Randers

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Randers
The old Town Hall on the square in Randers with a statue of Niels Ebbesen in front.
The old Town Hall on the square in Randers with a statue of Niels Ebbesen in front.
Official seal of Randers
Seal
Randers is located in Denmark
Randers
Randers
Randers Denmark
Coordinates: 56°27′25″N 10°02′20″E / 56.457°N 10.039°E / 56.457; 10.039Coordinates: 56°27′25″N 10°02′20″E / 56.457°N 10.039°E / 56.457; 10.039
Country Denmark
Region Central Denmark (Østjylland)
Municipality Randers
Government
 • Mayor Claus Omann Jensen
Area
 • Total 800.14 km2 (308.94 sq mi)
Elevation 56 m (184 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 61,163
 • Density 76/km2 (200/sq mi)
Time zone Central Europe Time (UTC+1)
Postal code 8900, 8920, 8930, 8940, 8960
Area code(s) (+45) 8
Website www.randers.dk

Randers (Danish pronunciation: [ˈʁɑnɐs]) is a city in Randers Municipality, Central Denmark Region) on the Jutland peninsula. It is Denmark's sixth-largest city, with a population of 61,163 (1 January 2014).[1] Randers city is the main town of the municipality and the site of its municipal council. The municipality is also a part of the East Jutland metropolitan area, which has 1.2 million inhabitants.[2] By road it is 38.5 kilometres (23.9 mi) north of Aarhus, 43.8 kilometres (27.2 mi) east of Viborg, and 224 kilometres (139 mi) northwest of Copenhagen.

Randers became a thriving market town in medieval times, and many of its half-timbered houses dated to the 15th century still remain today, as does Saint Mortens Church, also from that period. Trade by sea was facilitated through the Gudenå River, entering Randers Fjord. Today, Randers Tropical Zoo, is the top tourist attraction of the town. It is Northern Europe's largest artificial rainforest, and features about 350 different kinds of plants and more than 175 species of animals. The city's football team, Randers FC, play their homes games at the AutoC Park Randers, and play in Denmark's first league, the Superligaen. The town is also home to Randers rugby union club and Jutland RLFC, a rugby league team.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Randers was formally established around the 12th century, but traces of activity date back to Viking times. Canute IV of Denmark (ca. 1043–1086), also known as Canute the Saint and Canute the Holy, and as patron saint of Denmark, minted coins in the town. [3] The peasants of Randers who rose up against him and his plans to attack England and its ruler, William the Conqueror, assembled in this town. Their uprising led to the death of Canute.[4]

Niels Ebbesen statue in front of the old Town Hall in Randers

A chronicle written at Essenbæk Abbey tells of a fire that ravaged the city. The city was destroyed and rebuilt three times in the 13th century. In 1246, it was burned down by Abel of Denmark's troops during the civil uprising against Eric IV of Denmark. On a street in the town center is the house where, according to legend, Danish nobleman and national hero Niels Ebbesen killed Count Richard (Gerhard) III of Holstein on 1 April 1340, during the Kingless Times, when the entire country was pledged to German counts. This action led to further insurrection against the Germans. Ebbesen died in a large battle at Skanderborg Castle (Skanderborg Slot) in December 1340.[5] A statue to Ebbesen stands in front of Randers' Town Hall today.

When King Valdemar IV of Denmark (Valdemar Atterdag) tried to assemble a government in 1350 after the mortgaging to the Holsteiners, the town was further reinforced with protection, and was often named as Randershus ("Randers Fortress"). This fortification was captured by dissatisfied nobility in 1357. In 1359 Valdemar attacked the captured city with the strength all of his forces.[6] During medieval times the city prospered as a market town.[7]

Middle Ages to present[edit]

A typical half-timbered house in Randers

The town was fortified through much of the Middle Ages. Today, however, the only sign of defensive walls is their existence in street names. These streets follow a circular path, presumably following the location of the historic walls. Street names include Østervold ("Eastern Defense Wall"), Nørreport ("Northern Gate"), Vestervold ("Western Defense Wall"), and Lille Voldgade ("Little Defense Wall Street").

In 1534 a farmers' uprising tried to storm the town unsuccessfully; it was part of wider regional peasant unrest affecting the Jutland region the same year, leading to the death of some 2000 by the sword in Aalborg alone.[8] Massive moats were set up around the town under the rule of King Christian III (1536–1559). During its peak there were almost 170 merchants' estates in the area, and a sizeable navy that sailed around the world. Some of these old half-timbered estates and manor homes can still be seen in the town. Randers is referred to as Crown Jutland (Kronjylland) and the people as Crown Jutlanders (Kronjyde), probably due to the large Crown estates owned by the monarchy. The term Kronjyde was first used by Danish poets around 1750. N. F. S. Grundtvig (1783–1872) and Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), and especially Nobel Prize laureate Henrik Pontoppidan (1857–1943), used the term. The population in 1880 was 13,457.

