|• Total||47.9 sq mi (124.1 km2)|
|• Land||47.9 sq mi (124.0 km2)|
|• Water||0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2)|
|Elevation||694 ft (420 m)|
|• Density||101.4/sq mi (39.2/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP code||05041 (East Randolph), 05060|
|GNIS feature ID||1462182|
Randolph is a town in Orange County, Vermont, United States. The population was 4,853 at the 2000 census, making Randolph the largest town in Orange County. The town is a commercial center for many of the smaller, rural farming communities that surround it.
When the area was originally settled there were three villages—Randolph Center, East Randolph and West Randolph. What is now the central village of the current town had previously been the village of West Randolph.
Vermont granted the town on November 2, 1780, when the New Hampshire settlers could not locate the original grantees, whose patents were issued by New York. It was chartered on June 29, 1781 to Aaron Storrs and 70 others, and was originally named "Middlesex."
With productive soil for cultivation, farming became an intensive industry. By 1830, when the population reached 2,743, between twelve and thirteen thousand sheep grazed its pastures. Randolph was noted for its good butter, cheese and mutton.
Two branches of the White River provided water power for watermills. By 1859, the town had three gristmills, one oil mill, and one carding mill. In 1848, the Vermont Central Railroad opened service through the town. Randolph's prosperity during the Victorian era endowed it with some fine architecture, including the Second Empire Randolph Railroad Depot and Renaissance Revival Kimball Public Library.
Today, Randolph is a thriving meeting-spot and shopping center for the surrounding area. The town is home to attractions such as the Porter Music Box Museum and the Chandler Music Hall. Also located in Randolph are the Gifford Medical Center, a hospital; the main office of the regional Randolph National Bank; Dubois & King, a civil and structural engineering firm; and Randolph Union High School, which also serves students from the neighboring towns of Braintree and Brookfield. Downtown Randolph hosts the Amtrak station, shops, restaurants, a movie theater, and several gas stations.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 47.9 square miles (124.1 km2), of which 47.9 square miles (124.0 km2) is land and 0.04 square mile (0.1 km2) (0.08%) is water. Randolph is drained by the second and third branches of the White River.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,853 people, 1,769 households, and 1,144 families residing in the town. The population density was 101.4 people per square mile (39.2/km2). There were 1,905 housing units at an average density of 39.8 per square mile (15.4/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 97.77% White, 0.21% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.02% from other races, and 1.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.54% of the population.
There were 1,769 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.3% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the town the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 15.9% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 103.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.4 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $41,283, and the median income for a family was $50,756. Males had a median income of $31,353 versus $25,160 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,591. About 5.3% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.
- Randolph Elementary School K-6
- Randolph Union Jr. High School, grades 7 – 12 
Randolph is served by five state-maintained routes. Interstate 89 passes through Randolph and has one exit near the center of town. Paralleling the Interstate are Vermont Route 12, which passes through downtown Randolph and the western half of town, and Vermont Route 14, which passes through the eastern half of town. East-west Vermont Route 66, which is located entirely within Randolph, connects all three of those north-south routes. Vermont Route 12A splits from Vermont Route 12 just north of downtown Randolph and heads to the northwest to enter Braintree.
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- WCVR - 1320 AM (Real Country 1320 - country)
- WVXR - 102.1 FM (VPR Classical)
- WVTC - 90.7 FM (Vermont Tech Radio - various music)
Sites of interest
- Braley Covered Bridge
- Gifford Covered Bridge
- Kingsbury Covered Bridge
- Randolph Historical Society Museum
- Jedediah Berry, author
- Dudley Chase, United States Senator
- Lebbeus Egerton, Lieutenant Governor of Vermont
- Martin Flint, Anti-Masonic Party leader who served as Adjutant General of the Vermont Militia.
- Henrik Galeen, actor, director
- William Hebard, US congressman
- Justin Morgan, horse breeder and composer
- Buster Olney, columnist for ESPN The Magazine
- Milan H. Sessions, politician
- Larry Townsend, Vermont legislator
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Hayward's New England Gazetteer of 1839
- Austin J. Coolidge & John B. Mansfield, A History and Description of New England; Boston, Massachusetts 1859
- History of Kimball Public Library
- Orange Southwest Supervisory Union
- Kimball Public Library
- Virtual Vermont -- Randolph, Vermont
- Randolph Herald - local newspaper
- Randolph Historical Society- local history museum