Ranil Wickremasinghe

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The Right Honourable
Ranil Wickremasinghe
MP
Ranil At UNP Office.jpg
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka
In office
7 May 1993 – 19 August 1994
Preceded by D.B. Wijetunga
Succeeded by Chandrika Kumaratunga
In office
9 December 2001 – 6 April 2004
Preceded by Ratnasiri Wickremanayake
Succeeded by Mahinda Rajapaksa
Member of Parliament
for Colombo District
Incumbent
Assumed office
15 February 1989
Personal details
Born (1949-03-24) 24 March 1949 (age 65)
Dominion of Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka)
Nationality Sri Lankan
Political party United National Party
Spouse(s) Dr Maitree Wickremesinghe
Alma mater University of Colombo,
Royal College, Colombo
Occupation Politician
Profession Lawyer
Religion Theravada Buddhism

Ranil Wickremesinghe (Sinhala: රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහ,Tamil: ரணில் விக்ரமசிங்க; born 24 March 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician and current Leader of the Opposition in the Sri Lankan parliament. He was Prime Minister of Sri Lanka twice, from 7 May 1993 to 19 August 1994 and from 9 December 2001 to 6 April 2004. A member of the United National Party he was appointed party leader in November 1994. He is also the leader of the United National Front having been appointed head of the alliance in October 2009.

Antecedents[edit]

Ranil Shriyan Wickremasinghe is the second son of Esmond and Nalini Wickremasinghe. Esmond Wickremasinghe was a press baron, an ex-Samasamajist[1] and supremo of the Lake House group of newspapers.[2] His paternal uncle Lakshman Wickremasinghe was a Bishop of the Church of Sri Lanka.[3] His maternal line consisted of newspaper barons and landowners, the Wijewardenas, who were Sinhala Buddhists. His maternal grandfather was D. R. Wijewardena, the founder of the Lake House publishing empire a pro-independence activist and a financier of the independence movement. He was a nephew of J.R. Jayewardene, later President of Sri Lanka.

Education[edit]

Wickremesinghe was educated at Royal College, Colombo where he was a classmate and a good friend of Anura Bandaranaike, son of then Prime Minister Solomon Bandaranaike and Dinesh Gunawardena, son of socialist leader Philip Gunawardena. Wickremasinghe entered the Faculty of Law at the University of Ceylon, Colombo campus (now University of Colombo). After graduation he completed the law exams at the Sri Lanka Law College and took oaths as an advocate in 1972.[4]

In 2014 Wickremesinghe has been named a Robert E. Wilhelm fellow by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[5]

Early Political career[edit]

Wickremasinghe joined the United National Party (UNP) and progressed through its ranks. He was appointed as the chief organizer of the Kelaniya Electorate in the mid-1970s but was later appointed as the chief organizer of the Biyagama Electorate, which he won in the 1977 parliamentary elections.

Youngest cabinet minister[edit]

He was appointed Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs in the new government of J. R. Jayawardene, and was soon promoted to the post of Minister of Youth Affairs and Employment, which made him the youngest cabinet minister of Sri Lanka.[3] During his term as deputy minister, he initiated the Sri Lanka National Guard and the National Youth Services Council (NYSCO), which provides vocational and career training to school leavers. Wickremesinghe was later made the Minister of Education.

Prime Minister (1993–1994)[edit]

Under the Presidency of Ranasinghe Premadasa, Wickremasinghe was appointed as the Minister of Industry, under which he initiated industrial reforms and established the Biyagama Special Economic Zone. Wickremesinghe had competition from his senior colleagues in the UNP, Lalith Athulathmudali and Gamini Dissanayake, who had been rivals of President Premadasa. He was appointed the Leader of the House in 1989. On 7 May 1993, Wickremesinghe was sworn in as Prime Minister after President Ranasinghe Premadasa was assassinated by the Tamil Tigers and Prime Minister D. B. Wijetunga was appointed acting president.