Geography and climate[edit]

Map of Randers (1900)
The Guden River at Randers

Randers, Denmark's only natural river harbour, is on the banks of the Guden River (Gudenå), about 6 miles (10 km) above its mouth in Randers Fjord. By road it is 38.5 kilometres (23.9 mi) north of Aarhus, 43.8 kilometres (27.2 mi) east of Viborg, 80.2 kilometres (49.8 mi) south of Aalborg and 224 kilometres (139 mi) northwest of Copenhagen.[9] There are several wooded areas in Randers, including Skovbakken, to the northeast of the centre, the smaller Tøjhushaven to the immediate southeast of this, to the north of the harbour area, and Ladegårdsbækken, a narrow stretch of woodland to the east of the hospital. Dronningborg Skov, in the hamlet of Dronningborg, is located in the northeastern suburbs of the city, and Henriettelund lies in the southwestern suburb of Vorup.[9]

Suburbs of Randers include Dronningborg, Helsted, Kristrup, Neder Hornbæk, Over Hornbæk, Paderup, Romalt, and Vorup. The wider municipality covers an area of 748.21 square kilometres (288.89 sq mi). Settlements include Albæk, Asferg, Assentoft, Dalbyover, Fårup, Gassum, Gimming, Gjerlev, Hald, Harridslev, Haslund, Havndal, Helstrup, Hørning, Langå, Lem, Linde, Mejlby, Mellerup, Råsted, Spentrup, Stevnstrup, Sønderbæk, Tvede, Tånum, Udbyhøj Vasehuse, Uggelhuse, Værum, Ålum, Øster Bjerregrav, and Øster Tørslev.[9]

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[10]

Economy[edit]

A vast agricultural area, and good transportation by land and by water, helped make Randers a dynamic center for trade and commerce. This location has had great significance for trade by sea. Barges on the Guden River and the Northern River (Nørreå) transported goods into Randers from Silkeborg and Viborg for export. In return, items were imported.

Randers harbour

According to "The Popular Encyclopedia; or, Conversations Lexicon", Blackie & Son c 1890, it contained at that time an arsenal, a classical school with six professors, and had several industrial establishments, including manufacturers of gloves, for which it had long been famous. The town was also known for salmon, rope, and pretty women. The harbour near the town had only 7 12 feet (2.3 m) of water, but there was a good shipyard; and at some distance below, at the mouth of the fjord, there was another harbour with 9 to 10 feet (3.0 m) water, and roads with good anchorage in 4 to 5 fathoms (24 to 30 ft; 7 to 9 m). Randers was important militarily, and could encamp from 10,000 to 15,000 men in the town and its neighbourhood, in a position which could not easily be overrun.

Hotel Randers contains the Cafe Mathiesen, with black and white decor which evokes the art deco era. [11] The Niels Ebbesens Spisehus restaurant serves Danish cuisine such as herring or pepper steak (peberbøf) is situated in a red three-storey, half-timbered building dated to 1643. The Tante Olga club on Sondergade contains a bar and hosts live music, often jazz. [11]

Notable landmarks[edit]

Randers Tropical Zoo, Randers's top tourist attraction,[12] is Northern Europe's largest artificial rainforest, featuring about 350 different kinds of plants and more than 175 species of animals, many of which roam free under its three geodesic domes: the South America Dome, the Africa Dome, and the Asia Dome. The zoo is Randers's top tourist attraction. Additionally there are areas called "The Snake Garden" and the Aquarium. The organisation has been involved in the restoration of local wetlands in Vorup Meadow (Vorup Enge), a large nearby area on the southwestern side of the Guden River. Also of note is Kejsergården and Underværket, an innovative multi-ethnic business and cultural centre.

Churches and houses[edit]

The Saint Mortens Church dates to the 15th Century.[7] Helligåndshuset, which means "Holy Ghost House", due to the fact that it was once part of a monastery, also dates to the 15th century as does Paaskesønnernes, a three-storey red brick house.[7] Clausholm Castle, located some 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) southeast of Randers is one of Denmark's finest Baroque buildings.

Museums[edit]

Randers is home to the Randers Art Museum, Museum of Cultural History, Danish Design Museum and Graceland Randers.

Sport[edit]

The city's football team, Randers FC ("Randers Football Club (RFC)"), plays in Denmark's first league, the Superligaen. Its home ground is the AutoC Park Randers.

The town is also home to Randers rugby union club and Jutland RLFC, a rugby league team.

Healthcare[edit]

The city is served by Regionshospitalet Randers.

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

Main article: Randers station
Front facade of Randers station.

Randers is served by Randers railway station. It is located on the Aarhus-Aalborg railway line and offers direct InterCity services to Copenhagen and Frederikshavn and regional train services to Aarhus and Aalborg.

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Attribution

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Some information extracted from "The Popular Encyclopedia; or, Conversations Lexicon", Blackie & Son c. 1890.

Bibliography

External links[edit]