Randolph County, Illinois
|Randolph County, Illinois|
Location in the state of Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
597.20 sq mi (1,547 km²)
575.50 sq mi (1,491 km²)
21.70 sq mi (56 km²), 3.63%
60/sq mi (23/km²)
Randolph County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 33,476, which is a decrease of 1.2% from 33,893 in 2000. Its county seat is Chester.
Owing to its role in the state's history, the county motto is "Where Illinois Began."
According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 597.20 square miles (1,546.7 km2), of which 575.50 square miles (1,490.5 km2) (or 96.37%) is land and 21.70 square miles (56.2 km2) (or 3.63%) is water.
The Kaskaskia River flows into the Mississippi River in Randolph County. At this point the Mississippi, which usually defines the border between Illinois and Missouri, is entirely in Illinois. The Mississippi changed its course in the late-nineteenth century, leaving Kaskaskia, the former state capital, on the west side of the River. The boundary of the State, however, follows the old course of the River, leaving Illinois with an enclave on the western shore of the Mississippi River. A smaller enclave, Crains Island, is a few miles further down the river.
Major highways 
- Illinois Route 3
- Illinois Route 4
- Illinois Route 13
- Illinois Route 152
- Illinois Route 155
- Illinois Route 150
- Illinois Route 153
- Illinois Route 154
- Illinois Route 159
Adjacent counties 
- Monroe County (northwest)
- St. Clair County (north)
- Washington County (northeast)
- Perry County (east)
- Jackson County (southeast)
- Perry County, Missouri (south)
- Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri (southwest)
Randolph County is among the few counties in the United States to border two counties with the same name (Perry County in Missouri and Illinois). Illinois has 2 such counties (Cook County borders both Lake County, Illinois and Lake County, Indiana.)
Cities and towns 
- Ellis Grove
- Prairie du Rocher
- Red Bud
Unincorporated communities 
Randolph County was organized in 1795 out of a part of St. Clair County. It was named in honor of Edmund Randolph, Governor of Virginia. George Rogers Clark of the army of Virginia captured the area from the British on July 4, 1778, near the end of the Revolutionary War. The area then became, for a brief time, Illinois County, Virginia, although the Congress of the Confederation legislated the existence of the Northwest Territory on July 13, 1787. Edmund Randolph was Governor of Virginia at the time Virginia ceded the Northwest Territory to the United States. In 1809, when Illinois became a separate territory, Territorial Secretary Nathaniel Pope, in his capacity as acting governor, issued a proclamation establishing Randoloph as one of the Illinois' two original counties. The county's boundaries were last changed in 1827, when land was taken to form Perry County.
The Mississippi River has played a prominent role in the county's history, altering its boundaries in 1881 when it severed the isthmus that connected Kaskaskia to the Illinois mainland, destroying the original village of Kaskaskia and forcing its historic cemetery to be relocated across the river to Fort Kaskaskia. Crains Island , southeast of Chester, is another enclave of Illinois west of the Mississippi that was created by a change in the river's course.
Randolph County as it was re-established in 1809. This diagonal border line had been drawn by the Indiana Territorial government in 1803.
|IL Counties 1900-1990
As of the census of 2000, there were 33,893 people, 12,084 households, and 8,362 families residing in the county. The population density was 59 people per square mile (23/km²). There were 13,328 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile (9/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 88.71% White, 9.29% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, and 0.76% from two or more races. 1.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 46.3% were of German, 11.7% American, 9.0% Irish, 6.5% English and 5.7% French ancestry.
There were 12,084 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.00% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.80% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the county the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, and 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 116.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $37,013, and the median income for a family was $44,766. Males had a median income of $30,837 versus $21,501 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,696. About 7.10% of families and 10.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over.
Government and infrastructure 
The Illinois Department of Corrections Menard Correctional Center is located in Chester. Prior to the January 11, 2003 commutation of death row sentences, male death row inmates were housed in Menard, Tamms, and Pontiac correctional centers. After that date, only Pontiac continued to host the male death row.
|Presidential elections results|
|2008||49.59% 7,538||48.64% 7,395||1.76% 269|
|2004||54.00% 8,076||45.27% 6,771||0.73% 109|
|2000||49.88% 7,127||47.55% 6,794||2.56% 366|
|1996||37.0% 5,422||50.7% 7,419||12.3% 1,806|
|1992||29.6% 4,899||51.5% 8,529||19.0% 3,137|
|1988||48.3% 7,396||51.2% 7,844||0.5% 78|
|1984||59.5% 9,415||40.1% 6,355||0.4% 59|
|1980||56.9% 8,810||39.1% 6,052||4.1% 632|
|1976||48.1% 8,190||51.0% 8,693||0.9% 155|
|1972||60.2% 9,761||39.7% 6,440||0.1% 14|
|1968||50.4% 7,681||39.0% 5,953||10.6% 1,616|
|1964||38.7% 5,803||61.3% 9,199||0.0% 0|
|1960||52.0% 7,988||47.9% 7,344||0.1% 15|
|1956||60.0% 8,439||40.0% 6,778||0.0% 4|
|1952||54.6% 8,427||45.3% 6,998||0.1% 13|
It's a rural conservative county in southern Illinois that have trended Republican in the last elections.
There are two AM radio stations licensed in the county — WHCO 1230AM in Sparta and KSGM 980AM in Chester.
Weekly newspapers in the county are The Randolph County Herald Tribune located in Chester, The County Journal, which is based in Percy and also covers Perry and Jackson Counties, the North County News in Red Bud, and the Sparta News-Plaindealer.
The area is also served by the on-line newspaper based in Chester which is SunTimesNews.com
Climate and weather 
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Chester have ranged from a low of 22 °F (−6 °C) in January to a high of 91 °F (33 °C) in July, although a record low of −18 °F (−28 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 113 °F (45 °C) was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.85 inches (47 mm) in January to 4.30 inches (109 mm) in May.
See also 
- "Randolph County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- White, Jesse. Origin and Evolution of Illinois Counties. State of Illinois, March 2010. 
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Menard Correctional Center." Illinois Department of Corrections. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- "Chester city, Illinois." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- "DOC Report Online." Illinois Department of Corrections. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
- Randolph County Clerk and Recorder.
- "Monthly Averages for Chester, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
- KBDZ 93.1 FM Radio
- KSGM AM 980 Radio
- Randolph County Government
- Randolph County Herald-Tribune
- North County News
- Sparta News-Plaindealer
- Map of Randolph County, Illinois in 1870
- Biographies of families living in Randolph County, Illinois in the 1890's
||Monroe County||St. Clair County||Washington County|
|Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri||Perry County, Missouri||Jackson County|