|Full name||Rangers Football Club|
The Teddy Bears;
The Light Blues;
|Capacity||50,987 (all seated)|
|Owner||The Rangers Football Club Ltd|
|2013–14||Scottish League One, 1st|
|Website||Club home page|
Rangers Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow, which plays in the Scottish Championship – the second tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground is Ibrox Stadium in the south-west of the city.
In domestic football, Rangers have won more league titles and trebles than any other club in the world, winning the league title 54 times, the Scottish Cup 33 times and the Scottish League Cup 27 times, and achieving the treble of all three in the same season seven times. In European football, Rangers was the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final. It won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the 2008 UEFA Cup. Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm since the late 19th century.
Founded in March 1872, Rangers were one of the ten founder members of the original Scottish Football League and remained in the top division continuously until the liquidation of The Rangers Football Club PLC at the end of the 2011–12 season. With a new corporate identity, the club gained admittance to the fourth tier of the Scottish game in time for the start of the following season, since which two successive promotions have been achieved
- 1 History
- 1.1 Formation, early years and William Wilton
- 1.2 Bill Struth and Scot Symon
- 1.3 Ibrox disaster, European success and Jock Wallace
- 1.4 John Greig and Jock Wallace returns
- 1.5 Graeme Souness and Walter Smith – 9 in a row
- 1.6 Dick Advocaat and Alex McLeish
- 1.7 Paul Le Guen and Walter Smith's return
- 1.8 Ally McCoist and insolvency
- 1.9 Division 3 and through the leagues
- 2 Crest and colours
- 3 Stadium and training facility
- 4 Supporters
- 5 Ownership and finances
- 6 Rangers Charity Foundation
- 7 Records
- 8 Players
- 9 Boardrooms
- 10 Backroom staff
- 11 Honours
- 12 UEFA rankings
- 13 Notable former players
- 14 Sponsors
- 15 Media Outlets
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 Further reading
- 19 External links
Formation, early years and William Wilton
The four founders of Rangers – brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath – met in March 1872 at West End Park, (now known as Kelvingrove Park). Rangers' first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. In 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final; after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay and the cup was awarded to Vale of Leven. Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants’ Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup. The first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtic's establishment. Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian.
The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers, by then playing at the first Ibrox Stadium, were one of ten original members. The club's first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history. Rangers' first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two league titles and three Scottish Cups. During William Wilton's time as match secretary and then team manager, Rangers won 10 leagues titles.
Bill Struth and Scot Symon
Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers' most successful manager, guiding the club to 14 league titles before the onset of the Second World War. On 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Year's Day Old Firm match. Leading the club for 34 years until 1954, Struth won more trophies than any manager in Scottish Football history, amassing 18 league championships, 10 Scottish Cups, 2 League Cups, 7 war-time championships, 19 Glasgow Cups, 17 Glasgow Merchant Charity Cups and other war-time honours. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League.
Scot Symon continued Struth's success, winning six league championships, five Scottish Cups and four League Cups, becoming the second manager to win the domestic treble in 1963–64 season, the era of 'Slim' Jim Baxter, one of the club's greatest players. Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1.
Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners' Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, only to lose 4–1 on aggregate. Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich.
Ibrox disaster, European success and Jock Wallace
The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on a stairway exit at the culmination of the New Year's Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs. A benefit match to raise funds for the victims' families took place after the disaster, a joint Rangers and Celtic team playing a Scotland XI at Hampden, watched by 81,405 fans.
In 1972, Rangers emerged from the tragedy of the previous year to finally achieve success on the European stage. A Colin Stein goal and a Willie Johnston double helped secure a 3–2 victory over FC Dynamo Moscow at the Nou Camp, Barcelona, to lift the European Cup Winners' Cup. Captain John Greig received the trophy in a small room within the Nou Camp following pitch invasions and by Rangers fans reacting to the heavy handed tactics of the Spanish police, the majority of whom had been brought in from outwith catalonia. The following season Rangers were invited by Barca FC to take part in their pre season tournament at the Camp Nou Rangers were banned from Europe for two years for the behaviour of their fans, later reduced on appeal to a year.
Emerging from the shadows of Jock Stein's Celtic side, Rangers regained ascendancy with notable domestic success under the stewardship of manager Jock Wallace. In his first season in charge – the club's centenary – Rangers won the Scottish Cup at Hampden in front of 122,714 supporters. In 1974–75, Wallace led Rangers to their first League championship triumph in eleven years, before winning the treble the following season, repeating the historic feat in 1977–78.
John Greig and Jock Wallace returns
John Greig served as manager for 5 years but was unable to achieve the success as a manager that he had as a player. Unable to win the league during his reign, he was replaced by Jock Wallace returning in 1983. Unfortunately Jock Wallace was unable to repeat the success of his first period in charge with a win ratio of less than 50%. He was himself replaced by Graeme Souness in 1986.
Graeme Souness and Walter Smith – 9 in a row
Every year from the 1988–89 season until the 1996–97 season, Rangers won the league title. This nine-in-a-row achievement equalled Celtic's record, set prior to the forming of the Scottish Football League Premier Division, subsequent to which competing teams met four times a season. The first three of these seasons the club was managed by Graeme Souness; the latter six under the stewardship of Walter Smith.
Notable seasons included 1990–91, which culminated in a final-day finale, Rangers securing a 2–0 victory at Ibrox over Aberdeen, who needed only a draw to secure the championship. Season 1992–93 was notable for a domestic treble of trophies, as well an extended run in the inaugural UEFA Champions League, the club at one stage only one goal from securing a place in the final.
Dick Advocaat and Alex McLeish
In 1998, Dutchman Dick Advocaat became the club's first foreign manager. Nine-in-a-row era stalwarts having moved on, Advocaat invested heavily in the team with immediate results, leading the club to their sixth domestic treble. The league championship was won with a 3–0 victory at Celtic Park on 2 May 1999. A second-consecutive league title was won by a record 21-point margin, the club securing a domestic double with a 4–0 Scottish Cup final victory over Aberdeen. Rangers' campaign in the Champions League saw them defeat UEFA Cup winners Parma en route.
Advocaat's third season saw Rangers fail to compete domestically against Celtic under new manager Martin O’Neill. Despite investment in the team, including Tore Andre Flo for a club-record £12 million, European success beyond the Champions League group stages again proved elusive. After a slow start to the following season, Advocaat resigned from his post in December 2001 and was replaced by Alex McLeish.
In his first full campaign, the 2002–03 season saw McLeish become the sixth Rangers manager to deliver a domestic treble. The championship was won on goal difference during a dramatic final day 6–1 triumph over Dunfermline Athletic at Ibrox, securing Rangers' 50th league title, the first club in the world to achieve the feat. Major expenditure sanctioned by chairman David Murray had burdened Rangers with considerable debts in the region of £52m. The club's worsening financial state saw many of the team's top players leave in the summer of 2003, the following season failing to deliver any trophies, only the second such occasion since 1985–86.
The 2004–05 season restored success to Rangers, who were boosted by signings such as Jean-Alain Boumsong, Dado Pršo and Nacho Novo, along with the return of former captain Barry Ferguson after a spell in England with Blackburn Rovers. The club's league championship triumph culminated in a dramatic final-day finish. The destination of the trophy changed unexpectedly, with Celtic conceding late goals to Motherwell at Fir Park whilst Rangers led against Hibernian, requiring the helicopter carrying the SPL trophy to change direction and deliver the prize to the Easter Road ground in Leith.
Despite beginning as favourites to retain the championship, Rangers suffered an unprecedented run of poor results between September and November, a club-record run of ten games without a win. Included within this period, a 1–1 draw with Inter Milan took Rangers into the last 16 of the Champions League, the first Scottish team to achieve the feat since 1993, the club eventually exiting on the away goals rule to Villarreal. On 9 February 2006, it was announced by David Murray that McLeish would be standing down as manager at the end of that season.