During his term he was credited for pushing the country through an impressive economic transformation and was generally backed by the business community.[6]

Opposition (1994–2001)[edit]

In the 1994 parliamentary elections, the UNP lost to Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga's People's Alliance (PA), and Kumaratunga was appointed Prime Minister of the country. Wickremasinghe was defeated in the race for Opposition Leader by two votes by fellow UNP member Gamini Dissanayake, who had re-joined the party. This gave Gamini Dissanayake the default leadership of the party and made him the presidential nominee of the UNP. The UNP was progressing well under Gamini Dissanayake's leadership, when he too was assassinated by the Tamil Tigers. Gamini Dissanayake's widow, Srima replaced him as the candidate of the UNP in the 1994 election. Securing just 35% of the vote, she lost to Chandrika Kumaratunga in all electorates except Mahiyangana. Afterwards, Wickremesinghe was appointed as the opposition leader as well as the UNP leader.

Wickremasinghe was seen as a co-operative opposition leader who gave the government a chance to carry out its agenda in its early days.[6]

In the 1999 election, Wickremesinghe was nominated as UNP's Presidential candidate. After a tense election campaign in the wake of the violent North Western Provincial Council election, the Tamil Tigers blasted a suicide bomb in an election campaign rally, in which President Kumaratunga lost her right eye. In the election held two days later 21 December 1999 amidst a wave of sympathy, Kumaratunga received 51% of the popular vote to be re-elected as Executive President.[6] The gap between Wickremesinghe and Kumaratunga was approximately 700,000 votes (6% of the valid votes). Kumaratunga was sworn in for her second term as President on 22 December 1999.

After the loss of the 1999 presidential elections, Wickremasinghe unsuccessfully led his party in the 2000 parliamentary elections, again losing out to the PA.

Prime Minister (2001–2004)[edit]

Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe of Sri Lanka meets with Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz in the Pentagon on 3 November 2003. The leaders are meeting to discuss defense issues of mutual interest.

In the parliamentary general election 2001 UNF, led by Ranil Wickremesinghe, won 109 seats and PA was able to obtain only 77 seats.[7] Consequently he was able to form a new UNF government and sworn as the 17th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on 9 December 2001.[8]

However Chandrika Kumaratunga still remained the President of the country. This led to a confusing situation where the President and the Prime Minister were from two opposite parties. [9] Although, according to the constitution, both head of state and head of government was the President, Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe was able to appoint his own cabinet [10][11] and he had the actual control over the government. President Chandrika Kumaratunga also chaired cabinet meetings as de facto head, but her influence over decision making was strictly limited.

Economic policy[edit]

Ranil Wickremesinghe is well known for his right wing, liberal economic policies[citation needed]. He relied on the support of Western governments and foreign investors[citation needed]. During his term as Prime Minister, he made some significant reforms to earn this[citation needed]. He emphasized in privatising government ventures and in cutting down the high public sector workforce[citation needed]. Ranil Wickremesinghe also stopped all recruitments to the public sector during his tenant[citation needed].

However, his policies set off a considerable recovery in the down falling country's economy. In 2002 he was able to secure a GDP growth rate of 4.0% which was -1.5% in the previous year. During the next two years of his tenant he attained the figures 5.9% and 5.4% respectively.[12] Also he was able to keep the inflation (annul percent increase) below 10%. [13] In December 2002 Ranil Wickremesinghe brought forward a solution package called Regaining Sri Lanka[14] as a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) to reduce the poverty of the country and to gain debt reliefs.

Foreign policy[edit]

Ranil Wickremesinghe's foreign policy during his tenant as the Prime Minister was predominantly Pro-Western[citation needed]. He allied with countries like United States, Great Britain, Norway and Japan[citation needed]. He expected their economical backing to overcome the economical crisis[citation needed]. He also largely depended on their guidance, especially from Norway, to resolve the ongoing Ethnic Problem in Sri Lanka[citation needed].

During his relatively short tenant as the Prime Minister he was able to meet a few of the world's top leaders[citation needed]. He met President George W. Bush on July 2002, for the first time after 18 years a Sri Lankan leader met the US leader in the White House.[15][16] This visit was primarily focused on building new relationships based on economical links between United States and Sri Lanka. Furthermore, US government pledged to support his peace efforts with LTTE. He also met the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair,[17] the Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi [18] and the Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee.[19] Many of these visits were focused on the issues regarding resolving the Ethnic Problem in Sri Lanka.

