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Range Road is a Canadian term that refers to roads that run north-south along the range grid lines of a survey system. Range Roads (Rge. Rd.) are perpendicular to township roads (abbreviated TWP. RD.) which run east-west along the township grid lines of a survey system.
In western Canada (especially rural areas in most counties and municipal districts in Alberta), a range road (abbreviated "RGE. RD.") is a road running on a north-south parallel to a range line (a line denoting the east and west boundaries of a 6-mile (9.7 km) x 6-mile (9.7 km) legal township in the Dominion Land Survey and Alberta Township land surveying systems).
Range roads are commonly numbered in one-mile (1.6-km) increments west from the east range line of a given township. The range roads form the east and west boundaries (known as Section Lines) of the 1 mile x 1 mile square sections - 36 of which comprise a township (e.g. Range Road 12-2 would be between the second and third sections west of Range line 12, Range Road 6-0 is on Range line 6). In many counties, the dash between the range line number and the section line number is eliminated (Range Road 15-1 (151) might be called "Range Road one-fifty-one"). Where a township road offset from a section line, it is often appended with a letter (Range Road 11-1A is just west of the first section line west of Range line 11). This system is useful for finding farmsteads (assuming one knows the legal address of the parcel).
Range roads are perpendicular to township roads (abbreviated TWP. RD.). In the Municipal District of Foothills No. 31, the range and township road naming system has been replaced with a more conventional "street/avenue" numbering scheme. Range roads are streets numbered west and east of the Fifth Meridian (Meridian Street) in increments of 16 streets to the mile. Township Roads are avenues numbered on a similar grid to the city of Calgary (the boundary lies between 190th and 220th Avenue) and extends out to 722nd Avenue. This system causes confusion at the southern boundary of the City of Calgary as streets in Calgary are numbered east and west of Centre Street, which is some distance west of the Fifth Meridian. Therefore, street numbers change as one crosses Calgary's southern boundary.
In Saskatchewan there are both township and range roads. The numbers of the range roads help to establish the location of the roads as they exist with relation to the legal land description survey system. Range roads travel in a north and south direction between the meridians parallel to the latitudinal lines. Range roads indicate firstly the meridian number. In Saskatchewan roads near the Manitoba border would begin with 1 as they would be west of the prime or first meridian, then the range numbers would be west of the second and finally west of the 3rd meridian. There are no roads in Saskatchewan west of the fourth meridian as the fourth meridian line defines the border between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The next two digits would be the range number which increments from east to west from a meridian line. The last range number shows how many miles within the range the road is located starting at the western most edge of the range and traveling west. As they mark a definite location such as a longitudes and latitudes, the naming convention is the same across Saskatchewan. Township and Range roads can be either gravel, highway, or municipal paved road. The Dominion Land Survey system designated a township road allowance every two miles apart south to north, and allowed for a range road allowance every mile apart east to west.
Due to the curvature of the Earth, some townships adjacent to major Meridian lines (e.g. the Fifth Meridian - 114°W) are truncated. There are more townships between meridian lines along the 49th Parallel (the boundary between Canada and the United States of America) than there are along the 60th Parallel (the boundary between Canada's southern provinces and northern territories).