Paul Le Guen and Walter Smith's return
Frenchman Paul Le Guen replaced Alex McLeish as manager after season 2005–06. The season started with an early exit from the League Cup whilst Celtic built a commanding lead at the top of the table. In the UEFA Cup, Rangers became the first Scottish side to qualify for the last 32 of the competition, since the introduction of the group phase, after finishing their group unbeaten. However, amid claims of disharmony between the manager and captain Barry Ferguson, it was announced on 4 January 2007 that Le Guen had left Rangers by mutual consent. On 10 January 2007, former boss Walter Smith resigned from his post as Scotland manager to return to the Ibrox helm, with Ally McCoist as assistant manager.
The following season Rangers contested the UEFA Cup after dropping into the competition from the Champions League. The club reached the final, defeating Panathinaikos, Werder Bremen, Sporting Lisbon and Fiorentina along the way. The final in Manchester against Zenit St. Petersburg, who were managed by former Rangers manager Dick Advocaat, ended in a 2–0 defeat.
The 2008–09 season saw Rangers recover from an early exit from the UEFA Champions League to FBK Kaunas of Lithuania. The club secured its 52nd league championship on the last day of the season with a 3–0 victory at Dundee United. Rangers also successfully defended the Scottish Cup, a 33rd competition triumph, defeating Falkirk 1–0 in the final.
The 2009–10 season saw Rangers reach their fifth consecutive domestic final: against St. Mirren in the Scottish League Cup, the club overcame a two-men deficit from red cards, a late deciding goal from Kenny Miller securing a record 27th victory in the competition. The league championship title was retained, with three matches remaining, at Easter Road, defeating Hibernian 1–0 with a Kyle Lafferty goal. The 2010–11 season, Smith's final season in charge, saw Rangers retain the League Cup, defeating Celtic at Hampden with a Nikica Jelavić goal in extra time. A third consecutive title was won by beating Kilmarnock 5–1 on the last day of the season, Smith's final match in charge of the club.
Ally McCoist and insolvency
Ally McCoist took over from Walter Smith in June 2011 but season 2011–12 started with Rangers eliminated from two European competitions before the end of August: losing to Swedish side Malmö FF in the Champions League third round qualifying match, and to Slovenian side Maribor in a Europa League qualifying match. While good league form saw Rangers in top spot after being unbeaten for the first 15 games, they were knocked out of the League Cup by Falkirk and the Scottish Cup by Dundee Utd at Ibrox. Rangers was placed into administration on 14 February 2012 resulting in the club being deducted 10 points as per SPL rules. Though Rangers avoided having Celtic win the championship at Ibrox on 25 March by winning the game 3–2, Rangers ultimately finished 20 points behind Celtic in second place. A failure to reach agreement with creditors on 14 June 2012 led to The Rangers Football Club Plc (since renamed RFC 2012 Plc) entering the process of liquidation.
Division 3 and through the leagues
As soon as The Rangers Football Plc entered the liquidation process, a new company, Sevco Scotland Ltd, purchased the business and assets on a going concern basis and then sought league and SFA membership. An application for membership of the Scottish Premier League was rejected but an application for membership of the Scottish Football League was accepted with Rangers being awarded associate membership and placed in the lowest division, the Third, rather than the First Division as SPL and SFA had sought. Sevco Scotland Ltd then applied for the transfer of Rangers' SFA membership which was agreed by the SFA upon acceptance of a number of conditions, including a one-year transfer ban, allowing Rangers to relaunch in time for the start of the 2012–13 season. On 31 July 2012, shareholders of Sevco Scotland Ltd voted to change the company name to The Rangers Football Club Ltd.
With most key first team players having refused to transfer to the new company, a very different Rangers team lined up for the first league match in Third Division. Despite this, Rangers' secured a comfortable 5–1 victory over East Stirlingshire in front of a crowd of 49,118, a world record for a football match in a fourth tier league.[n 1] Away from home, Rangers started their league campaign with three successive draws before losing 1–0 to Stirling Albion, at the time the bottom club. Rangers were defeated in the third round of the Scottish Challenge Cup by Queen of the South at Ibrox, in the quarter-finals of the Scottish League Cup at home to Inverness Caledonian Thistle and in the fifth round of the Scottish Cup by Dundee United. Rangers beat their own new record against Queens Park with an attendance of 49,463 and again against Stirling Albion with an attendance of 49,913. Rangers clinched the Third Division title on 30 March after a goalless draw at Montrose.
Apart from being defeated 2–1 by Forfar Athletic in the first round of the League Cup on 3 August, season 2013–14 got off to an excellent start with Rangers winning maximum league points in their first 15 games in League One, before being held to a draw at home by Stranraer on Boxing Day 2013. Rangers secured the League One title and promotion to Scottish football's second tier on 12 March 2014 and went on to end the season unbeaten in league football. Rangers also reached the final of the Scottish Challenge Cup where they lost to Raith Rovers and the semi-final of the Scottish Cup where they lost 3–1 at Ibrox to Dundee United.
Crest and colours
Unusually for a football club, Rangers have two different official crests. Today the original scroll crest appears on the club's strips whereas the lion rampant club crest is used by the media, on club merchandise and on official club documents. Both crests have undergone minor variations since their introduction. It is believed that the scroll crest, representing the letters RFC overlapping, has been used since the club's formation in 1872, although the oldest remaining piece of memorabilia containing this crest is from the 1881–82 season. The scroll crest was replaced in 1959 with the lion rampant club crest which featured a lion rampant, an old-style football and the club's motto Ready, which was shortened from Aye Ready (meaning Always Ready in Scots), all surrounded by the team name, Rangers Football Club. The lion rampant club crest was modernised in 1968; the lion rampant, team name, club motto and old style football all remained. It was again updated ever so slightly in the early 1990s to the current version. The modern circular crest is regularly used on club merchandise and by the media; it has never featured prominently on the club strip. Since 1968 Rangers have had two crests, the scroll crest made a return appearing on the chest of the club shirt for the first time while the modernised club crest was still the club's official logo. The scroll crest first appeared on the teams shorts for the start of the 1978–79 season.
The way the scroll crest has appeared on the club shirt has varied slightly through the years. Between 1990 and 1994 'Rangers Football Club' and the 'Ready' motto appeared above and below the Crest respectively. Between 1997 and 1999 the scroll crest featured within a shield. After a successful end to the season in 2003, which delivered Rangers a Domestic Treble and their 50th league title; five stars were added to the top of the scroll crest, one for every ten titles won by the club. The team wore a special crest on 8 December 2012 in a home league match against Stirling Albion, to commemorate the 140th anniversary of their formation. '1872–2012' appeared above the scroll crest with the words '140 years' featuring below.
The club colours of Rangers F.C. are royal blue, white and red. However, for the majority of the first forty-eight years of Rangers existence the club played in a plain lighter blue home shirt. The only deviation from this was a four season period from 1879 when the side wore the lighter shade of blue and white in a hooped style. Traditionally this is accompanied by white shorts (often with royal blue and/or red trim) and black socks with red turn-downs. Rangers moved from the lighter shade of blue to royal blue in 1921, and have had a royal blue home shirt every year since. Black socks were first included in 1883 for five seasons before disappearing for eight years but became a more permanent fixture from 1896 onwards. When the red turn-downs were added to the socks in 1904, the strip began to look more like the modern day Rangers home kit. Occasionally the home kit will be altered by the shorts and socks, sometimes replacing the black socks with white ones; or replacing the white shorts and black socks combination with royal blue shorts and socks.