Peace process[edit]

Ranil Wickremesinghe's believed a political solution based on a United Sri Lanka was the permanent solution to the Ethnic Problem in Sri Lanka. He also believed that such a solution could be reached through a peaceful negotiation process with LTTE.

Ceasefire Agreement (CFA)[edit]

Three months after the election Ranil Wickremesinghe's government entered into a ceasefire agreement (CFA) with LTTE. The agreement was signed on 22 February 2002 at different locations in the war zone by both parties and Norwegian Ambassador to Sri Lanka Jon Westborg acted as the facilitator. It was said that the main objective of this agreement was to find a negotiated solution to the ongoing ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka.[20] Both parties agreed to halt all offensive military operations. An international monitoring mission called Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission (SLMM) was formed to enquire into any instance of violation of the terms and conditions of this agreement.

In the aftermath of signing CFA the island was deemed as a safe place once again, after decades of war. Specially tourism industry experienced a significant escalation where the number of tourists arrived to the country was suddenly increased.[21] The A9 Highway was reopened up to Kilinochchi on 15 February 2002 after 18 years. Many checkpoints and road blocks were removed in government controlled areas. He is a man with vision based on nonviolence of Buddhism.

Peace talks[edit]

After signing CFA Ranil Wickremesinghe held a few rounds of peace talks with LTTE between 2002 and 2003. Prof. G. L. Peiris, minister Milinda Moragoda and minister Rauff Hakeem led the government delegation and LTTE theoretician Anton Balasingham, LTTE political wing leader S.P. Thamilselvan and military leader Karuna Amman led the LTTE faction during the peace talks. The Royal Norwegian government acted as the chief facilitator during the peace talks. There were six rounds of peace talks which were held at different locations around the world:

1. 16–18 September 2002, Bangkok [22]

2. 31 October-3 November 2002, Bangkok [23]

3. 2–5 December 2002, Oslo [24]

4. 6–9 January 2003, Bangkok [25]

5. 7–8 February 2003, Berlin [26]

6. 18–21 March 2003, Tokyo [27]

After the Oslo round of peace talks in December 2003, a concluding statement was declared by the Norwegian facilitators which later became known as Oslo Declaration.[28] In this statement it was stated that "both parties have decided to explore a political solution founded on internal self-determination based on a federal structure within a united Sri Lanka". This was considered as one of the most significant incidents in the history of finding a political solution to the Ethnic Problem in Sri Lanka.

After the 6th round of peace talks in March 2003 LTTE abruptly withdrew from the peace talks.[29] However in October 2003 LTTE again showed some intentions of entering into the peace process, calling for an Interim Self Governing Authority (ISGA). The proposal was handed over to the government through Norwegian Ambassador Hans Brattskar.[30][31][32]

Criticism on peace process[edit]

The opposition and the nationalistic movements of the country strongly opposed CFA and the overall peace process of Ranil Wickremesinghe's regime.[33] They continuously criticized and protested against CFA claiming it as a threat to the sovereignty of the country which ultimately leads the way to a separate state for LTTE, so called Ealam. It was later claimed by Karuna Amman who defected from the LTTE during Ranil Wickremesinghe's regime that the LTTE dragged the peace talks to smuggle weapons and ammunition including aircraft.[34]

LTTE continuously violated CFA in great many occasions. In August 2007 SLMM agreed that LTTE had violated CFA in total 3830 occasions while government of Sri Lanka had violated CFA in only 351 occasions.[35] Several Sri Lankan Army intelligence operatives were allegedly killed by LTTE during this period.[36]

Nationalistic movements of the country also widely criticized the proposal for an Interim Self Governing Authority by LTTE arguing that would divide the country[citation needed]. They claimed it had all the pre-requirements for a separate state for LTTE[citation needed]. Ultimately CFA and its consequences became the main topic of debate during Presidential Election[citation needed]. It was evident from the results of the election that the Sinhalese majority of the country disapproved of CFA[citation needed].

