Random wire antenna

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A wire antenna kit, with a coil of wire, strain insulators and a balun. When installed the wire is supported by buildings or trees using the insulators to prevent a short circuit to ground.

A random wire antenna is a radio antenna consisting of a long wire suspended above the ground, whose length does not bear a relation to the wavelength of the radio waves used, but is typically chosen more for convenience. The wire may be straight or it may be strung back and forth between trees or walls just to get enough wire into the air; this type of antenna sometimes is called a zig-zag antenna. Such antennas are usually not as effective as antennas whose length is adjusted to resonate at the wavelength to be used. Random wire antennas are a type of monopole antenna and the other side of the receiver or transmitter antenna terminal must be connected to an earth ground.

They are widely used as receiving antennas on the long wave, medium wave, and short wave bands, as well as transmitting antennas on these bands for small outdoor, temporary or emergency transmitting stations, as well as in situations where more permanent antennas cannot be installed.

Random wire and long wire[edit]

Often random wire antennas are also referred to as long-wire antenna. Long-wire antennas require a length greater than a quarter-wavelength (λ/4) of the radio waves (most consider a true long wire to be least one wavelength[1]), whereas random wire antennas have no such constraint.[2]

Radiation pattern[edit]

The radiation pattern of a straight random wire antenna is unpredictable and depends on its electrical length; it's length measured in wavelengths (λ) of the radio waves used. The radiation will drop off to zero on the axis; however it may have several lobes (maxima) at angles to the antenna axis.[3] Under about 0.6λ a wire antenna will have a single lobe with a maximum at right angles to the axis. Above this the lobe will split into two conical lobes with their maximum directed at equal angles to the wire, and a null between them. This results in four azimuth angles at which the gain is maximum. As the length of wire in wavelengths increases, the number of lobes increases and the maxima become increasingly sharp. A folded or zig-zag antenna will exhibit a pattern that is even more complicated and difficult to predict.

Long wire antennas are reported to be more effective for reception than multielement antennas such as Yagi or quad antennas with the same length of wire. Due to the length of the antenna, with multipath propagation there is a diversity effect; radio waves which interfere and cancel at one part of the antenna may not cancel at another part, resulting in more reliable overall reception.

Construction[edit]

A typical permanent wire antenna strung between two buildings. This example has a lightning switch to ground the antenna for safety during electrical storms.

A random wire antenna usually consists of a long (at least one quarter wavelength) wire with one end connected to the radio and the other in free space, arranged in any way most convenient for the space available. Ideally, it is a straight wire strung as high as possible between trees or buildings, the ends insulated from supports with strain insulators. Typically it is made from number 12 or 14 AWG (1.6 to 2.0 mm (0.063 to 0.079 in) diameter) copperclad wire. Folding the wire into a zigzag pattern to fit in a limited space such as an apartment or attic will reduce effectiveness and make theoretical analysis extremely difficult. (The added length helps more than the folding typically hurts.)

If used for transmitting, a random wire antenna usually will also require an antenna tuner, as it has an unpredictable impedance that varies with frequency.[1] One side of the output of the tuner is connected directly to the antenna, without a transmission line, the other to a good earth ground. One-quarter wavelength works best, and one half wavelength will work poorly with most tuners. [4][5] Without a good earth the antenna will also radiate, because it will couple capacitively to a nearby conducting material; nevertheless this is not recommended. [6] The ground for a random wire antenna may be chosen by experimentation. Grounds could be returned to a nearby cold water pipe or a wire approximately one-quarter wavelength long.[1]

RF feedback can be an issue. RF feedback can be minimized by selecting a wire length that causes the low feed-point impedance at a current loop to occur at the transmitter.[1] Alternately, a remote tuner can be fed with feedline, and the tuner located on the antenna.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Straw, R. Dean (2003). The ARRL Antenna Book, 20th Edition. Newington, Connecticut, USA: The ARRL, Inc. p. 944. ISBN 0-87259-904-3. 
  2. ^ Practical Antenna Handbook (Carr, Mc Graw Hill) - Chapter 9
  3. ^ Silver, Ward (2007). The ARRL General Class License Manual, 6th Ed. USA: American Radio Relay League. p. 6.6. ISBN 978-0872599963. 
  4. ^ The "Almost Random" Wire Antenna
  5. ^ Random length wire
  6. ^ The End Fed Half Wave Antenna (Steve Yates, AA5TB) http://www.aa5tb.com/efha.html