The basic design of Rangers away strips has changed far more than the traditional home strip. Rangers original change strip, used between 1876 and 1879, was all white featuring blue and white hooped socks and a light blue six pointed star on the chest. White and red have been the most common colours for Rangers alternate strips, though dark and light blue have also featured highly. In 1994 Rangers introduced a third kit. This is usually worn if both the home and away kits clash with their opponents. The colours used in the third kits have included combinations of white, red, dark and light blue as well as black.
|Selection of Rangers kits through history|
Sponsors and manufacturers
Since 1978 when Rangers signed a deal with Umbro they have had a specific kit manufacturer and since 1984 have had a kit sponsor. When Rangers played French sides AJ Auxerre and RC Strasbourg in the 1996–97 Champions League and the UEFA Cup respectively, due to a French ban on alcohol advertising the team wore the logo of Center Parcs instead of McEwan's Lager. Later matches played in France (when the club was sponsored by Carling) saw the club wear no shirt sponsor at all, verse AJ Auxerre in November 2006 and Lyon in October 2007. The following tables detail the shirt sponsors and kit suppliers of Rangers by year:
Stadium and training facility
The club used a variety of grounds in Glasgow as a venue for home matches in the years between 1872 and 1899. The first was Flesher's Haugh, situated on Glasgow Green, followed by Burnbank in the Kelvinbridge area of the city, and then Kinning Park for ten years from the mid-1870s to the mid-1880s. From February of the 1886–87 season, Cathkin Park was used until the first Ibrox Park, in the Ibrox area of south-west Glasgow, was inaugurated for the following season. Ibrox Stadium in its current incarnation was originally designed by the architect Archibald Leitch, a Rangers fan who also played a part in the design of, among others, Old Trafford in Manchester and Highbury in London. The stadium was inaugurated on 30 December 1899, and Rangers defeated Hearts 3–1 in the first match held there.
Rangers' training facility is located in Auchenhowie, Glasgow. The facility is known as Murray Park after former chairman and owner Sir David Murray. It was proposed by then-manager Dick Advocaat upon his arrival at the club in 1998. It was completed in 2001 at a cost of £14 million. Murray Park was the first purpose-built facility of its kind in Scotland, and incorporates features including nine football pitches, a state of the art gym, a hydrotherapy pool, and a video-editing suite. Rangers' youth teams are also accommodated at Murray Park, with around 140 players between under-10 and under-19 age groups using the training centre. Various first-team players have come through the ranks at Murray Park, including Alan Hutton, Chris Burke, Stevie Smith, John Fleck and Charlie Adam. International club teams playing in Scotland, as well as national sides, have previously used Murray Park for training, and Advocaat's South Korea team used it for training prior to the 2006 World Cup.
Rangers FC are one of the best supported clubs in Europe, the figure for the 2013–14 season being the 25th largest home league attendance. The club's website lists over 150 supporters' clubs in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with 95 further clubs spread across over 20 countries around the world. Rangers fans have contributed to several records for high attendances, including the highest home attendance for a league fixture, 118,567 on 2 January 1939. Rangers record highest attendance was against Hibernian on 27 March 1948 in the Scottish Cup semi-final at Hampden Park. Rangers beat Hibernian 1–0 in front of a packed 143,570 crowd.
In 2008, up to 200,000 Rangers supporters, many without match tickets, travelled to Manchester for the UEFA Cup Final. Despite most supporters behaving "impeccably", Rangers fans were involved in serious trouble and rioting. A minority of fans rioted in the city centre, clashing violently with police and damaging property, resulting in 42 being arrested for a variety of offences.
The club's most distinct rivalry is with Glasgow neighbours Celtic F.C.; the two clubs are collectively known as the Old Firm, though they are not currently playing in the same league. Rangers' traditional support is largely drawn from the Protestant Unionist community, whilst Celtic's traditional support is largely drawn from the Catholic community. The first Old Firm match was won by Celtic and there have been nearly four hundred matches played to date. The Old Firm rivalry has fuelled many assaults, sometimes leading to deaths, on Old Firm derby days; an activist group that monitors sectarian activity in Glasgow has reported that on Old Firm weekends, admissions to hospital emergency rooms have increased over normal levels and journalist Franklin Foer noted that in the period from 1996 to 2003, eight deaths in Glasgow were directly linked to Old Firm matches, as well as hundreds of assaults.
The bitter rivalry with Aberdeen developed following an incident in the 1979 League Cup final when Rangers' Derek Johnstone provoked the fury of the Dons support with what they believed was a blatant dive but which resulted in the dismissal of Aberdeen's Doug Rougvie and a Rangers victory. Then, the following season, Aberdeen's John McMaster had to be given the kiss of life at Ibrox after a vicious stamp on his throat. Relations between fans were further soured during a league match on 8 October 1988, when Aberdeen player Neil Simpson's tackle on Rangers' Ian Durrant resulted in Durrant being injured for two years. Resentment continued and in 1998 an article in Rangers match programme branded Aberdeen fans "scum", although Rangers later issued a "full and unreserved apology" to Aberdeen and their supporters, which was accepted by Aberdeen. Fixtures have been described as "even more of a powderkeg than Old Firm games".
Rangers' relaunch in the Third Division in season 2012/13 led to the club's original rivalry with Queen's Park being renewed for the first time since 1958 in the league. Rangers and Queen's Park first played each other in March 1879 some nine years before the start of the Old Firm rivalry. Matches with Queen's Park were advertised as the "Original Glasgow Derby" by Rangers and the Scottish media; and as the "Oldest Derby in the World" by Queen's Park.
During the 19th century, many immigrants came to Glasgow from Ireland – this was a time of considerable anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiment in Scotland. The early success of Celtic, a club associated with the Irish and Catholic community, has been described as sharpening Rangers' Protestant Unionist identity, contributing to the eventual absence of openly Catholic players from the team. From the early 20th century onwards, Catholics were not knowingly signed by the club, nor employed in other prominent roles as an 'unwritten rule'.
In 1989, Rangers signed Maurice "Mo" Johnston, "their first major Roman Catholic signing". Johnston was the highest-profile Catholic to sign for the club since the World War I era, though other Catholics had signed for Rangers before. Since Johnston's signing, an influx of overseas footballers has contributed to Catholic players becoming common place at Rangers. In 1999 Lorenzo Amoruso became the first Catholic captain of the club.
However, sectarian chanting by supporters has continued to incur criticism and sanctions upon the club as well as convictions against individuals identified. In 1999, the vice chairman of The Rangers Football Club Ltd, Donald Findlay, resigned after being filmed singing sectarian songs during a supporters club event. UEFA's Control and Disciplinary Body has punished Rangers for incidents during European ties, most notably Villarreal in 2006, Osasuna in 2007, and PSV Eindhoven in 2011. In 2013, allegations were made that members of the armed forces were involved in sectarian singing at Ibrox at a weekend set up by the club to celebrate the British armed forces.
Rangers partnered with Celtic to form the 'Old Firm Alliance', an initiative aimed at educating children from across Glasgow about issues like healthy eating and fitness, as well as awareness of anti-social behaviour, sectarianism and racism. The club's 'Follow With Pride' campaign was launched in 2007 to improve the club's image and build on previous anti-racist, anti-sectarian campaigns.[n 2] William Gaillard, UEFA's Director of Communications, commended the SFA and Scottish clubs, including Rangers, for their actions in fighting discrimination. In September 2007, UEFA praised Rangers for the measures the club has taken against sectarianism.
Ownership and finances
Incorporation to limited company and then to a PLC
Rangers Football Club incorporated on 27 May 1899, forming The Rangers Football Club Ltd. No single shareholding exceeded 50% until 1985 when the Lawrence Group increased its shareholding in Rangers to a 52% majority, following a deal with then club vice-chairman Jack Gillespie. In November 1988, head of the Lawerence Group, Lawrence Marlbrough, sold out to David Murray for £6 million.
In 2000, David Murray decided to list the company on the stock exchange, making it a public limited company. The name of the company was therefore changed to The Rangers Football Club Plc.
Craig Whyte, administration and liquidation
On 6 May 2011, Craig Whyte bought David Murray's shares for £1. On 13 February 2012. Whyte filed legal papers at the Court of Session giving notice of their intention to appoint administrators. The next day, The Rangers Football Club Plc – which was subsequently renamed RFC 2012 Plc – entered administration over non-payment of £9 million in PAYE and VAT taxes to HM Revenue and Customs. In April the administrators estimated that the club's total debts could top £134m which was largely dependent on the outcome of a First Tier Tax Tribunal concerning a disputed tax bill in relation to an EBT scheme employed by the club since 2001. However, on 20 November 2012, the Tribunal ruled in favour of Rangers. If that decision is upheld the tax bill could be significantly reduced from an estimated £74m to under £2m. On 4 February 2013, HMRC lodged an appeal of the FFT decision and a further hearing will be carried out by a Second Tier Tribunal.