End of the Regime[edit]

Few days after LTTE proposed of the Interim Self Governing Authority (ISGA), President Chandrika Kumaratunga sacked three ministers of the cabinet and took over the ministries using her constitutional powers ending the uneasy coalition between her and the Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe while he was out of the country.[37] Addressing the nation she claimed that this decision was taken in the interest of national security.[38]

Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna also decided to ally with PA to defeat the Ranil Wickremesinghe's government which they claimed as a threat to the sovereignty of the country. Consequently President Chandrika Kumaratunga dissolved the parliament on 7 February 2004 [39] which effectively ended Ranil Wickremesinghe's regime.

Opposition (2004–present)[edit]

In the 2004 Parliamentary Elections held on 2 April Ranil Wickremesinghe's UNF lost governmental office. Despite the expectation of a full six year term, and planned projects cut short by the defeat, the UNP was optimistic that it could regain power in a future election. Within 14 months of UPFA's victory, the radical JVP wing's (composed of over 30 members) parting of ways with the government, left the UPFA's parliamentary composition well short of the required majority.

Presidential Election 2005[edit]

In December 2004, Wickremesinghe was chosen by the United National Party as its Presidential candidate for Presidential Elections due in late 2005. The Supreme Court decided in August 2005 that the elections should be held that year despite the President's argument that her term would end in 2006. Mahinda Rajapaksa, then Prime Minister, was nominated as the Presidential candidate of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party.

In the Presidential Election held on 17 November 2005, Wickremesinghe was defeated narrowly by Mahinda Rajapaksa, who gained 50.29% of the vote to Wickremesinghe's 48.43%. A large number of the minority Tamil population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the country, who were largely expected to back Wickremesinghe were prevented from voting by the extremist LTTE, which had enforced a boycott of the polls.

Provincial Elections (2008–2009)[edit]

With the success in defeating LTTE in war, government held a series of provincial elections in 2008 and 2009 for 8 provincial councils (Eastern, North Central, Sabaragamuwa, North Western, Central, Western, Uva and Southern). In all occasions UNP was soundly defeated by a large margin by UPFA. Of all the elections UNP obtained only 30% of the total polled and UPFA was able to gain 59% of the total polled. The magin was 2,527,783[40] compared to 180,786 in Presidential Election in 2005.[41]

Presidential Election 2010[edit]

Ranil Wickremesinghe, signed an Alliance Agreement with twelve other opposition parties in November 2009 and he announced that, a Common Candidate would be fielded for the Presidential Election which will be held in 2010. Later he announced that the former Army Commander, Sarath Fonseka has been selected as the common candidate and pledged to support him.

Family[edit]

In 1994, he married Dr Maitree Wickremesinghe,[42] a Senior Lecturer of the Department of English at the University of Kelaniya.[43] She is the only daughter of the late Senevi B. Wickremasinghe and Shiranee Wickremasinghe (née Bandaratilaka) of Nawala, Koswatte.

International Affiliations[edit]

He is a member of Mont Pelerin Society. The society held a special meeting in Sri Lanka in year 2004 under his influence, when he was Minister.[44]

Criticism[edit]

Dissent within the Party[edit]

Dr. Sarath Amunugama and Nanda Mathew were the first UNP members of parliament to crossover and joined the government in 1999 during Ranil Wickremesinghe's tenant as the leader of UNP. This was followed by Wijayapala Mendis, a veteran UNPer and a member of parliament since 1965, who joined the government in 2000.

After the defeat in 2004 parliamentary election a senior member of UNP and a former minister of Ranil Wickremesinghe's 2001–2004 government, Rohitha Bogollagama switched sides and allied with government.[45] Soon after the defeat in the presidential election in 2005 Mahinda Samarasinghe and Keheliya Rambukwella defected to the government. Both were former ministers of Ranil Wickremesinghe's 2001–2004 government and senior members of the party. Mahinda Samarasinghe was the government chief whip (2001–2004) and the opposition chief whip(2004–2006). Keheliya Rambukwella had gained the highest number of votes in 2004 parliamentary election from Kandy district.

