur. At the base of the Hill is Kanke Dam.
- Hundru Falls:Hundru Fall is one of the most picturesque falls surrounding Ranchi. It is 45 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Purulia Road. Here, the Subarnarekha river falls from a height of 320 feet. The pools at the bottom of the falls are favourite picnic and bathing spots.
- Jonha Falls:Jonha Falls is also known as Gautamdhara, is around 40 km from Ranchi. It is approachable by both Road and train. The fall can be admired by descending around 500 steps. There is a tourist rest house which contains Lord Buddha temple. The river Kanchi flows nearby.
- Panchghagh Falls:Panchghagh falls is on Ranchi-Chakradharpur Road about 6 km from Khunti. This fall consists of five streams formed in a row due to the breaking up of the Banai river which falls from a good height. Cemented walkways connect the different cataracts, of which stream 2 is the most popular while 5 is the biggest, though a bit inaccessible.
- Dassam Falls:Dassam falls is 34 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Tata Road near a village called Taimara. Here, the Kachni river falls from an altitude of 144 feet. It is also known as Dassam Gagh.
- Hirni Falls:Another beautiful waterfall amidst forests about 70 km from Ranchi.
- Sita Fall:Adjacent to Jonha falls is Sita falls which can be seen at its best early in the morning.
- Pahari Mandir(Ranchi Hill):Ranchi Hill and Pahari Mandir is one of the landmark of Ranchi Town. The Shiva temple is situated on the top of the hill also known as Pahari Mandir. At the bottom of the hill is Ranchi Lake. Ranchi lake was excavated by Colonel Onsely in 1842.
- Deer Park(Khunti Road)
- Birsa Jaiwik Udyaan(ZOO): Birsa Jaivik Udyan is situated at a distance of 16 km from Ranchi in Ranchi Ramgarh Road near Ormanjhi. Many species of animals, trees and plants can be seen here.
- Dhurwa Dam
- Fun Castle, Ratu Road
- Sidhu Kanhu Park
- Zakir Hussain Park
- Nakshatra Van: Nakshatra Van is situated in the heart of the City. It is divided into various sections. There is a big circle in the center of the park which is divided into arcs. The tree that represents the particular nakshatras in the zodiac has been planted in each of the corresponding arcs.
- Tagore Hill: The Morhabadi Hill famous as Tagore Hill is an important tourist spot. The elder brother of Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, Jyotirindranath Tagore has built a house(Shantidham) on the hill. It is known as Tagore Hill due to its association with tagore family. Rath yatra similar to Puri is held every year.
- Rukka Dam
- Muta Crocodile breeding centre: It is situated at a distance of 23 km from Ranchi on Ranchi Ramgarh Road near Ormanjhi. There are around 50 crocodiles.
- Ratu Fort
- Jharkhand War Memorial
- Ranchi Lake: Located at the base of Ranchi Hills is excavted in the year 1842.
- McCluskigunj: It is famous for European style bungalows and a tribal museum.
- Tribal Research Institute and Museum: Located in Morhabadi. It shows tribal culture of Chotanagpur plateau.
- Jagannathpur Temple: It is 10 km apart from Ranchi town Jagannathpur temple was built in 1691 having resemblance with architectural style of Puri temple. Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo, of Barkagarh Jagannathpur built the temple. Rath yatra similar to Puri is held every year.
- Sun Temple: It is situated at a distance of 40 km on Ranchi Tata Road. It is built in the form of a Chariot with 18 wheels drawn by 7 white horses. It is surrounded by a pond which is used by devotees during Chhath Puja for worshipping of Sun.
- Angrabari (Amreshwar Dham): It is a temple consisting of the deity of Lord Shiva, Ram and Sita, Hanuman and Ganesh. It is situated near Khunti at a distance of about 40 km from Ranchi. The Shankracharya Swami Swarupanand Saraswati, having been captivated by serene, placid and celestial beauty of Angrabadi rechristened it as Amreshwar Dham.
- Devri Temple: A temple of Solha Bhuji Goddess Durga, is located on right side Ranchi-Tata highway(NH33) at 60 km from Ranchi. It is the only temple in Jharkhand where the religious rituals are performed by the Pahans(tribal priests) along with conventional Brahmins.
- GEL Church: Gossner Evangelical Lutheran Church in Chotanagpur, Assam in short G.E.L. Church on 2 November 1845 by four German Missionaries named Emil Schatz, Fredrik batsch, Augustus Brandt and E. Theodor Janke sent by Fr. Johaness Evangelista Gossner of Berlin. They arrived Ranchi and erected their tents and G.E.L. Church was inaugurated with church service on 2 November 1845.
- kanke dam
- krishna singh park
Being a city of natural beauty and big industries, Ranchi attracts a lot of people from outside. Ranchi has a number of 5 star and 3 star hotels for their pleasant stay here. It has a multitude of budget hotels and motels for regular visitors which provide convenient accommodation and food with other amenities.
Notable people 
- Rajesh Chauhan, former Indian cricketer, was born in Ranchi
- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, cricket player
- Deepika Kumari, archer
- Peter Mansfield, British journalist and historian, was born in Ranchi
- Vinay Pathak, actor schooled at Vikas Vidyalaya in Ranchi
- Jaipal Singh, captained the Indian Hockey Team at the 1928 Olympics
See also 
- "Jharkhand Movement". Country Studies. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- Cultural Configuration of Ranchi, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Rajendra Behari Lal, India. Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee, 1969, pg 306.
- Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society Of Bengal, Volume 4, No. 11, 1927, "The Etymology of Ranchi, pg 601.
- Kaye's and Malleson's history of the Indian mutiny of 1857-8, Volume 4, By Sir John William Kaye, George Bruce Malleson, W.H. Allen, 1889, pg 95.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Ranchi
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Assocham report, 2010
- "Ranchi ready with state-of-the-art airport". The Times Of India. 2012-04-04.
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- "Ranchi's new stadium set to host maiden One-Day International on January 19". The Times Of India. 2012-10-19.
- › Sport › Tennis http://www.thehindu.com › Sport › Tennis. Missing or empty
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- "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 2012-09-14.
- . Calcutta, India http://www.telegraphindia.com/1111124/jsp/.../story_14791748.jsp. Missing or empty
- "Famous Delhi eatery sets up shop in Ranchi". The Times Of India. 2012-11-09.
- http://www.dailypioneer.com/state-editions/ranchi/107249-pantaloons-foray-a-treat-for-the-fashionista.html. Missing or empty
- "" Home " Companies & Industry".
- Mukesh, A.S.R.P. (2012-08-08). "Dont drive to Main Road, theres a mall near you". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India).
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