Charles Green agreed a deal with the administrators of The Rangers Football Club Plc to purchase the company for £8.5 million if a proposed CVA was agreed or to purchase its business and assets for a £5.5million if the proposed CVA were to be rejected. On 14 June 2012, the formal rejection of the proposed CVA meant that the company would enter the liquidation process. The accountancy firm BDO were appointed to reveal why the company running the club failed.
The new company formally applied to acquire the SPL share of The Rangers Football Club Plc on 18 June 2012 but on 4 July, voted by 10–1 to reject the application. Kilmarnock abstained and the old Rangers company voted in favour. Thereafter, an application to the Scottish Football League was successful with Rangers securing associate membership on 13 July 2012 at an SFL meeting by a vote of 29–1. The SFL member clubs voted that Rangers should enter the fourth tier of Scottish Football, Scottish Third Division for the 2012–13 season, rather than the Scottish First Division.
An application was made for a transfer of SFA membership on 29 June 2012, with the new company applying for the transfer of the membership of The Rangers Football Club Plc. Agreement was reached on the transfer with the new company accepting a number of conditions relating to the old company.
At the end of 2012, Rangers International Football Club Plc became the holding company for the group, having acquired The Rangers Football Club Ltd on the basis of a one for one share exchange.
Rangers Charity Foundation
The Rangers Charity Foundation was created in 2002 and participates in a wide range of charitable work, regularly involving Rangers staff and star players. The foundation also has partnerships with UNICEF, The Prostate Cancer Charity and Erskine, and is responsible for over £2.3 million in donations. As well as fundraising, the Rangers Charity Foundation regularly bring sick, disabled and disadvantaged children to attend matches and tours at Ibrox, with the chance to meet the players.
14–2 vs Whitehill, 29 September 1883 
First team squad
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Rangers FC is owned by Rangers Football Club Ltd, which in turn is owned by the holding company Rangers International Football Club PLC. Details of both boardrooms are given below.
As of April 2014, the directors of the two companies are the same except for Sandy Easdale, who only sits on the club board and not the plc.
Board of The Rangers Football Club Ltd
As of 24 January 2014
|Non-Executive Director||James Easdale|
Board of Rangers International Football Club plc
As of 3 November 2014
|Executive Chairman||David Somers|
|Chief Executive Officer||–|
|Consultants||Derek Llambias and Barry Leach|
|Non-Executive Director||James Easdale|
|Non-Executive Director||Norman Crighton|
|Non-Executive Director||Derek Llambias|
As of 7 December 2013
|Assistant Manager||Kenny McDowall|
|First Team Coach||Ian Durrant|
|Goalkeeping Coach||Jim Stewart|
|Head of Sports Science||Jim Henry|
|Head of Youth Development||Jim Sinclair|
|Head of Football Administration||Andrew Dickson|
|Doctor||Dr Paul Jackson|
|Kit Controller||Jimmy Bell|
|Video Analysis||Steve Harvey|
Only 13 men have been manager of Rangers during their 142-year history. The longest serving manager is Bill Struth who served for 34 years and 26 days. Rangers have had two foreign managers during their history; Dick Advocaat (1 June 1998 to 12 December 2001) and Paul Le Guen (9 May 2006 to 4 January 2007) who is the manager with the shortest time at the club. Graeme Souness is the only player-manager during Rangers' history.
The most successful manager in terms of the number of trophies won is Bill Struth with 18 League titles, 10 Scottish Cups and 2 League Cups, but the most successful manager in terms of trophies to time served is Walter Smith with 7 League titles, 3 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups in 7 years 42 days. During Smiths second spell which was he managed during financial constraints he won 3 League titles, 2 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups in 4 years 126 days. Rangers' other manager with notable success was William Waddell who won the European Cup Winner's Cup during his 2 years and 175 day stint. Ally McCoist is the present manager of Rangers F.C.
As of June 2014
- 1890–91,[n 4] 1898–99, 1899–1900, 1900–01, 1901–02, 1910–11, 1911–12, 1912–13, 1917–18, 1919–20, 1920–21, 1922–23, 1923–24, 1924–25, 1926–27, 1927–28, 1928–29, 1929–30, 1930–31, 1932–33, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1936–37, 1938–39, 1946–47, 1948–49, 1949–50, 1952–53, 1955–56, 1956–57, 1958–59, 1960–61, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2008–09, 2009–10, 2010–11
- Scottish Cup: 33
- 1893–94, 1896–97, 1897–98, 1902–03, 1927–28, 1929–30, 1931–32, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1935–36, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1949–50, 1952–53, 1959–60, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1965–66, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1980–81, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1995–96, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2002–03, 2007–08, 2008–09
- European Cup Winners' Cup:
- UEFA Cup:
- Runners-up: 2007–08
Doubles and trebles
- Scottish Cup, League Cup, League Title: 7
- Scottish Cup and League Cup: 4
- Scottish Cup and League Title: 11
- League Cup and League Title: 10
Rangers became the first British side to reach a UEFA-sanctioned European final in 1961.
- As of 29 October 2014
|98||AS Monaco FC||17.350|
|103||FC Chornomorets Odesa||16.733|
|104||FC Dynamo Moscow||16.733|
Notable former players
Greatest ever team
The following team was voted the greatest ever Rangers team by supporters in 1999. When the vote was launched it was feared that younger voters would ignore the great service of many of the pre-war stars (notably the most successful captain and most successful manager the club has ever had, Davie Meiklejohn and Bill Struth respectively). When the ballot was launched Donald Findlay stated it would be limited to post Second World War players because "few can recall players of these earlier eras":
- Andy Goram
- Sandy Jardine
- Richard Gough
- Terry Butcher
- John Greig – Voted greatest ever Ranger
- Brian Laudrup – Voted Rangers' greatest ever foreign player
- Paul Gascoigne
- Jim Baxter – Voted third greatest ever Ranger
- Davie Cooper
- Ally McCoist – Voted second greatest ever Ranger
- Mark Hateley
Scotland Football Hall of Fame
Scotland Roll of Honour
- David Weir
- Christian Dailly
- Kenny Miller
- Richard Gough
- Ally McCoist
- Graeme Souness
- George Young
- Colin Hendry
Scottish Sports Hall of Fame
As of 5 November 2014, Rangers are sponsored by:
- Official Club Sponsor – 32Red
- Official Kit Manufacturer and Supplier – Puma
- Official Soft Drink – Coca-Cola
- Official Retail Betting Partner – Ladbrokes
- Official Sports Drink – Powerade
- WIFI Solutions – Huawei
- Official Retail Partner – Sports Direct
- Official Suit Supplier – Cruise Fashion
- Official Vehicle Partner – Marbill Coaches
- Official Vehicle Partner – Bruces Coaches
Rangers Football Club now have a number of dedicated media outlets to communicate official news and information to their supporters. These include:
- Website – Official Rangers Website
- Tickets – Rangers Online Ticket Sales
- Matchday Programme – Ready
- TV Channel – Rangers TV
- Shop – Rangers Megastore
- Charity – Rangers Charity Foundation
- Rangers International Football Club PLC – Investor Relations
- Lottery – Rangers Lotto
- Social Media – Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Vine, LinkedIn, Google+, Flickr, SoundCloud, AudioBoo and iTunes
- However this attendance was unofficially exceeded prior to this match with 59,966. But this attendance was not officially recorded
- Racism has been directed at players on the pitch at Rangers games, including at former Celtic player Bobo Balde.
- Rangers are the only team in history to ever have accomplished this.
- Shared with Dumbarton F.C. after both clubs ended the season on 29 points. A play-off game at Cathkin Park on 21 May 1891 finished 2–2, so the clubs were declared joint champions
- Choices were limited to post World War II era players only.