Following the controversy that resulted in the rejection of the UNP list of candidates for the Colombo Municipal Council election in 2006 that led to the UNP losing control over the Council after 50 years, prompted several senior members in the party to challenge Wickremesinghe's leadership and demanded his resignation as party leader. This group pushed to have Wickremesinghe replaced by the deputy party leader Karu Jayasuriya. However, this bid fell thought due to the lack of support from the majority of the party seniors.

In 2007, Wickremesinghe established a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Mahinda Rajapaksa government agreeing to UNP's collaboration with the government on issues of national interest.[46] However, shortly afterwards, 17 of the UNP's 60 members in parliament, including the group who had challenged Wickremesinghe's leadership, led by deputy leader Karu Jayasuriya crossed over to the governing UPFA ranks in parliament and were given ministerial appointments. The group consisted of senior members of UNP and many of them were former ministers of Ranil Wickremesinghe's 2001–2004 government: Karu Jayasuriya (Deputy Leader of UNP), M. H. Mohamed (former speaker of the parliament), Milinda Moragoda, G. L. Peiris, Bandula Gunawardane, Lakshman Yapa Abeywardena, Gamini Lokuge, P. Dayaratna, Mano Wijeyeratne, Rajitha Senaratne, R.A.D. Sirisena, Mahinda Wijesekara, Naween Dissanayake, Hemakumara Nanayakkara, R. M. Dharmadasa Banda, Neomal Perera and Chandrasiri Sooriyaarachchi.[47][48] However in late 2008, Jayasuriya crossed over once again to the opposition and was given back the deputy leader post.[49]

In February 2008, Wickremasinghe was once again under pressure to step down from the party leadership to accept an advisory position, from a majority of the UNP's parliamentary group.[50] In March, the UNP working committee decided to create a new post called Senior Leader of the party and appointed Wickremasinghe to the post. This was amid discussion with the UNP's parliamentary group about the need for the Wickremasinghe to relinquish his post (of party leader) so that a new leader could be appointed.[51][52] However, late March the party working committee decided that he should remain as the party leader.[53]

The defection of the party stalwarts to join the government continued thereafter: Susantha Punchinilame, Mahinda Rathnathilaka and Nandimithra Ekanayake who were members of parliament,a famous business tycoon and UNP Anuradhapura district leaderThilanga Sumathipala,[54] a prominent UNP youth leader and a member of Western Provincial Council R. Duminda Silva,[55] a former UNP member of parliament and a veteran actor Ravindra Randeniya, opposition leader in North Western Provincial Council Ashoka Wadigamangawa [56] all allied with the government in different occasions.

S.B. Dissanayake, a senior UNP leader, joined the government in December 2009.[57] He was the national organizer of the party, and the opposition leader in Central Provincial Council. S.B. Dissanayake obtained the highest number of votes in Kandy District in 2009 Provincial Council Elections.

The most recent defection was the members of Parliament Johnston Fernando and Indika Bandaranayake joining the government.[58] It is alleged that over 60 UNP MPs left the party during Wickremesinghe's leadership.[59]

Batalanda detention center[edit]

It was alleged by the People's Alliance government that Wickremesinghe, then a Minister, was the political authority behind an illegal detention centre in the Batalanda housing and industrial complex outside Colombo between 1988 and 1990 which was allegedly run by a government-backed counter-subversive unit as part of the state's operation to put down an armed insurgency by the JVP.[60][61]

The People's Alliance government of President Chandrika Kumaratunga, appointed a "Special Presidential Commission of Inquiry Act" to investigate activities of Batalanda and on 3 September 1997 Wickremesinghe was summoned to testify before the commission.[62][63] The commissions report was released on 12 April 1998.[64] The commission which was a fact-finding mission and had no judicial powers, however it recommended to the government to "bring the guilty to book". One of its findings was that "Wickremesinghe and the SSP Nalin Delgoda, are indirectly responsible for the maintenance of places of unlawful detention and torture chambers in houses at the Batalanda Housing Scheme".[65][66] It further stated that Wickremesinghe held "unauthorised meetings of police officers involved in counter-insurgency operations in the housing complex, and that as such, he had abused his authority".[60] No criminal proceedings took pace thereafter.

Allegations on conspiring against Gamini Dissanayake[edit]

On August 2012, Minister of Health and SLFP general secretary Maithripala Sirisena alleged that during the 1994 presidential election campaign, all campaign details concerning the UNP presidential candidate Gamini Dissanayake were being secretly passed on to his opponent, Chandrika Kumaratunga by Wickremesinghe. Minister Sirisena made this disclosure while addressing an election committee meeting held at Siripura, Polonnaruwa. Sirisena asserted that he has ample proof to validate his claim and allegations.[67][68] Consequently, both parties started to challenge each other for open media debates.[69][70][71]

Allegation on "dictatorial behavior" in the party[edit]

Wickremesinghe was accused of being a dictator as the leader of UNP.[72][73] The Mahanayaka of the Asgiri Chapter the Most Venerable Udugama Sri Buddharakkhitha Thero once has said that since recently the Opposition Leader Ranil Wickremasinghe is acting like a dictator.[citation needed][74][75] On 2010, UNP MP Dayasiri Jayasekara accused in that within the constitution of the UNP Ranil Wickremasinghe is not a democratic leader but a dictator.[76][77] Former minister and UNP MP Mahinda Wijesekara accused that "We don't need a dictator in the party" as Wickremesinghe opposed for the party reforms.[78]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Regi Siriwardena dies at 82
  2. ^ Prime Minister Ranil Wickrmesinghe: A social democrat with a vision and a mission, by N. Manoharan
  3. ^ a b Former prime ministers
  4. ^ http://www.lankalovers.com/whattheysay/p_prime.shtml
  5. ^ http://web.mit.edu/cis/press_release_wickremesinghe_ranil.html
  6. ^ a b c Profile: Ranil Wickremesinghe, BBC
  7. ^ Parliamentary General Election 2001, All Island Results
  8. ^ Prime Minister sworn in, Dailynews, 10 December 2001
  9. ^ A marriage of inconvenience, The Island,9 December 2001
  10. ^ New Cabinet: Swearing in today, Dailynews, 12 December 2001
  11. ^ A working cabinet, Dailynews, 13 December 2001
  12. ^ GDP Annual percent change, IMF report
  13. ^ Inflation, Annual percent change, IMF report
  14. ^ Regaining Sri Lanka
  15. ^ PM holds top-level meetings in Washington: New relationship with United States, Dailynews, 24 July 2002
  16. ^ Bush assures fullest support for peace process, Dailynews, 25 July 2002
  17. ^ We could follow the British model of devolution – PM, Dailynews, 30 May 2002
  18. ^ PM leaves for Japan, Dailynews, 3 December 2003
  19. ^ PM meets Indian leaders, focus on trade and defence ties, Dailynews, 21 December 2003
  20. ^ Ceasefire Agreement, February 2002
  21. ^ Sri Lanka Tourist Board Annual Statistical Report 2006
  22. ^ Peace Talks 16-18 September 2002, Bangkok
  23. ^ Peace Talks 31 October-3 November 2002, Bangkok
  24. ^ Peace Talks 2-5 December 2002, Oslo
  25. ^ Peace Talks 6-9 January 2003, Bangkok
  26. ^ Peace Talks 7-8 February 2003, Berlin
  27. ^ Peace Talks 18-21 March 2003, Tokyo
  28. ^ Oslo Declaration
  29. ^ LTTE Suspends Peace talks, Dailynews 22 April 2003
  30. ^ ISGA Proposal
  31. ^ LTTE proposals handed over to Government, Dailynews, 1 November 2003
  32. ^ Tigers want lion's share of power, The Island, 2 November 2003
  33. ^ Abrogate CFA, ban LTTE says JVP, Sunday Times,3 December 2003
  34. ^ LTTE smuggled four or five aircraft during CFA: Karuna
  35. ^ CFA violations
  36. ^ Chief Military Intelligence Officer gunned down, Dailynews, 1 June 2005
  37. ^ CBK sacks three ministers, The Island, 5 November 2003
  38. ^ I took over ministries in the interest of national security – President, Dailynews,5 November 2003
  39. ^ Sri Lanka leader sacks parliament, BBC News, 8 February 2008
  40. ^ Provincial council elections 2008-09, results