- "Rangers Football Club". Scottish Professional Football League. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- THE RANGERS FOOTBALL CLUB LIMITED Company No. SC425159 Companies House, accessed 21 October 2014
- "Rangers: Charles Green has no influence, says Sandy Easdale". BBC. 13 December 2013.
- "45,000 to see Rangers face blokes coming off night shift". Eurosport. Yahoo!. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Founded: 1872
Biggest win: 10–0 v Hibernian 1898
Most appearances: John Greig 755 (1960–1978)"
- "The on-field history of Rangers Football Club 1873–2012". BBC News (BBC). 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "The club's origins date back to 1872 when Peter McNeil, his brother Moses, Peter Campbell and William McBeath formed their own team in Glasgow.
The name Rangers was adopted from an English rugby club and the first game, against Callander FC, ended 0–0. The club's official beginning came to be recognised as 1873, when the first annual general meeting was held.
By the time of the first Scottish Football League season in 1890, Rangers had arrived at their current home of Ibrox, in the south east of Glasgow, via Burnbank and Kinning Park.
Rangers finished joint top of the league with Dumbarton, and after a play-off ended 2–2, a decision was taken to share the title.
This was the only time the league has ever been shared, and it marked the first senior honour for Rangers.
Rangers won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1894, beating Celtic 3–1
Three years later, the club recorded their first ever Scottish Cup win, beating Celtic 3–1 in the 1894 final.
Rangers won the trophy again in 1897 and 1898 with victories over Dumbarton and Kilmarnock."
- "Co founder of Glasgow Rangers Football Club, Rangers and Scotland Footballer – a true Footballing Pioneer". Helensburgh Heroes. helensburghheroes.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012. "McNeil won two caps for Scotland, the first Ranger to represent his country, the first on 25 March 1876 in a 4–0 win over Wales and the second on 13 March 1880 in a 5–4 win over England, in which he played alongside his brother, Henry. Henry McNeil won a total of 10 caps for his country and scored 5 goals."
- "Rangers History". Evening Times. Newsquest. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013. "Rangers were born in March 1872, after a group of teenage rowing enthusiasts watched a game of football in Glasgow Green. Brothers Peter and Moses McNeil and Peter Campbell and William McBeath got their heads together to give rise to the club, who played just two matches in their first year.
It’s believed that Moses McNeil suggested the name ‘Rangers’ after seeing it in a book about English rugby. The club played their first game in May 1972 at Flecher’s Haugh in Glasgow Green against Callander, a match that ended in a 0–0 draw.
The year 1873 is the official founding of Rangers as that was the year the elected office bearers. The first time the club donned blue shirts was their second game, against Clyde (not the present-day club) and won it 11–0.
Five years after their founding, Rangers made it to their first major cup final against Vale of Leven. The game was played at First Hampden Park and it finished 1–1 so a replay beckoned. Rangers refused to turn up for the replay and Vale were awarded the cup. The teams met the following year in the Charity Cup. Rangers won 2–1 and the Glasgow Merchants’ Charity Cup was the first major trophy to be won by the team.
The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers were one of ten original members. Rangers' first ever league match took place on 16 August 1890 and resulted in a 5–2 victory over Hearts. After finishing equal-top with Dumbarton a play-off was held at Cathkin Park to decide the champions. The match finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history – the first of Rangers' 54 championships."
- "Summer Soccer & Football Camps train with the best teams in world football". football-soccer-camps.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "After joining, Rangers finally reached their first final of the Scottish Cup in 1877 but were not victorious.
The eternal rivalry, known as the Old Firm, between the two Glaswegian city teams, Rangers and Celtic has been ongoing since the first Old Firm match in 1888, in which Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly against the Celtic team which was largely made up of “guest players” from Hibernians."
- "The Founding of Celtic Football Club 1888". BBC. November 2005. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2013. "It would be over six months later before the newly-constituted Celtic club played its first ever match, on 28 May 1888 which resulted in a 5–2 win over Rangers, in what was called a 'friendly match'."
- "The Founding Fathers". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "All those championships and cups would never have found their way into the Ibrox Trophy Room but for that encounter between Peter McNeil, his brother Moses, Peter Campbell and William McBeath.
Their first match was an unlikely affair against Callander FC at Flesher's Haugh on Glasgow Green.
The result was 0–0, but that didn't matter. Rangers had been born.
The name Rangers was adopted from an English rugby club. By their second fixture – the only other they played that first year – they had donned the light blue. It must have done the trick – Rangers beat Clyde 11–0.
By 1876 Rangers had their first international, Moses McNeil one of the four founders, who made his Scotland debut in a 4–0 victory over Wales.
The following year Rangers made the breakthrough reaching their first Scottish Cup Final. It took three matches to find a winner, and sadly it was their opponents Vale of Leven. After two drawn games, 0–0 and 1–1, Rangers finally succumbed 3–2 in the second replay."
- "Rangers". scottishfootballleague.com. Scottish Football League. July 2014. Archived from the original on 31 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Rangers FC". UEFA.com. UEFA. 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012. "Founded by brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath, Rangers shared their first championship with Dumbarton FC in 1890/91 then beat Celtic FC 3–1 to win their first Scottish Cup in 1894, clinching their first title outright by winning every game of the 1898/99 campaign.
William Struth's 34 years as manager from 1920 onwards ushered in the club's first golden era; Rangers won 18 league championships, ten Scottish Cups and two Scottish League Cups under Struth, including Scotland's first domestic treble in the 1948/49 season.
In 1961, Rangers became the first British club to reach the final of a UEFA competition when they got to the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup final only to lose 4–1 on aggregate to ACF Fiorentina; they lost 1–0 to FC Bayern München in the final of the same competition six years later before finally lifting the trophy in 1972 when beating FC Dinamo Moskva 3–2 at the Camp Nou."
- Forsyth, Roddy (22 September 2006). "A lot of bottle in Old Firm duels". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "The record Old Firm gate at a club ground was set on 2 Jan 1939 by a crowd of 118,567 at Ibrox."
- "The Dominant Force". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. "Sadly, Wilton was not to enjoy this extraordinary success which saw Rangers take the title 15 times in 21 seasons.
With the Championship back at Ibrox, Wilton – the club's first manager – died the day after the last game of the season in May 1920, drowning in a boating accident.
Struth, who was appointed his successor, lived to become a legend. He managed the club for 34 years, winning a glittering array of trophies – 18 League Championships, 10 Scottish Cups and two League Cups."
- Murray, Scott (30 December 2011). "The Joy of Six: new year football fixtures". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013. "The humiliated Rangers boss that day was Scot Symon, so it is with a pleasing symmetry that Symon was a player in the other record victory in an Old Firm match. Because while Celtic's 7–1 win is the biggest win in official competition, Rangers went one better in an unofficial wartime Scottish Southern League ne'erday game between the two rivals in 1943. An Ibrox crowd of just over 30,000 watched a strong Rangers side including Symon, George Young and the legendary winger Willie Waddell rattle up an 8–1 victory."
- "About Scot Symon". in.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "He returned to Rangers just one year later where he would steer them to six league championships. He also took Rangers into European football for the first time reaching two Cup Winners Cup finals which was a fine achievement by losing in both finals"
- Stone, Colin (5 January 2012). "Top 10 Glasgow Rangers Players of All Time". Bleacher Report. pp. 2–11. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012. "Regarded as one of Scotland's greatest ever players, Jim Baxter can also be counted amongst the Rangers' greats for his terrific achievements in the '60s.
"Slim Jim" joined the club in 1960 for £17,500, a record at the time, and went on to win 10 trophies in the five years he spent in Scotland."
- Ripley, Dan (26 August 2010). "CHAMPIONS LEAGUE LOWDOWN: The teams to avoid, plum picks and all you need to know about the group stage draw". Daily Mail (Daily Mail and General Trust). Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Rangers: Semi-finalists – 1960
Lost to Eintracht Frankfurt 12–4 on aggregate in what remains a record scoreline in a European Cup semi-final."
- Baird, Stuart. "'And the cry was "No Defenders"' The Museum of Scottish Football at Hampden Park, Glasgow". Culture Wars. Institute of Ideas. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. "Rangers were the first British team to reach a European final in 1961"
- Womersley, Tara (19 June 2001). "Thousands pay tribute to victims of Ibrox disaster". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. "David Murray, the chairman of Rangers, yesterday unveiled a bronze statue of John Greig, the captain who led his team against Celtic on the day of the accident. The statue lists the names of those who died in 1971 and 25 fans killed when wooden terraces collapsed during a match between Scotland and England in 1902. Mr Greig then laid a wreath at the plinth of the statue.
An inquiry, however, later discounted the theory and said that the crush was likely to have happened 10 minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs."
- "Scotland XI vs Rangers/Celtic Select Official Programme of the Match". celticprogrammesonline.com. 27 January 1971. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012. "Attendance: 81,405"
- "Destiny awaits Ibrox heroes". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). 10 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2009. "It is hard to take that after Celtic were able to celebrate as much as they liked in Lisbon, our club and supporters were denied a post-match presentation because the Spanish police completely misunderstood the fans' on-field invasion at the end.
I played with a stress fracture in my foot. A guy jumped on it late in the final and I ended up with another fracture on the other side, but the euphoria kept the pain away until I was called down to this little room to receive the trophy.
It all passed in a blur, but I hobbled down there in agony with our manager Willie Waddell and a UEFA delegate and, in this cramped corner covered in Barcelona memorabilia, the delegate handed me the trophy and basically said: "Here, take the cup Glasgow Rangers, now go away".
When I got back to the dressing room all my team-mates were either in the bath or out of it. I felt sorry they didn't get to parade the trophy – ultimately what we were playing for – and even sorrier for all those people who had a paid a lot of money to travel to the Nou Camp and see that."
- "Rangers triumph in Europe 1972". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). December 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Rangers were handed a two-year ban by UEFA for their fans' poor behaviour. Waddell succeeded in getting this reduced to one year, meaning Rangers could not defend their trophy. Waddell argued that the police had over-reacted, that the fans were drunk but not intent on violence, and that recent European finals had witnessed rejoicing Celtic, Bayern Munich and Ajax fans running on to the park and those occasions had been deemed acceptable."
- "Scottish Cup History And Archives". Scottish FA. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "122,714 supporters packed into Hampden on 5 May 1973 for the Scottish Cup Final between Rangers and Celtic."
- McKinney, David (26 July 1996). "Obituary: Jock Wallace". The Independent (Independent Print Ltd). Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Jock Wallace was a giant of Scottish football. No other description can do justice to the man who ended Celtic's domination of the game in the 1970s and who, as manager, led Rangers to two domestic trebles within three years, the Glasgow club winning the League title, the League Cup and the Scottish Cup."
- "EXCLUSIVE: Graeme Souness – Smith is simply the best boss in the modern Ibrox era". Daily Mail (Daily Mail and General Trust). 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. "There will be no more fitting way to mark his departure than to beat Celtic to another championship but Walter has already established himself as one of the finest managers Scotland has ever produced. He's the best Rangers manager in the modern game. After Sir Alex Ferguson and Jock Stein, his record is fantastic; his success is there for all to see."
- "Rangers paying for overspending ways". The footy pie. thefootypie.com. February 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved December 2012. "Graham Souness lead the side to their first two championships as player-manager before his assistant, Walter Smith, took the reign, claiming another seven titles to equal a record set by Jock Stein at Celtic in the 1960s and 70s."
- "UEFA Champions League 1992/93: Rangers". UEFA. UEFA.com. 10 August 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Scottish Premier Division 1996–97". Soccorbot. soccerbot.com. 27 June 2000. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Campbell, Andy (13 May 2008). "Advocaat's Rangers legacy". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "When Dick Advocaat became the Rangers manager in 1998, it was a brave new dawn for the Ibrox club as chairman David Murray attempted to begin a new chapter in the club's history following Walter Smith's departure."
- "Rangers make history out of chaos". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 3 May 1999. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Celtic 0–3 Rangers
Rangers created history by winning the title at Celtic Park in a stormy Old Firm game which saw referee Hugh Dallas injured by a missile thrown from the pitch."
- "When Rangers can win the league". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). 28 March 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "The biggest winning points margin in the history of the SPL was enjoyed by Rangers in 1999/00, when they finished 21 points clear of Celtic."
- "Champions League group tables". BBC Sport (BBC). 2 November 1999. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012.
- "Rangers put Parma in the shade". BBC Sport (BBC). 12 August 1999. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Rangers 2–0 Parma
Rangers secured one of their most impressive European results in years, as Italian giants Parma crashed to defeat in the first leg of their Champions League qualifier"
- Forsyth, Roddy (12 November 2000). "Rangers' £12m Flo gamble". Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "DAVID MURRAY, the Rangers chairman, moved dramatically last night to end the crisis at Ibrox by setting a new Scottish transfer record of £12 million for Chelsea's out-of-favour Norwegian international forward, Tore Andre Flo."
- "Kaiserslautern 3–0 Rangers". BBC Sport (BBC). 7 December 2000. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "Full time: Kaiserslautern 3–0 Rangers
92 mins The Fritz Walter Stadium erupts on the referee's final whistle which brings down the curtain on Rangers' European campaign."
- "Rangers unveil McLeish". BBC Sport (BBC). 11 December 2001. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Alex McLeish has been unveiled as Rangers' 11th manager after a dramatic day at Ibrox."
- "Rangers complete Treble". BBC Sports Scotland (BBC Sport). 31 May 2003. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Rangers capped a fabulous season with a hard-earned Scottish Cup win over Dundee at Hampden Park to seal the seventh domestic Treble in the club's history."
- "Rangers win to clinch title". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC Sport). 25 May 2003. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012. "Rangers 6–1 Dunfermline Athletic
An injury-time penalty by Mikel Arteta clinched the SPL title for Rangers in an amazing afternoon at Ibrox.
Rangers were 5–1 up as the match entered the last few minutes, but with Celtic 4–0 up at Rugby Park and still playing, they knew the championship was not yet theirs."
- Grahame, Ewing (26 May 2003). "Six into one equals victory Rangers secure a world-record 50th championship as title showdown goes all the way to the wire". Herald Scotland (Newsquest). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Rangers secure a world-record 50th championship"
- "Rangers stay cool over huge losses". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). 30 September 2002. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers chairman John McClelland has attempted to assure shareholders the club's £52m debt is nothing to be alarmed over."
- Salty (29 July 2011). "Aston Villa’s Alex McLeish, a look at his managerial career". Football blog. footballblog.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "At this point McLeish was viewed as one of the hottest managers in the game. Success doesn’t last forever and Rangers financial state cost McLeish dear in 2003. Many of his prize assets were sold and subsequently Celtic won the league comfortably. Also, Rangers failed to pick up a single trophy that season."
- "Magpies complete Boumsong signing". BBC Sport (BBC). 2 January 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Boumsong joined Rangers from Auxerre on a free transfer last summer and made just 28 appearances for them before moving to England."
- "Rangers get Prso". BBC Sport (BBC). 9 May 2004. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Rangers have confirmed the signing of Monaco's Croatian striker Dado Prso."
- "Rangers sign Novo". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 6 July 2004. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Rangers have completed the signing of Nacho Novo from Dundee but manager Alex McLeish insists his summer spending spree is not yet over."
- "Transfer window dealings". Daily Mail (Daily Mail and general trust). 1 February 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Barry Ferguson – Blackburn to Rangers, £4.5million rising to £5million depending on appearances."
- "Rangers in dramatic title triumph". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 22 May 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Rangers pipped rivals Celtic to the Scottish Premier League title after a dramatic final day of the season.
The Gers went into the final game two points behind their Glasgow rivals but a sensational late fightback by Motherwell gave them the title."
- Jackson, Keith (22 April 2010). "Football flashback: Looking back on Rangers' 'helicopter Sunday' triumph in 2005". Daily Record (Trinity Mirror). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "NACHO Novo will be remembered forever as the man whose goal made the helicopter change direction."
- "Rangers 1–1 Inter Milan". BBC Sport (BBC). 6 December 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Peter Lovenkrands was the goalscoring hero as Rangers became the first Scottish club to qualify from the group stages of the Champions League.
Criticised by some for his tactics during a run without a win now stretching to 10 games, McLeish got it right on the European stage with the surprise inclusion of Lovenkrands as a lone striker."
- "Villarreal 1–1 Rangers (agg 3–3)". BBC Sport (BBC). 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Rangers' dream of becoming the first Scottish side in the quarter-finals of the Champions League ended as they lost on the away-goals rule to Villarreal."
- "McLeish to leave Rangers in May". BBC Sport (BBC). 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Alex McLeish will leave his position as Rangers manager at the end of the season, the club has confirmed"
- "Rangers name Le Guen as manager". BBC Sport (BBC). 11 March 2006. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Rangers have announced that Paul Le Guen will replace Alex McLeish as manager at the end of the season."
- "Rangers 0–2 St Johnstone". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 8 November 2006. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "St Johnstone recorded one of their finest results to stun Rangers at Ibrox and reach the CIS Cup semi-finals."
- Glenn, Patrick (24 September 2006). "Gravesen piles pressure on Le Guen". The Observer (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Until Gravesen gave the home side the lead there was a wariness about both sides, which betrayed the number of players on each side who were making their first appearance in the conflict. If Celtic were expected to be dominant – with Rangers reliant on the absorption of pressure and the counter-thrust – Gordon Strachan and his players would also be mindful of the four-point advantage they held over their great rivals and the need not to risk having it damaged."
- Murray, Ewan (15 December 2006). "Hutton sends Rangers clean through to Old Firm match". Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2011. "Paul Le Guen is satisfied his Rangers players will enter Sunday's Old Firm match in as positive a frame of mind as possible after they sealed the top qualifying position from Group A and secured a second consecutive clean sheet."
- Austin, Simon (5 January 2007). "Clash of cultures". BBC Sport (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Paul Le Guen's relationship with Barry Ferguson was never likely to be a marriage made in heaven.
On one side was an authoritarian French manager used to having the final word and working with clean-living, tee-total players.
On the other was a passionate Scottish captain who enjoyed talismanic status with the fans and liked to work hard and play hard.
There were reported to be differences between the duo soon after Le Guen took over at Ibrox seven months ago. And they came to the surface at a news conference before the last Old Firm derby on 17 December."
- "Le Guen and Rangers part company". BBC Sport (BBC). 4 January 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers manager Paul Le Guen has left the club by mutual consent."
- "Smith installed as Rangers boss". BBC Sport (BBC). 10 January 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Walter Smith has quit as Scotland coach to become boss of Rangers for a second time after agreeing a three-year deal."
- Moffat, Colin (12 December 2007). "Rangers 0–3 Lyon". BBC Sport (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers crashed out of the Champions League and into the Uefa Cup with a disappointing home defeat to Lyon."
- "Rangers & Zenit chase Uefa glory". BBC Sport (BBC). 14 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Panathinaikos, Werder Bremen and Fiorentina have been dispatched, along with Sporting since Rangers qualified via their position in the Champions League group stage."
- "Zenit coach Advocaat insists Rangers should not change style of play for UEFA Cup final". Daily Mail (Daily mail and General Trust). 12 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers may have been criticised for their cautious approach in European games this season – but Zenit St Petersburg boss Dick Advocaat insists Walter Smith should not change his style of play when the sides clash in the UEFA Cup final."
- Winter, Henry (15 May 2008). "Rangers run out of steam as Zenit lift Uefa Cup". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Zenit St Petersburg (0) 2 Rangers (0) 0
It is not only Scottish fuel stations that have been running on empty recently. The warning light began flashing on Rangers' tank midway through the second half last night, their exhausting schedule finally catching up with them, allowing a superior and fresher Zenit side to lift the Uefa Cup."
- "Rangers exit Champions League in Lithuania". CNN World Sport (CNN). 5 August 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Scottish giants Rangers slumped to a shock European exit when Linas Pilibaitis gave FBK Kaunas 2–1 a aggregate win in their Champions League second qualifying round tie in Lithuania."
- Forsyth, Roddy (24 May 2009). "Rejuvenated Rangers take SPL title in style with victory at Dundee United". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2010. "With the boundless relief and joie de vivre of a man who has been reprieved on the steps of the gallows and installed in a palace, Rangers produced a climactic performance to snatch their first championship since 2005 at sun-drenched Tannadice."
- Forsyth, Roddy (30 May 2009). "Rangers 1 Falkirk 0: Match report". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2010. "Rangers completed the second stage of their Scottish league and cup double in the baking heat of Hampden Park on Saturday thanks to a glorious goal from Nacho Novo, with his first touch of the ball only seconds after arriving as a half-time substitute for Kris Boyd. But the favourites were made to sweat throughout – and not simply because of the sweltering conditions."
- Murray, Ewan (21 March 2010). "Kenny Miller sees nine-man Rangers through to victory". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2010. "It would, of course, be churlish not to recognise the winning mentality of a team who have lost just a single domestic fixture since Celtic lifted this trophy at their expense a year ago. Yet this win arrived in the most unlikely of circumstances, sealing the League Cup despite being down to nine men."
- "Rangers happy to prove doubters wrong after Cup win". BBC Sport (BBC). 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers manager Walter Smith described the Co-operative Insurance Cup final win over Celtic as one of his "best ever" victories.
Smith, coming to the end of his second spell in charge at Ibrox, clinched a 20th trophy as Rangers boss after the 2–1 extra-time win at Hampden."
- Moffat, Colin (16 May 2011). "Kilmarnock 1 – 5 Rangers". BBC Sport (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2011. "Rangers gave departing manager Walter Smith the perfect send-off as they wrapped up a third-consecutive Scottish Premier League title in style.
A blistering opening saw Kyle Lafferty net twice inside seven minutes, either side of a Steven Naismith strike.
Early in the second half, Nikica Jelavic smashed in a free kick and Lafferty completed his hat-trick with a composed finish."
- "Rangers crash out of Champions League after seeing red twice at Malmo". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers' Champions League hopes were shattered as they crashed out of the competition at the hands of Malmo after being reduced to nine men in the qualifier in Sweden. Steven Whittaker and Madjid Bougherra were both shown straight red cards, before Malmo's Ricardinho was also dismissed by the referee Vladislav Bezborodov at the Swedbank stadium"
- Campbell, Andy (25 August 2011). "Rangers 1 – 1 NK Maribor (agg 2 – 3)". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers exited the Europa League as Maribor claimed an aggregate victory to progress to the group stages."
- "Ally McCoist fuming as Falkirk kids dump Rangers out of cup". BBC Sport (BBC). 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Manager Ally McCoist believes his Rangers players have only themselves to blame for their shock League Cup defeat by a very youthful Falkirk line-up."
- Campbell, Andy (5 February 2012). "Rangers 0–2 Dundee Utd". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012. "Dundee United knocked Rangers out of the Scottish Cup with a deserved fifth-round victory at Ibrox."
- "Rangers' 10-point deduction confirmed by SPL". BBC Sport (BBC). 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers have been deducted 10 points after entering administration."
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- "Best attendances of Brazilian Championship of 4th Level" (in Portuguese). RSSSF Brasil. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. "1 Santa Cruz (PE) 0 x 0 Treze (PB), 59.966, 16/10/2011, Estádio do Arruda"
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- "The Rangers Crest". Gersnet Online. Retrieved 21 January 2013. "From 1990 to 1994 'Rangers Football Club' and the 'Ready' motto were placed above and below the Crest respectively. In 1997–98 the Crest was placed in a shield but perhaps the most significant change was before the start of the 2003/04 campaign. Having clinched their 50th League Championship, a year in which Rangers secured a domestic Treble, the Club decided to add five stars above the Scoll Crest, one for every ten titles won."
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- "Scottish football". Global Friends of Scotland. Scottish Government. June 2006. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "Scotland’s contributions to the development of the game were equally impressive in other areas. Glaswegian born architect Archibald Leitch was the pioneering football stadium designer of his day – by the 1920’s 16 out of 22 of England’s First Division stadiums were Leitch designs. The most famous example of his work still in existence is probably Ibrox. (This would undoubtedly please Leitch, who was a devout Rangers fan.)"
- "Rangers consider Ibrox expansion". BBC Sport (BBC). 6 January 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "The plans, one of three options being considered by the club, could see the stadium in Glasgow completely rebuilt with a new capacity of 70,000. Rangers would retain the Bill Struth main stand, which is designated as a Category B listed building. Ibrox currently holds 51,082 fans, behind Hampden Park and Celtic Park."
- MacDonald, Hugh (26 March 2012). "Working with kids is its own reward for the man in charge at Murray Park". Herald Scotland (Newsquest). Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013. "Ally McCoist, the manager, normally leaves Sinclair and his staff to choose the youngsters but sometimes will stipulate who he and the first-team staff want. "That daily exposure is priceless," says Sinclair. "The boys become comfortable with the staff and first-team players. If they were round there [first-team pitches] once every six months, it would be a trial but it is a regular process. [Danny] Wilson, [John] Fleck and Little were all steeped in that.""
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- "UK Supporters Clubs". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "There are more than 600 registered supporters clubs with over 30,000 registered members and these continue to grow, in keeping with the vision the club initially had."
- "Global Supporters Clubs". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "It includes representatives from all over the globe – including North America, Australasia and the Middle East – as well as closer to home in the United Kingdom. There are also clubs registered in far-flung locations such as Azerbaijan, Nigeria, Hong Kong and Peru."
- Scott, Les (2008). End to End Stuff. Random House. p. 17. ISBN 9780593060681. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "The Record attendance for a friendly match in the United Kingdom is 104,493, who saw Rangers lose 3–2 to Eintracht Frankfurt at Hampden Park on 17 October 1961."
- "Rangers invasion: your views". BBC Manchester (BBC). 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008. "It was always going to put a massive strain on the city. An invasion of up to 200,000 Rangers supporters for the UEFA Cup Final in Manchester swamped the city’s pubs and bars and the dedicated fan zones."
- Nisbet, John (27 August 2010). "150,000 Rangers fans descended on the city for the Uefa Cup final in 2008". The Independent (The Independent Group). Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "But the chief executive at Rangers, Martin Bain, insists there will be no repeat of the scenes of crowd misbehaviour which marred the club's last visit to Manchester. Some 200,000 Rangers fans descended on the city for the Uefa Cup final in 2008 and trouble started when a giant screen failed to work."
- "Rangers fans clash with riot police after Uefa Cup final defeat". Metro (Associated Newspapers). 14 May 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "GMP would like to stress that the vast majority of supporters have behaved impeccably and came to Manchester clearly intent on enjoying the carnival atmosphere."
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- "Rangers fans take long road home". BBC News (BBC). 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "A number of supporters clashed with riot police after a big screen in Manchester broke down. Officers later confirmed 42 people had been arrested."
- "CCTV shows fans chasing police". BBC News (BBC). 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "Police in Manchester have released CCTV images showing up to 200 football fans chasing officers and attacking one of them after the Uefa Cup final."
- Price, Catherine (2010). 101 Places Not to See Before You Die. Harper Collins. pp. 174, 175. ISBN 9780061787768. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "On Old Firm weekends, admission rates for local hospitals increase ninefold, and the cumulative total for arrests at Old Firm games is the highest in the world."
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- "Rangers apologise to Aberdeen". The Independent (The Independent Group). 18 November 1998. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2010. "RANGERS ISSUED a full public apology to Aberdeen last night for labelling a section of the Pittodrie club's support "scum" in last Saturday's Ibrox matchday programme. Stewart Milne, the Aberdeen chairman, protested to Bob Brannan, the Rangers chief executive, yesterday about the anonymous article which also branded the Dons' team as "under-achievers and money-grabbers""
- "A history of bad blood". BBC Sport (BBC). 19 January 2002. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2010. "The catalyst for the recent venom between the two sets of supporters was the 1988 incident involving Neil Simpson and Iain Durrant."
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Although the teams last met in a League Cup tie 21 years ago and regularly jousted in the Glasgow Cup in the two decades before that, there has not been a league meeting since 1958, the year Queen’s Park last played top-flight football. The fact the confrontation has returned to the calendar in a wholly different form was best encapsulated by Rangers ambassador Sandy Jardine."
- Fisher, Stewart (14 October 2012). "Old rivalry renewed". Herald Scotland (Newsquest). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012. "Queen's Park and Rangers, two teams that first met competitively in a Scottish Cup tie in March 1879, some nine years before Celtic were formed, meet in an Irn-Bru Third division encounter at Ibrox."
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- Armstrong, Gary; Giulianotti, Richard (2001). Fear and loathing in world football. Berg Publishers. pp. 25, 26. ISBN 1 85973 463 4. Retrieved 15 August 2012. "Primrose with associated with the most virulent anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiment, and was openly allied with the orange order."
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- Giulianotti, Richard (1999). Football: A Sociology of the Global Game. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN 9780745617695. "Historically Rangers have maintained a staunch Protestant and anti-Catholic tradition which includes a ban on signing Catholic players."
- Gallagher, Tom (1987). Glasgow, the Uneasy Peace: Religious Tension in Modern Scotland, 1819–1914. Manchester University Press ND. p. 300. ISBN 9780719023965. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "The conflict in Ireland failed to be the catalyst which swept the religious cobwebs from the Ibrox-based club's terraces and boardroom. One of its managers even had no qualms in the 1970s about urging his players to roar out the loyalist battle-cry 'No Surrender' as they ran up the tunnel at Ibrox."
- Souness, Graeme; Gallacher, Ken (1989). Graeme Souness: A Manager's Diary. Mainstream Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 9781851582242. "For years Rangers have been pilloried for what the majority of people saw as discrimination against one section of the population. Now we have shown that this unwritten policy at Ibrox is over. It's finished. Done with."
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- "Uefa fines Rangers and bans fans for one away game". BBC Sport (BBC). 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2011. "Uefa has fined Rangers 40,000 euros (£35,652) and banned its fans from the next away European game for sectarian singing in a match at PSV Eindhoven."
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- "Rangers tax case leaks: Sir David Murray makes 'criminal complaint'". STV Glasgow (STV). 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. "In June administrators Duff and Phelps confirmed it had failed to secure a route out of the insolvency event and the club's assets were sold to a newco owned by a Charles Green-led consortium in a £5.5m deal. The oldco, now RFC 2012 Plc, formerly The Rangers Football Club Plc, has been placed into liquidation."
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- McLaughlin, Chris (29 January 2013). "SPL independent commission into Rangers player payments begins". BBC Scotland (BBC). Retrieved 29 January 2013. "The three-man commission will decide if the company that formerly ran Rangers broke Scottish Premier League rules.
The commission will study the financial arrangements made by the Employee Benefit Trust scheme run by former Rangers owner Sir David Murray's company, Murray International Holdings.
The probe was launched before the company that ran Rangers – The Rangers Football Club Plc – was consigned to liquidation.
The consortium now running the club, led by chief executive Charles Green, has refused to recognise or co-operate with the investigation."
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- John Greig
- Ally McCoist
- Scottish Football Association
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- "Andrew Dickson". Rangers.co.uk. Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013. "AS Rangers' head of football administration, Andrew Dickson is a key member of the executive team on the business side of the club."
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- Football: Greig is voted greatest ever Ranger! The Free Library, 1999
- Hall of Fame Scottish Football Museum
- "International Roll of Honour". Scottish Football Association. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Scottish Sports Hall of Fame Scottish Sports
- Sponsors Rangers FC
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rangers F.C..|
- "Official website". Rangers.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Rangers". Scottish Football League. August 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Rangers Football Club: Team Profile". Scottish Premier League. May 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Rangers". FIFA.com. FIFA. 2011. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Rangers FC". UEFA. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Rangers Supporters Trust". Rangers Supporters Trust. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.