  41. ^ Presidential election 2005, results
  42. ^ Maithree Wickremesinghe, Faculty of Humanities/Department of English, University Of Kelaniya
  43. ^ Academic Staff of the Department of English, University Of Kelaniya
  44. ^ Mont Pelerin Society-Past meetings
  45. ^ Bogollagama joins government
  46. ^ MoU in danger of collapse
  47. ^ United People's Freedom Alliance
  48. ^ Elephant walk today
  49. ^ http://www.island.lk/2008/11/02/politics1.html
  50. ^ Gamini Gunaratna, Sri Lanka News Paper by LankaPage.com (LLC)- Latest Hot News from Sri Lanka (27 February 2009). "Sri Lanka, 2 - 27 - 2009: Sri Lanka opposition leader faces further crisis in his party". Colombopage.com. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  51. ^ UNP to create post of Senior Leader
  52. ^ Wickremesinghe refuses to budge
  53. ^ Ranil retained as Leader
  54. ^ Thilanga joins UPFA
  55. ^ Duminda Silva joins Govt
  56. ^ Ashoka joins government
  57. ^ S.B. Dissanayaka announces he is joining the SLFP
  58. ^ http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=30814
  59. ^ http://www.thesundayleader.lk/2011/12/11/ranils-lack-of-honour/
  60. ^ a b "Batalanda's ghosts return to haunt Ranil". The Hindu. 23 August 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  61. ^ "Batalanda and Ranil – lot of explanations needed". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  62. ^ http://sundaytimes.lk/970831/newsm.html
  63. ^ "The Sunday Times News/Comment Section". Sundaytimes.lk. 20 August 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  64. ^ Report of the Commission of Inquiry Into the Establishment and Maintenance ... - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  65. ^ http://sundaytimes.lk/980412/mudli.html
  66. ^ "Batalanda's ghosts return to haunt Ranil". The Hindu. 23 August 2000. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  67. ^ Anonymous (12 August 2012). "Maithripala alleges Ranil subterfuge: ‘SLFP clerk post was dignified’". Lakbimanews.lk. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  68. ^ "Ranil revealed Gamini’s election campaign plans, claims Sirisena". Newsfirst.lk. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  69. ^ "Maithripala Sirisena has absconded from challenge, says Tissa Attanayake". Newsfirst.lk. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  70. ^ "News view". LankasriNews.com. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  71. ^ "VIDEO: Maithripala accepts Tissa’s challenge". Adaderana.lk. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  72. ^ http://www.thesundayleader.lk/2011/12/18/the-hypocrisy-of-ranil/
  73. ^ http://www.thesundayleader.lk/2012/09/23/an-appeal-to-ranil-wickremesinghe/
  74. ^ http://www.news.lk/news/sri-lanka/1634-ranil-accused-of-acting-like-a-dictator
  75. ^ http://www.thesundayleader.lk/2011/10/30/overthrowing-ranil-the-dictator/
  76. ^ http://www.adaderana.lk/news.php?nid=10755
  77. ^ http://www.nation.lk/edition/politics/item/8774-ranil-and-sajith-clash-on-election-campaign-trail.html
  78. ^ http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2006/07/16/fea04.asp

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Ranil Wickramasinghe (2005), Desapalanaya saha dharmaya, Publisher: Nugeegoda Sarasavi Prakasanayo, ISBN 955-573-378-3
  • Jayaratna, A. E. (2005), Ranil Wickramasinghe: Darshanaya Saha Saame Mawatha, ISBN 955-96841-2-4
Government offices
Preceded by
Ratnasiri Wickremanayake
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka
2001-2004
Succeeded by
Mahinda Rajapaksa
Preceded by
Dingiri Banda Wijetunge
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka
1993-1994
Succeeded by
Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga